Jade Drill

Jade Drill

What is Jade?

Jade is an ornamental mineral mostly associated with its green varieties. In the jewellery trade, many opaque green stones are incorrectly named “Jade”. Jade has been mined and used centuries, but it was only in 1863 that a French mineralogist determined that there were only two minerals that could be referred to as ‘Jade’: Nephrite or Jadeite.


  • Jadeite has about the same hardness as quartz (between 6-7 Mohs hardness).
  • It is rarer and more expensive than Nephrite and may be a white-grey green, leafy green, blue or blue-green, emerald green, lavender, pink, red, orange, greenish-black or black.
  • The translucent emerald green ‘Imperial Jade’ is globally considered the rarest and most valuable.
  • Myanmar and Guatemala are the main sources of modern gem jadeite.


  • Nephrite is slightly softer than Jadeite (between 6-6.5 Mohs hardness).
  • Nephrite generally occurs in creamy white (known in China as "mutton fat" Jade), mid- to deep olive green, brown and black.
  • Also referred to as New Zealand Greenstone.
  • Canada provides the major share of modern nephrite Jade.

Jade Helm 15: The Facts About the Training Exercise Causing Jitters in Texas

Some Texans raised concerns over "Jade Helm 15" training exercise.

— -- The Pentagon had to go public this week with an unusual admission that, no, it was not in fact secretly planning to take over the state of Texas.

It was the result of a building controversy inside the Lone Star State leading up to a series of planned military training exercises dubbed "Jade Helm 15."

But now, with several politicians and even actor Chuck Norris jumping in the fray, it’s raising more questions about the exercise, and what is fueling the theories surrounding it.

What exactly is Jade Helm 15?

According to the U.S. Army website, Jade Helm is a multi-state training exercise taking place July 15 through Sept. 15 with members of U.S. Army Special Operations Command and service members from the military’s four branches. While the exercise is taking place across seven states, the Special Operations Forces are only training in five states: Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado.

But the exercises will take place primarily in Texas, according to the unclassified request for training from Special Operations Command, because it requires large areas of undeveloped land as well as access to towns.

The U.S. military is consistently conducting training exercises inside the U.S., both in remote areas and sometimes inside populated cities. And it’s certainly not the first military exercise to occur inside the state of Texas.

So what, if anything, sets Jade Helm 15 apart?

In a March 24 press release from the Army, Jade Helm 15 was described simply as a “routine training exercise to maintain a high level of readiness.” The reason given for picking out the particular states, including Texas, is because each possesses a “unique terrain” that soldiers might find themselves operating in overseas.

But also in the same press release, the Army specifically notes Jade Helm 15 being separate from the pack, noting it for its “size and scope.” It led to several citizens raising their eyebrows over the idea of a surge of federal presence inside the state.

The Cong

A cong may most simply be described as a “squared tube with a round hole”. There are two types of cong – single-section ones, as well as longer types. The cong is said to have been a symbol of supreme power, and many of these objects have been found to be large, even, and of a symmetrical shape. The squared corners of the cong are usually decorated with face-like designs. It has been speculated that the Liangzhu may have attributed some sort of magical or protective powers to these designs. As for the round hole within the cong, it has been suggested that they were bored with a tubular drill, perhaps a bamboo shaft.

Jade cong from Liangzhu culture, Neolithic Period (3300 - 2200 BC), lower Yangzi River Valley (CC BY-SA 2.5 )

The Participation of Certain Interagency Partners Are Very Troubling

Repeated reference is made about the cooperation between the Department of Defense (DoD) and local law enforcement (LEA) in the Jade Helm document. After reading this document, Program 1033 started to make a lot of sense. Program 1033 is the militarization of local police with former military equipment (tanks, machine guns, etc.). It is interesting to note that it was the NDAA legislation that created Program 1033. Obviously, the purpose of this is to turn the local police into a martial law occupation force.

I am not surprised, but very concerned that DHS, listed as an interagency partner, is a part of this drill for the following reasons: I believe a significant number of American military will NOT fire upon American citizens. Subsequently, this is the reason for the Russian troop presence in our country and they will fulfill the role of a martial law occupation force. When I have previously mentioned this, the Russian media (e.g. Voice of Russia) has attacked me in the past as if they have something to hide and evidence of these attacks can be accessed here and here .

What seems logical and something that should frighten all Americans is to wonder if DHS and the Russian partners will be a part of Jade Helm 15? Again, I refer to the video production put together by Sherrie Wilcox in which Russian soldiers have been seen in Tennessee traveling in DHS vehicles as they entered into Western Kentucky. As this related to Jade Helm and martial law, this is ominous. Russian troops will fire upon American citizens. Russian troops will extract American citizens from their beds in the middle of the night. What do you want to bet that Russian troops will be included in Jade Helm 15? Russian troops were included in Grid EX II and the RIMPAC war games, so why not Jade Helm. Yes, I am talking about treason and it is coming from the top.

Why would the Drug Enforcement Agency become involved in a martial law operation?This makes no sense unless you read the connection of the compromised DEA to various Central and South American factions (e.g. the possible 5th column presence of MS-13) that I revealed in July of 2014.

Mining Techniques

Dike Mining

Unlike secondary deposits, where the miner has to determine which of the myriad boulders is jadeite, the dikes contain readily recognizable material. Historically, miners started a fire near the dike and then threw water on the rock to crack it. Today, at Tawmaw, often miners first must use backhoes, scrapers, and other earth-moving equipment to expose the jadeite dikes, or rudimentary digging to create shafts to reach them. Shafts observed at the time of RWH and FW's 1997 visit reached depths of approximately 10–20 m (Figure 5). Once a dike is exposed, miners use dynamite and jackhammers to break the jadeite apart and away from the country rock (Figure 6).

Boulder and Gravel Mining

The workings at Sate Mu and Maw-sisa are, in many respects, typical of secondary jadeite mines. The Uru Boulder Conglomerate is as much as 300 m deep in places, and alluvial mining has barely scratched the surface. It appeared from the open cuts that there is a huge quantity of material remaining to be extracted. We saw people working about 18 m down into the conglomerate, stripping it away with primitive tools.

Figure 8. Fei-ts'ui Imperial jade ring and cabochons. Courtesy Pala International photo: Wimon Manorotkul

The first step in mining the conglomerate is removal of the overburden, taung moo kyen (literally, "head cap removal"). Since the "overburden" (per Chhibber, 1934b, a layer of alluvium of variable thickness followed by a pebble-gravel layer over the Uru Conglomerate) also may contain jadeite, workers must search this material, too. Each claim is only about 5 m wide to keep from encroaching onto the neighbor's area, miners leave a thin wall of conglomerate as a partition. Eventually the walls themselves weather away nevertheless, when seen from above, the result is spectacular – several square kilometers of step-like benches, as if an ancient city were being excavated (Figure 7). At Maw-sisa, diggers concentrated on mining a black conglomerate layer called ah may jaw, where jadeite is said to be richest.

At Hpakangyi, more than 10,000 workers excavated an area that had reached hundreds of meters deep (Figure 12). Waste was piled into a waiting truck, and then emptied directly into the river that bisects Hpakan. At the dump, jade pickers scrambled over the riverbank to search for jade overlooked at the source. Along the banks of the Uru River, large mounds of boulders attest to two centuries of mining. When the water level is high, the river is worked by divers.

Figure 9. At Mamon and Maw-sisa in particular, miners take advantage of the seasons when the river is high to dive for jade. While a man on land or a raft works the crude air pump (which resembles four bicycle pumps strapped together), this diver at Maw-sisa searches the river bottom for jade with the hose between his teeth (inset). Photos © Richard W. Hughes. Click on the image for a larger photo.

Miners admitted that production was erratic at best. While occasionally they would find 20–30 pieces in a single day, often they would not recover any jadeite boulders for days. Most of these boulders weigh less than 1 kg, although some reach 300 kg. Only a tiny fraction of the jadeite boulders recovered contain jewelry-quality material.

Identifying Jadeite Boulders

After viewing the methods by which jade is mined, the first question any observer asks is: How do miners separate the occasional jadeite boulder from the thousands of other boulders that look so similar? Repeated questioning of various jade traders, cutters, and miners yielded the following clues.

The most important member of the mining team is the one who operates the jackhammer or hoe, for he will spot most of the jadeite boulders. When struck with a metal tool, a jadeite boulder produces a different sound (rings more) than other rocks. Such blows also may expose the "show points" (pyat kyet in Burmese and "pine flowers" to the Chinese Gump, 1962) –the color of the jadeite – beneath the skin

Figure 10. Water readily reveals the "show points" of bright green jadeite on this boulder. Photo © Richard W. Hughes.

Miners also look for a characteristic fibrous texture (yumm) in some jadeite boulders. Although jadeite jade is not normally thought of as having fibrous texture, it sometimes is found in jade that is 100% jadeitic pyroxene and in other cases may be related to partial replacement by – or admixture with – an amphibole (Htein and Naing, 1994, 1995). Also, jadeite is typically smoother than most other boulders and will not show the crystalline reflections (possibly from mica or quartz) often seen in the others. Another indicator of jadeite is a type of sheen, called shin. Black shin is said to "infect" or "damage" the stone the miners consider it a harbinger of bad luck. According to Chhibber (1934b), shin is amphibolite or amphibole schist. Such an impurity would account for the lower quality of this jadeite.

Jadeite jade also has a greater "heft" (specific gravity of about 3.34) than other types of rocks in the conglomerate. In addition, divers feel that it sticks slightly to their hands or feet under water, a property that has been used historically by the Chinese to separate both jadeite and nephrite from substitutes ("The art of feeling jade," 1962).


The Maw Sit vein, which produces maw-sit-sit, lies about 2 km from Kansi at the northeastern end of the Jade Tract (again, see Figure 2). The maw-sit-sit mine consists of a narrow, vertical trench cut that is some 9 m deep. The total length of the active mining area in November 1997 was approximately 200 m.

Jadeite Jade Gemstone Information

Jade has been known to man for some 7,000 years. In prehistoric times it was esteemed rather more for its toughness than its beauty, since it made an ideal material for weapons and tools. Yet as early as 3000 B.C. jade was known in China as yu, the 'royal gem'. In the long history of the art and culture of the Chinese empire, jade has always had a very special significance, roughly comparable with that of gold and diamonds in the West.

Jade and Jadeite was used not only for the finest objects and cult figures, but also in grave furnishings for high-ranking members of the imperial family. Today jade is still regarded as a symbol of the good, the beautiful and the precious. It embodies the Confucian virtues of wisdom, justice, compassion, modesty and courage, yet it also symbolises the female-erotic. A visit to the jade market, be it in Hong Kong or Burma, or at one of the Hong Kong jade gemstone auctions organised by Christie's, can convey some idea of the significance this gem has for the people of Asia.

Jade has been treasured by other cultures as well. In the pre-Columbian period, the Mayas, Aztecs and Olmecs of Central America also honored and esteemed jade more highly than gold. New Zealand's Maoris began carving weapons and cult instruments from native jade in early times, a tradition which has continued to the present day. In ancient Egypt, jade was admired as the stone of love, inner peace, harmony and balance. In other regions and cultures, jade was regarded as a lucky or protective stone yet it had nowhere near the significance that it had in Asia.

For collectors as well as jewelery lovers, jade is a fascinating gemstone. In Asia, above all, it is collected as an antique. Besides the quality of the gem and its processing, religion and faith also play an important role. In the West, many people prefer to collect jade in the form of snuff-boxes, cigarette holders, small bowls or rings. Since each collector has his or her own taste and his or her own likings with regard to color, style and shape, it is no easy matter giving definite advice on the purchase of jade objects.

The prices and value of Jadeite Jade vary depending on the size and quality of the gemstone. There are actually two varieties of jade: jadeite and nephrite. Jadeite is the more valuable of the two and experts can usually detect nephrite by its lower translucency and luster. Nephrite tends to have a resinous luster, while jadeite is more vitreous. In general, the value of jade is determined according to its color and the intensity of that color, the vivacity and texture, and its clarity and transparency.

Preference for particular colors varies considerably from region to region and culture to culture. In green jade alone, the connoisseurs differentiate between seven main qualities, from the intense, even green of imperial jade, via apple green and spinach green, all the way to the lighter and to more heavily speckled shades of green. These special nuances often overlap and can hardly be recognized by the untrained eye. In the USA and Europe, emerald green, spinach green and apple green are regarded as particularly valuable. In the Far East, on the other hand, pure white or a fine yellow with a delicate pink undertone is highly esteemed. In the world of jewelery, the fine violet nuances of lavender jadeite jade are very popular. It is however the rare, emerald green of imperial jadeite jade, a color of incredible depth, which fetches the highest prices from gemstone collectors. Unfortunately, since not only fine natural jadeite stones are offered for sale, but often fake or poor-quality products or stones which have been colored or otherwise treated, it is advisable to buy good jadeite only from reputable dealers and jewelers, whether the purchase is being made for a collection or as an individual piece of jewelery. It is a good idea to have any expensive piece of jade certified by an independent gemological laboratory.

Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry?

There are many reasons, but mainly it comes down to value and choice.

When buying your fine Jade loose instead of pre-set stone, you can be sure that you are getting the best value for your money. Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for. The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting. A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color. With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is. In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice. You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver prong set or bezel set with diamond accents. You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!

Origin Brazil, India, Myanmar, China, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, USA (Colorado)
Color White, green, yellow, red, orange, lavender, black and brown
Refractive Index 1.64 - 1.667
Chemical Composition NaAlSi2O6
Hardness 6.5 - 7
Density 3.25 - 3.36
Crystal Structure Monoclinic
Zodiac Sign Virgo
Month March

Jadeite has a hardness of 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale, a specific gravity of 3.25 to 3.35, vitreous luster and a refractive index of 1.665. The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral. Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs. Jadeite crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with a fibrous, granular or massive crystal habit

Jadeite jade is most treasured for its vivid green colors, but it also comes in lavender, pink, yellow, and white. Jadeite is white in its pure state, but does occur in a wide range of other colors due to trace impurities. Dark green jadeite is colored by the presence of iron, emerald-green jadeite (Imperial Jade) is colored by chromium, and lilac jadeite is colored by manganese. Pink, brown, orange, red and even black or "Olmec blue" jadeite obtains its color from inclusions of foreign minerals.

Ngobin Mines, Mamon Village and Mines

The Ngobin Mines are situated between Lonkin and Tawmaw. There are only a couple of claims being worked.

At Mamon the Kachin is conspicuous by his absence. There is a fairly large Shan-Burman village consisting of fifty-four houses, which number increases considerably in the cold weather. Most of the inhabitants are from the Upper Chindwin. Jade is found in these mines in loose boulders at no great depth. Besides digging, the stone is extracted from the Uyu [Uru] river (which flows near Mamon) by diving. Some of the divers use diving-dresses, others go down without, and it is surprising how long they remain under water. Some of the diving-dresses are in such a deplorably bad state that it would not be safe to use the best of them.

Myaungs. These are big drains dug over a likely piece of ground. They are connected with a stream and the water coming down them carries away the earth, thereby saving a lot of digging labour. They are worked mostly during the rains.

Manhumanta. All stones valued at Rs.100 and over sold in the mines have to pay ten per cent on the selling price to Kansi La. This charge is not met by the seller. In all transactions there is a pwesa or broker, who is paid five per cent ad valorem by the purchaser. From what can be gathered Kansi La gets at least Rs.1,500 a year under this head from Mamon.

Export Dues. The rates are the same as in Tawmaw. A quantity of stone is also taken down the Uyu river on rafts. The rafts are of three kinds, viz. :

  1. Tatat paung (raft of a single thickness). 3 Rs.
  2. Hnitat paung (raft of double thickness. 6 Rs.
  3. Kadon paung (made of a bundle of bamboos capable of carrying a heavy load). 8 to 30 Rs.

The last kind of raft is not much used. A charge of eight annas is made for each ticket issued in order to enable a load of jadestone to be removed from the mines, which sum the writer takes as his perquisite. The income from this source amounts to a very considerable figure during the season.

Tolls. No tolls on imports are collected. Kansi La, it is said, attempted to impose them, but the villagers threatened to leave, so he desisted.

Gambling. As at Tawmaw, gambling is carried on here on a large scale. The Mawok , Maung Nyi, bought the right to keep gambling-houses from Kansi La a few years ago for Rs.1,800. The accounts were checked by Mr.Barnard, who found that the Mawok made over Rs.4,000. As he only takes one pice (G anna) on every rupee staked, the gaming must be heavy. Kansi La’s income from these mines must amount to a considerable sum, for, according to information received, Kansi La sold the mines for one season to UKha, of Mandalay, recently for Rs.7,000. This included the right to collect fees on stones and to keep gambling-dens.


From July 15th to September 15th, 2015,the U.S. Army Special Operations Command is conducting a massive military drill in an area covering the entire American Southwest. At first glance, I thought this drill was a response to the massive military drills being conducted by Russia. I wrongly assumed that Jade Helm 15 was a drill designed to protect the Southwest from an invasion by Russian-backed Latin American military forces (i.e. Red Dawn). However, after reading the operational plan of Jade Helm, it is clear that this drill is about the brutal martial subjugation of the people of Texas, Utah and Southern California who have risen up against some unspecified tyranny. Further, this drill is also about martial law being used as a preventative measure in states which “might” lean towards civil war against the United States government (i.e. California, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico).

The operational elements and impact of Jade Helm 15 cannot be considered in isolation. A careful analysis reveals how this drill is connected to Army policies associated with the confinement of detainees in what is commonly called FEMA camps! This drill is undoubtedly the most frightening thing to occur on American soil since the Civil War.

Red Dawn or Martial Law Preparations?

Jade Helm’s Purpose Defined

“Jade Helm is a challenging eight-week joint military and Interagency (IA) Unconventional Warfare (UW) exercise conducted throughout Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado.”

The term, “unconventional warfare (UW)” makes it clear that this exercise is not dealing with a Russian-backed “Red Dawn” invasion of the Southwestern United States by Russian backed Latin American partners. UW speaks to the guerrilla warfare (asymmetrical) nature of the anticipated and rehearsed conflict. Subsequently, it can be conclusively stated that Jade Helm is not preparing for a Red Dawn invasion, rather, they are preparing for a Red, White and Blue invasion. This is a massive rehearsal for martial law implementation as well as implementing the proverbial and much rumored Red and Blue List and the “snatch and grab” extractions of key resistance figures from the Independent Media as well as uncooperative political figures. The various provisions of Jade Helm make it clear just how dangerous this drill truly is.

Composition of Jade Helm Forces Reveals the True Purpose of the Drills

Thomas Mead, the operations planner for the U.S. Army’s Jade Helm realistic military training has publicly stated that “We have Army Green Berets, Navy Seals, Marine Special Operations Command, the 82nd Airborne Division and we also have some of our interagency partners such as the DEA, FBI and the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) that will be working with us.”

The use of Green Berets, Navy Seals and Special Operations Command forces speaks to the unconventional composition of the overall makeup of this group. Among the many duties for these three Special Operations groups include infrastructure raids, assassination of key enemy personnel, reconnaissance, and extraction of key enemy personnel for detention and/or intelligence gathering. It is the latter duty that has me concerned as there has been much discussion over the execution of a “Red List” in which key resistance figures would be kidnapped and “dealt with” in advance of the implementation of martial law. A detailed analysis of the language of Jade Helm has convinced me that we are looking the implementation of the “snatch and grab” of key resistance figures to the coming marital law. My sources have told me that in past drills of this nature, Red List extraction troops are helicoptered in the early morning hours (e.g. 3AM) land, offload personnel and extract the intended targets, SWAT team style.

In the Jade Helm section entitled “What to Expect“, operation planners state that the public should anticipate “Increased aircraft in the area at night“, and “May receive noise complaints“. What aircraft would be loud enough at night to guarantee noise complaints? My vote would be the helicopters. And who would be on these helicopters at night? What time are snatch and grab activities historically held? And who typically conducts snatch and grab arrests? The answer to these questions would be the special operation forces, which in martial law, would be the Gestapo version of the Green Berets, the Navy Seals and Marine Special Forces as they arrive at your home at 3AM.

Role players will be participating in Jade Helm. In fact, the same section goes on to state that “Some individuals (i.e. civilian insurgents) may conduct suspicious activities…..” What would constitute a “suspicious activity for the purpose of this drill? Would it consist of pretending to be dragged off to a FEMA camp? Would it be engaging in simulated insurgency activities associated with guerrilla war strategies? There are so many possibilities and they are all associated with civilian resistance against a tyrannical force.

Not only is the use of three special operations forces suspicious with regard to Jade Helm, but more notably is the announced use of JPRA, and this is frightening event. The Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) maintains a series of training school sites whose subject matter includes:

“Prisoners of war hostages and DETAINEES (emphasis added) evasion and escape search and rescue Prison survival techniques and experiences geography and cartography, natural science, ethnology, and country studies terrorism military and Naval science natural and emergency medicine.”

The majority of the above definition makes it clear that the intent of JPRA is to teach POW survival skills, at least until they use the word “detainee”. Please allow me to call your attention to the term “detainee”. In layman’s language, the term “detainee” simply means someone who is a prisoner of the military occupation force (U.S. government). To the average person, the use of the term detainee would not raise an eyebrow, but to someone who is tune with the connotations and denotations of military parlance, the term “detainee” holds specific meaning as evidenced by the following document which is considered by many to be a blueprint manual, created by the Army, for martial law and FEMA camp incarceration for political prisoners (e.g. dissenters).

Restricted U.S. Army Internment and Resettlement Operations Manual

May 2, 2012

FM 3-39.40 Internment and Resettlement Operations

In section 1-10 of 3-39.40, “A Civilian detainee is a civilian who is interned during armed conflict, occupation, or other military operation for security reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed an offense against the detaining power.”

In section 3-56 of 3-39.40, the following draconian provisions are applied to “detainees“:

  • “Develops PSYOP products that are designed to pacify and acclimatedetaineesor DCs to accept U.S. I/R facility authority and regulations (Author’s note: “PSYOP Products” such as the use of torture such as water-boarding and sleep deprivation).
  • Gains the cooperation of detainees to reduce the number of guards needed.
  • Identifies malcontents, trained agitators, and political leaders within the facility who may try to organize resistance or create disturbances.
  • Develops and executes indoctrination programs to reduce or remove antagonistic attitudes (i.e. brainwashing of detainees).
  • Identifies political activists.
  • Plans and executes a PSYOP program that produces an understanding and appreciation of U.S. policies and actions.”

The use of the word “detainee” is conspicuous and as the reader can clearly see, it has specific meaning with regard to a Red List extraction action. In effect, this is the black site for political dissidents. Both Jade Helm 15 and the FM 3-39.40 are both Army manuals written exclusively on dealing with civilian personnel in martial law settings. Under the NDAA, designating select citizens as a detainee and holding them indefinitely is legal under this unconstitutional legislation.

States Participating in Jade Helm

Jade Helm is an eight-week joint military and interagency unconventional warfare exercise that will be conducted in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado. A clearer copy of this map is available at this link.

This map contains the reason of why we can be certain that this is not a “Red Dawn” invasion emanating from Latin America. The unconnected pockets of “hostile states” is how we know this a martial law/possible civil war map. The color cods of the states listed in the map presented above, can deciphered as follows:

-The Red States of Utah and Texas are listed as hostile states as is part of Southern California. These states are not geographically contiguous. Subsequently, we are looking at Jade Helm 15 as being the suppression of civil resistance. The use of the 83rd Airborne is also suggestive of the fact that the authorities anticipate that there could be civilian militias rising up, perhaps in combination with veterans groups and possibly military units loyal to the citizens of the United States.

The Brown State of New Mexico is listed as leaning towards being hostile.

-The Blue States of California, Nevada and Colorado are listed as being loyal, “permissive”, to military authority and martial law.

-The Light Blue State of Arizona is listed as “unknown”, but leaning toward being friendly.

This reads like a civil war scorecard, similar to the one that President Lincoln must have constructed in 1861 after the attack upon Ft. Sumter.

The Participation of Certain Interagency Partners Are Very Troubling

Repeated reference is made about the cooperation between the Department of Defense (DoD) and local law enforcement (LEA) in the Jade Helm document. After reading this document, Program 1033 started to make a lot of sense. Program 1033 is the militarization of local police with former military equipment (tanks, machine guns, etc.). It is interesting to note that it was the NDAA legislation that created Program 1033. Obviously, the purpose of this is to turn the local police into a martial law occupation force.

I am not surprised, but very concerned that DHS, listed as an interagency partner, is a part of this drill for the following reasons: I believe a significant number of American military will NOT fire upon American citizens. Subsequently, this is the reason for the Russian troop presence in our country and they will fulfill the role of a martial law occupation force. When I have previously mentioned this, the Russian media (e.g. Voice of Russia) has attacked me in the past as if they have something to hide and evidence of these attacks can be accessed here and here.

What seems logical and something that should frighten all Americans is to wonder if DHS and the Russian partners will be a part of Jade Helm 15? Again, I refer to the video production put together by Sherrie Wilcox in which Russian soldiers have seen in Tennessee traveling in DHS vehicles as they entered into Western Kentucky. As this related to Jade Helm and martial law, this is ominous. Russian troops will fire upon American citizens. Russian troops will extract American citizens from their beds in the middle of the night. What do you want to bet that Russian troops will be included in Jade Helm 15? Russian troops were included in Grid EX II and the RIMPAC war games, so why not Jade Helm. Yes, I am talking about treason and it is coming from the top.

Why would the Drug Enforcement Agency become involved in a martial law operation?This makes no sense unless you read the connection of the compromised DEA to various Central and South American factions (e.g. the possible 5th column presence of MS-13) that I revealed in July of 2014.


With regard to the thematic components to this article, there is no conclusion, this is only the beginning. It is quite clear that the Army fully believes, as do their superiors at the Pentagon and at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, that there is the belief that there is going to be something so catastrophic that an American Civil War II will ensue. The reasons behind this event(s) are not the focus of this article. However, I think it is a safe bet that it will have to do with the seizure of bank accounts and retirement accounts. This is a topic that will be explored in a future article. Meanwhile, Americans in the Southwest need to be concerned that this drill does not go live like so many of these drills seem to in advance of a false flag drill. Every political activist, “uncooperative” politician and member of the Independent Media need to be thinking about where they want to be from July 15 to September 15. It would be best to be where “they” ain’t!

About the Author

Dave Hodges is the host of the popular radio talk show, which airs from 9 PM to Midnight (Central). The show can be heard by clicking the following icon in the upper right hand corner of The Common Sense Show.

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From the Neolithic period to modern times, jade has always been treasured by the Chinese. Its role has developed according to the changing nature of China&rsquos imperial landscape &ndash moving, for example, from a ritual object to a decorative one &ndash and yet the Chinese have remained obsessed with jade for its beauty, its metaphors and the magical powers they believe it possesses. Even today, most Chinese still believe that jade can act as a talisman to protect the body from harm.

An exhibition currently at the Musée Guimet in Paris, &lsquoJade: From Emperors to Art Deco&rsquo, traces the development of jade and its artistic highpoints (until 16 January 2017). The objects on show range from the Neolithic period to the 19th century, a timespan that makes clear the role of jade in China&rsquos long history. The exhibition includes works from the collection of the National Palace Museum, Taipei &ndash part of the original imperial collection which was removed to Taiwan in 1949 at the end of the Civil War in China &ndash alongside works from the imperial collection of Fontainebleau, such as burial objects, scholar&rsquos studio pieces, imperial trinkets and house decorations.

The Chinese have a broad definition for jade (yu in Chinese). The first dictionary Shuowen jiezi (&lsquoExplaining Simple and Analysing Compound Characters&rsquo), compiled by Xu Shen in AD 100, describes jade as a stone that is beautiful and that possesses five virtues. This text was strongly influenced by Confucius who compared the qualities of jade to a gentleman&rsquos personality in the 5th century BC. Even so, we do not know exactly what was meant by jade at that time, and even today, when Chinese scholars and curators compile catalogues, they tend to include agate, crystal, turquoise and other similar stones within the category of jades &ndash indeed, these are materials commonly seen from archaeological finds.

In the modern sciences of mineralogy and gemology, jade refers to two different mineral groups: nephrite (hardness 6 to 6.5 on Mohs scale) and jadeite (hardness 6.75 to 7). Although jade mines can be found in many parts of China, the best quality and the largest quantity came from the northwest, in Xinjiang. The jade used in China appears to have been almost entirely nephrite or nephrite-related until the 18th century, when jadeite from Burma began to be imported. The colour of nephrite ranges from yellow, white, cream, green and spinach green through to black jadeite is mainly apple green or lavender blue. In terms of appearance, nephrite has a greasy, lustrous surface, while jadeite has a shiny, glassy aspect.

Jade pendant in the shape of a dragon, Chinese, Warring States Period (475&ndash221 BC). © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée Guimet, Paris)/Thierry Olivier

Jade is a very difficult material to work with, even when using tools that are available to modern-day craftspeople. Prehistoric jade-carving techniques were reconstructed in 2006 by a team at Shanghai&rsquos Fudan University: the stone was cut using sandstone or slate, in conjunction with quartz sand and water, and then shaped with sandstone rubbers. Holes were made using wood, bone, or bamboo drills with wet sand as an abrasive. The holes were conical in shape, as the drill bits rapidly wore away. The team calculated that it would have taken 68.5 hours to cut jade to a slide of thickness of 21mm from a 44.3 x 17.7cm pebble. Metal tools were used in the Bronze and Iron Ages, but it would still have taken 13.5 hours to cut to a thickness of 17.7mm, according to the Fudan University team. The complicated process and time-consuming nature of jade carving must always have involved a large workforce in a workshop environment and was consequently expensive. In early times, the ownership of jades was therefore confined to the highest levels of China&rsquos hierarchical society.

The value of jade can be established from the various stories and legends, the most famous of which is &lsquoReturning the Jade Disc Intact to Zhao State&rsquo in Han Fei zi, by Han Fei (d. 233 BC):

A piece of jade was discovered in the hills of Chu state by Bian He during the Warring States period [475&ndash221 BC]. He was so excited about his discovery that he hastened to show it to the ruler, King Li of Chu. However, King Li didn&rsquot believe him and had one of his legs cut off for deceiving the ruler. When King Li died, the throne was passed on to King Wu, and Bian He presented the stone again King Wu, again, did not believe him and had his other leg amputated as well. It was not until the next ruler, King Wen, ascended the throne that he had his craftsman work on the stone. To their astonishment, they found a piece of incomparable white jade, which was made into a jade disc that was named as He Shi Bi [literally &lsquoThe Jade Disc of He&rsquo] in honour of its discoverer.

In Shi ji (&lsquoRecords of the Grand Historian&rsquo), compiled by the Han historian Sima Qian (146&ndash86 BC), the story continues that the jade disc was stolen from Chu and eventually sold to the Zhao state. In 283 BC King Zhaoxiang of the Qin state offered 15 cities to Zhao in exchange for the jade disc. This is the origin of the famous Chinese phrase jia zhi lian cheng (&lsquovalued in many cities&rsquo). The Zhao minister Lin Xiangru was dispatched to take the jade disc to Qin, but it became clear that Qin would not uphold its side of the bargain. Lin threatened to smash the jade disc but subsequently escaped back to Zhao with the disc intact. The story continues with the Qin conquering the Zhao in 228 BC when the king of Zhao submitted, he presented the disc. The disc vanished from the records soon after it came into the Qin&rsquos possession.

Jade pig-dragon (zhulong), Chinese, Neolithic Hongshan culture (c.&thinsp3500&ndash2500 BC), jade. © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée Guimet, Paris)/Thierry Olivier

Although the Chinese are obsessed with jade &ndash antique shops in China are full of jade rather than gold or other gems &ndash interest was concentrated in certain areas and it is not ubiquitous in Chinese history. Before the unification of China in 221 BC, the country was split into several states, each with its own language, character set, currency and burial features. While jade dragon pendants were found as part of longer pendants in most regions, large size jade discs were mainly used in eastern China to cover the bodies of high-ranking individuals in a custom that may have been passed down from the Liangzhu period.

Since the Neolithic period, jade has always been the only material buried close to the bodies of important figures. In the Hongshan culture (c. 3500&ndashc. 2500 BC) in present-day northeast China, jades were carved in the shape of massive, strange, coiled monsters, sometimes referred to as pig-dragons, and also bracelets and head ornaments. All of the jades found in Hongshan are in some sense ornaments, as they seem to have been attached to garments or to the body. About 1,000 years after the Hongshan culture, and more than 1,500 km away in present-day southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, large quantities of jades, including cong (tubes, Fig. 3), bi (discs) and yue (axes), were placed in tombs around and on the bodies of high-ranking individuals. These objects have been identified as belonging to what is now known as the Liangzhu culture (c. 3000&ndash2000 BC). The quantity of jades found in tombs reflects the social status of the deceased and the positions in which they were placed around the body indicate that they were intended to provide a certain degree of protection.

Jade tube (cong), Chinese, Neolithic Liangzhu culture (c. 3000&ndashc.&thinsp2000 BC), jade. © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée Guimet, Paris)/Thierry Olivier

The unification of China under the Qin (221&ndash206 BC) and Han (206 BC&ndashAD 220) dynasties brought together many regional burial features, including the use of jades, in the area represented by present-day eastern China. As a result, new types of jade objects may have developed. We can find evidence of this in the tombs of the Han imperial Liu family members in eastern China that were excavated in the 1980s and &rsquo90s. These new categories included: a jade suit worn by the deceased nine plugs, which were inserted into the orifices of the body two hand grips (wo), usually jade pigs (animals that were possibly symbolic of wealth) a mouth amulet (han) a jade pillow jade pendants and seals to represent the status of the deceased in the afterlife discs, found on and beneath the body inside the jade suit lacquer coffins inlaid with jade plaques weapons for defence against intruders and jade utensils for use in the afterlife.

The jade suit is an unusual burial item because it only appears in the Han period. It took on average more than 2,000 jade plaques to form a suit that could cover the body completely most of the plaques used in the construction of the suits were rectangular in shape. In order to complete the task in time for the burial, work would have been divided among a team, whose roles would have included cutting the jade plaques, making them into desirable shapes, drilling the holes, edge abrasion, grinding and polishing of the surfaces, preparing the gold, silver or copper strips and lacing the plaques together. The suit was designed to encase the body completely, suggesting that its role was to provide some form of protection.

In fact, some of the new categories of jade objects had come into use long before the Qin and Han, but the Han saw a great expansion in the numbers of all of them. Jade and other stones were placed almost obsessively near the bodies of the Liu princes. Stone was used for the chambers, coffins and some figures of miraculous animals, while jade was employed for suits, discs, pendants, seals, weapons and vessels. Stone and jade seem to have played an important role in Han imperial burials because they are enduring and unchanging. In addition, from contemporary texts and bamboo slips excavated from tombs we know that the ancient Chinese people regarded stones and jade as providing a defence against demons and spirits that were thought to cause illness and bodily decomposition.

Jade suit (2nd century BC), Chinese, Western Han dynasty, jade. Xuzhou Museum, Jiangsu Province, China

Jade is a durable material that can survive burial for thousands of years, and is therefore linked in Chinese belief to immortality. In the records of Shi ji, the Han emperor Wudi believed that drinking dew and jade powder from a jade cup conferred longevity. He built a device for collecting dewdrops in the Jian Zhang Palace. The Baopuzi (&lsquoMaster who Embraces Simplicity&rsquo) by Ge Hong (c. 320) records that &lsquoWhen gold and jade are inserted into the nine orifices, corpses do not decay.&rsquo The famous dictionary of Chinese herbs, Ben Cao Gang Mu (&lsquoCompendium of Materia Medica&rsquo), written by Li Shizhen (1518&ndash93), lists jade and other materials, such as agate, crystal and mica, as having magical powers that could cure diseases and confer longevity. The presence of such materials in earlier tombs seems to confirm this belief.

After the collapse of the Han Empire, jades were rarely used for burial purposes, but made into personal ornaments, trinkets, everyday utensils, and studio items for scholars. Objects that were made in materials such as ceramics, metal and rhinoceros&rsquos horn were commonly rendered into jade. In Dong Jing Meng hua lu (&lsquoThe Eastern Capital: A Dream of Splendour&rsquo), Meng Yuanlao (active 1126&ndash47) records that the selling of antiques, including jades, in the street markets of the capital was common during the Northern Song (960&ndash1127). Jade ornaments were part of a bride&rsquos dowry and gifts for a newborn baby. In the capital of the Southern Song at Lin&rsquoan (present-day Hangzhou), an establishment called the Seven Treasures Shop (qibao she) sold jade belt plaques, bowls, vases and dishes. These records indicate that possession of jade was no longer confined to the rich or high-ranking, but had become more widespread.

Jade brush washer, (16th century), Chinese, late Ming dynasty, jade. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

The use of jade reached another peak in Chinese history during the Ming (1368&ndash1644) and Qing (1644&ndash1911) dynasties but, again, jades were mainly used for decorative rather than for ritual purposes. Soon after Zhu Di overthrew his nephew and occupied the imperial capital in Nanjing in 1402, he was proclaimed emperor and adopted the era title as Yongle. In order to establish his legitimacy, he re-established Beijing as the capital, reopened the Grand Canal, compiled the Yongle Encyclopedia and launched seven expeditions to explore the world. Through contact with the Ottoman Empire, jade objects inlaid with precious stones and gems, which were popular in Islamic areas, became fashionable among Ming royal family members.

The economic prosperity in southern China during the Ming period and the rise of a merchant class led merchants to collect antiquities, alongside the nobility and scholars this was a way for them to demonstrate their taste and wealth. Unfortunately, the increasing demand for antiquities stimulated the rise of forgery. A famous Ming text, Tian gong kai wu (&lsquoCreations of Nature and Man&rsquo), states that workshops in Zhuan Zhu Alley (zhuan zhu xiang) in Suzhou had become a major jade-carving centre outside Beijing during the Ming dynasty. Although good craftsmen had always made their way to the capital, the most ingenious works actually came from Suzhou, and the craftsmen there were also very good at forging ancient jades, as mentioned in the Ming scholar Gao Lian&rsquos Zun sheng ba jian (&lsquoEight Discourses on the Nurturing of Life&rsquo).

The expansion of Chinese territory and increase in foreign contact during the Qing dynasty (1644&ndash1911) led to the import of materials such as nephrite from Khotan (Hetian), Xinjiang, jadeite from Burma, agate and crystal from the Yangzi river regions, along with lapis lazuli from Afghanistan. In addition, Mughal-style designs from India became fashionable at court. Jade from Khotan was particularly appreciated by the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736&ndash95) and is still highly valued in China today. In part this is because it is denser than other jades, giving it a smooth, warm feeling that cannot be emulated. Large nephrite jade boulders were transferred from Xinjiang to Beijing, and some were shipped by canal to Yangzhou for carving if the imperial workshop in Beijing could not complete required objects in time.

Jade boulder carved with Chinese landscape (18th century), Chinese, Qing dynasty, jade. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

The Qianlong Emperor was a great collector and played an influential role in Chinese art history. He is also known to have been a jade lover. His tastes influenced jade designs at court and also in the jade markets of Suzhou and Yangzhou. Apart from copying real objects from the imperial collection, woodblock prints provided inspiration for craftsmen. Qianlong also promoted the use of paintings as a source of images for jade carving. The treatment of jade
carving as a form of three-dimensional painting was not an invention of the Qing period but dates back to the Song dynasty, when landscape or flower-and-bird subjects were executed on jade pebbles. Nevertheless, the scale of production and the size of the jade boulders used during the Qing dynasty surpassed those of previous periods and became another feature of Qing-dynasty jade carving. From a poem by the emperor incised on the &lsquojade mountain&rsquo (yu shan), now in the Palace Museum, Beijing, we know that the decision to replicate paintings on a three-dimensional jade boulder was made simply because the material is durable and likely to last forever. As well as transferring paintings onto jade boulders, calligraphy and sometimes the emperor&rsquos seals were also incised on to jade. Although the incision of calligraphy on mountains and stones has a long history in China, the Qianlong Emperor was the first and only emperor to carve his own poems on jade, porcelain and other objects.

Jade bowl in Mughal style with poem (1771), Chinese, Qing dynasty, Qianlong period, jade. Musée du Louvre, Paris

The first Mughal jade came into Qianlong&rsquos collection in 1756, when a tribe in Xinjiang paid a tribute to the court. After he defeated a rebellion by the Dzungar Muslims in 1759, the number of Mughal jades reaching the court increased each year. Although Qianlong criticised the Mughal jades in one of his poems, he wrote more than 50 poems about them, indicating that he was impassioned by their exotic design. He tried various ways to obtain them and even asked his workshop to imitate them. The high quality of these imitations has made it very difficult to identify which are the copies and which the originals.

The inexhaustible demand for jade has fuelled the production of a growing number of fakes. From the Song dynasty onwards, literati scholars&rsquo interest in collecting antiquities to understand the past influenced the market. They were respected members of society and, as a result, the wealthy followed in their footsteps and such collecting became fashionable. This phenomenon was repeated several times in Chinese history when the economy was buoyant, as it is today. Nowadays, Chinese purchase jades for their aesthetic value, for investment and for use as bribes to officials. There is a huge demand in the market for ancient jades faking techniques continue to improve and scams have become more professional. As a result, collecting jades continues but is much more challenging than at any other time in Chinese history.

From the November issue of Apollo: Preview and subscribe here.

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