The Treaty of Amiens (March 27, 1802)

The Treaty of Amiens (March 27, 1802)

  • Treaty of Amiens - first page

  • Treaty of Amiens - article 10

  • Treaty of Amiens - signatures

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Title: Treaty of Amiens - first page

Author :

Creation date : 1802

Date shown: March 27, 1802

Dimensions: Height 31.3 - Width 23

Technique and other indications: Ink

Storage location: Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Contact copyright: © Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Picture reference: Treaties, multilateral, n ° 18020001

Treaty of Amiens - first page

© Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

To close

Title: Treaty of Amiens - article 10

Author :

Creation date : 1802

Date shown: March 27, 1802

Dimensions: Height 31.3 - Width 23

Technique and other indications: Thirteen paragraphs concerning the island of Malta

Storage location: Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Contact copyright: © Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Picture reference: Treaties, multilateral, n ° 18020001

Treaty of Amiens - article 10

© Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

To close

Title: Treaty of Amiens - signatures

Author :

Creation date : 1802

Date shown: March 27, 1802

Dimensions: Height 31.3 - Width 23

Technique and other indications: Ink8 red wax seals on silk ribbon

Storage location: Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Contact copyright: © Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website

Picture reference: Treaties, multilateral, n ° 18020001

Treaty of Amiens - signatures

© Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Publication date: March 2016

Historical context

The London preliminaries, signed on October 1, 1801 between the representative of France, Otto, and that of Great Britain, Hawkesbury, had established the bases of a peace agreement which was to receive its final form at a congress. which would be held in Amiens. Begun in Paris, in November, with the English minister, the negotiations will retain the diplomats for four months in the Picardy capital, from December 1801 to the end of March 1802. They will eventually lead to the signing of a treaty whose scope will be limited. in time.

Image Analysis

The original of the treaty, signed in Amiens on March 25, 1802, is a notebook 31.30 cm high and 23 cm wide, with six double leaves, or twenty-four pages; it is sewn with a tricolor silk ribbon. It includes the French and English texts of the appointment of plenipotentiaries, of the twenty-two articles of the treaty itself, at the bottom of which appear the double signatures and red wax seals of the ministers, of a separate article, also bearing the double signatures and seals ministers, intended to limit the possible consequences of the use of the French and English languages.

After the reminder of the agreements concluded in London on October 1, 1801, the plenipotentiaries are appointed with their titles, qualities and decorations. The articles of the treaty are written in two columns. They are generally short, with the exception of Article 10 relating to Malta. They submitted the signatories to a certain number of obligations: England had to return to France and its allies all the possessions conquered during the war, except the island of Trinidad which Spain abandoned to it and the part Dutch from Ceylon; it was evacuating the island of Elba and all the points it occupied in the Mediterranean, notably Malta; Egypt was returned to the Ottoman government; France was to evacuate the part of the Kingdom of Naples it occupied as well as Rome and its territory.

This apparent simplicity concealed serious difficulties which Article 10 suggested. Indeed, the restitution by England of the islands of Malta, Gozo and Camino to the Knights of Saint-Jean-de-Jerusalem was regulated by thirteen conditions, each of which was the subject of a paragraph in article 10, in particular : election of a grand master (§ 1); inadmissibility of French and English in order (§ 2); introduction of a Maltese "language [1]" (§ 3); evacuation of the archipelago by British forces (§ 4); powers guaranteeing the independence of Malta (§ 6); perpetual neutrality of order (§ 7); opening of ports to trade (§ 8); occupation of the islands by Neapolitan troops for a year (§ 12).

Interpretation

The tenor of certain clauses and the imbalance in their wording testify to the very ambiguous nature of a treaty which claimed to establish general peace. The allies of the two main players have been harmed or ignored while Malta has been the subject of what historian Bignon called a "deadly arsenal", the bearer of an upcoming conflict. In addition, the treaty passed over in silence the discords linked to the extension of French influence in Europe (left bank of the Rhine, Belgium and Italy). In reality, the setting aside of the contentious points and the ulterior motives of internal politics made of the peace of Amiens a simple truce which England and Bonaparte needed, one to calm his opinion and restore his trade. , the other to strengthen its power with the consulate for life and continue its policy of expansion. It was the culmination of a bias for the unspoken.

  • Spain
  • Holland
  • Bonaparte (Napoleon)
  • peace
  • United Kingdom
  • Treaty of Amiens
  • Consulate
  • Bonaparte (Joseph)
  • Cornwallis (Lord)
  • Schimmelpenninck
  • knight of Azara
  • Malta
  • signature
  • seal
  • England
  • Peace of Amiens

Bibliography

Jules de CLERCQCollection of treaties of France t. I, 1864. Louis Pierre Edouard BIGNON, History of France from 18 Brumaire (November 1799) until the Peace of Tilsitt (July 1807)t. II, Paris, 1829.Thierry LENTZ, The Grand Consulate1799-1804, Paris, Fayard, 1999.Acts of the commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the Peace of Amiensinternational conference held in Amiens on March 9, 2002, Bulletin of the Société des Antiquaires de Picardie, 1st quarter 2002.

Notes

1. Term specific to the Order of Malta designating the languages ​​of the nations of which it was composed.

To cite this article

Nicole GOTTERI, "The Treaty of Amiens (March 27, 1802)"


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