29 April 1944

29 April 1944


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29 April 1944

April 1944

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War at Sea

German submarine U-421 sunk off Toulon

Pacific

US Task Force 58 begins a two day attack on the Japanese strong point at Truk Atoll in which 120 Japanese aircraft are destroyed



World War Photos

Early B-29 December USA 1943 B-29 over Osaka 1945 Formation of B-29 prepare for Tokyo Raid 5 December 1944 Saipan B-29 42-6242 in flight November 1943
B-29 Thumper 42-24623 of the 497th Bomb Group 870th Squadron USA 1945 B-29 raid on Nakajima Factory Ota Japan 1945 Ordinance Officer sets fuses of B-29 bombs B-29 of the 40th Bomb Group over China 1944
B-29 of the 331st Bomb Group B-29 Up N’ Comin’ nose art B-29 44-69741 City of Columbus aka Ten Under Parr of the 459th BS, 330th BG Guam B-29 42-6399 “The Agitator” of the 444th Bomb Group, 678th Bomb Squadron 1944
Crewman crawling thru padded fuselage tunnel of B-29 B-29 of the 6th Bombardment Group B-29 Lucky B-29 of the 497th Bomb Group dropping bombs on Japan
B-29 42-24779 “Satan’s Lady” of the 504th BG, 412st BS B-29 of the 499th Bomb Group Saipan B-29 of the 509th Bomb Group crashed in ditch B-29 bombers of the 501st Bomb Group
B-29 cockpit YB-29 Superfortress 41-36957 2 Crew of B-29 July 1945 B-29 of the 9th BG, color photo
Aerial View of B-29 Bombers B-29 with black underside for night raids over Japan 1945 Prototype XB-29 41-18335 “Gremlin Hotel” 1943 2,000,000th ton of explosives loaded on B-29 “Goin Jessie”
B-29 Enola Gay 1945 loading blockbuster bomb on B-29 42-63693 Marianas B-29 of the 16th Bomb Group Aircrew posed with B-29 “City of Alhambra” October 1945
B-29 42-24593 American Maid of the 497th BG, 869th BS Saipan, December 1944 B-29 bombers of the 40th and 462nd Bomb Group Tinian B-29 44-61670 “Lady Frances” of the 444th BG, 676th BS M2 High Speed Tractor towing B-29 K-106 of 40th BG China September 1944
YB-29 41-36957 B-29 42-24505 of the 462nd BG over Formosa October 1944 B-29 bombers of the 29th BG B-29 42-6226 of the 462nd BG Prescott Isle, Maine, 9 April 1944
B-29 42-24615 497BG 869BS Coral Queen Saipan B-29 of the 498th BG in flight B-29 “High eh Doc” of the 505th BG, 483rd BS Tinian 1945 B-29 42-24797 K-349 of the 505th BG, 484th BS
B-29 42-6454 “Totin to Tokyo” of the 468th BG, 793rd Bomb Squadron 1944 B-29s of XXth BC attack Singapore Naval Base 1945 B-29 takes off India June 1944 B-29 42-63454 Thunder Bird of the 462nd BG, 770th Bomb Squadron
B-29s of the 462nd BG Hellbirds bombing Kure Naval Base 1945 B-29 of the 509th Composite Group Bikini Tests 1946 B-29s of the 505th BG 19 April 1945 21st BC B-29 and P-51D burns after crash landing on Iwo Jima 1945
B-29 42-24626 “Jokers Wild” of the 497th BG, 871st BS 1944 B-29 of the 330th BG landing after a mission 1945 B-29 42-63462 of the 40th BG, 44th BS Tinian, May 1945 B-29 of the 499th BG, 878th BS take off from Isely Field Saipan 1945
Crew working on B-29 21st BC at Marianas Base 1945 B-29 44-69986 “City of Vincennes” of the 39th BG, 60th Bomb Squadron B-29 Superfortress landing on Saipan 44 B-29 Enola Gay Tinian August 1945
B-29 of 468th BG on a 14th AF airfield in China 1944 B-29 44-69959 of the 19th Bomb Group Tail section of B-29 42-24607 “Forbidden Fruit” from 498th BG, 875th Bomb Squadron Crashed B-29 42-6253 “Windy City” of 468th BG, 794th BS, Pengshan China August 1944
B-29 of the 98th BW Yokota Japan September 1951 B-29 44-87775 1945 B-29 44-61556 of the 40th BG Ground Crew loads 4000 lb bombs on B-29s of 73rd BW on Saipan 1945
Crashed 509th Bomb Group B-29 1945 B-29 42-65241 “The Life Of Riley” of the 504th BG, 398th Bomb Squadron B-29 of the 19th BG dropping bombs over Japan 1945 Bombs falling from B-29s on Port of Kobe 1945
XB-29 41-18335 3rd prototype 1942 B-29 “Dinah Might” of the 9th BG, 1st BS after emergency landing at Motoyama airfield, 4 March 1945 29th BG B-29s leave Guam for raid on Japan 1945 B-29 42-6323 “Eileen” China
B-29 K-272 of the 499th BG B-29 of the 19th BG Guam Aviation Engineers man bulldozer by burning B-29 on Saipan December 1944 B-29 42-24598 Waddy’s Wagon of the 497th Bomb Group, 886th BS, Saipan, Isley Field November 1944
497th BG 869th BS B-29 Dauntless Dotty 42-24592 Saipan Unveiling of B-29 44-70118 Ernie Pyle 1945 B-29 44-70005 “The Herd of Bald Goats” of 482nd BS, 505th BG Burning B-29 of 73rd BW following Japanese attack on Isley Field 1944
B-29 42-24612 in flight B-29 42-24591 “Lucky Lynn” of the 497th BG, 869th BS Saipan 15 December 1944 9th Bomb Group B-29 B-29 remote controlled bottom rear turret
Ground crew poses beside B-29 “Goin’ Jessie” 42-24856 of the 9th BG, 5th Bomb Squadron Tinian 1945 Capt Young’s crew Saipan December 1944 XB-29 41-002 “The Flying Guinea Pig” 1942 Flak-Riddled B-29 of 21st BC after raid on Tokyo 1945
B-29 42-6275 “Snafuper Bomber” of 45th Bomb Squadron, 40th Bomb Group China 1944 B-29 42-24691 “Fast Company” of the 792nd Bombardment Squadron, 468th Bomb Group B-29 42-65210 “Fay” of the 498th BG, 874th BS Saipan 1944 Ground crews watch 1st B-29 leave Saipan for attack on Tokyo 44
B-29 of the 19th Bomb Group in flight Group of mechanics of a B-29 engine at a 314th BW base Guam B-29 of 468th BG over Yawata during August 20, 1944 raid XB-29 41-18335 third prototype in flight
Burning B-29 Iwo Jima July 1945 B-29 42-93836 in flight B-29 tail gunner with remote control gun sight B-29 of the 509th Composite Group Bikini A-Bomb Tests 1946
B-29 “Dottie” take off from Chungking 3 December 1944 Ki-46 after attack on B-29 Crewmen dine from food tray galley aboard B-29 Crewmembers relax on bunks in crew compartment of B-29
B-29 tail gunner B-29 42-24668 “The Cannuck” of the 500th BG, 882nd Bomb Squadron Guam B-29 42-63414 “The Jumping Stud” of the 497th BG, 871st BS B-29 42-24780 “Doc’s Deadly Dose” of the 504th BG, 398th Bomb Squadron
B-29 42-24623 “Thumper” of the 497th Bomb Group 870th BS USA 1945 Crashed B-29 “Ramblin Roscoe” 42-24664 of the 500th BG, 882nd BS, Iwo Jima 15 April 1945 Bulldozer and B-29 44-69762 of 29th Bomb Group Marianas 1945 B-29 42-24779 “Satan’s Lady” of the 504th BG, 412st BS Tinian March 1945
B-29 K-336 of the 504th Bomb Group Crew of 497th Bomb Group, 886th BS B-29 42-24598 Waddy’s Wagon, Saipan November 1944 B-29 Iwo Jima Grounf crew with B-29 Thumper of 504th BG 21 February 1945
60th Bomb Squadron, 39th Bomb Group Crew and B-29, 29 April 1945 B-29 44-61639 “Hellbird” of the 462nd BG, 768 BS in flight Seabee on tractor and B-29s arriving at North Field on Tinian 1945 B-29 wings on assembly line at Renton Plant
B-29 42-24620 “Sleepy Time Gal” of the 40th BG, 44th BS Interior view of B-29 rear cabin B-29 of the 500th BG B-29 of 19th BG over Japan 1945
Burning B-29 of the 504th BG after emergency landing on Iwo Jima B-29 44-61679 of the 6th BG 468th BG, 792nd BS B-29 42-24494 “Mary Ann” attacking Hatto Formosa 18 October 1944 B-29A 42-93844 in flight with bomb door open
497th BG, 871st BS B-29 42-65231 “Gonna Mak’er” takes off from Saipan 1944 B-29 of the 444th BG over Hump 21 November 1944 Crew loading M69 bombs on B-29s on Saipan 1945 B-29 42-24625 “Lady Mary Anna” of the 498th Bomb Group
YB-29 Superfortress 41-36957 3 YB-29 41-38690 in flight B-29 42-24595 “Pacific Union” of the 497th BG, 869th BS, 5 December 1944 Saipan 2,000,000th ton of explosives loaded on B-29 Goin Jessie 2
B-29 Dream Girl Lone B-29 over base at Tinian Island B-29 42-6211 tail section, USA December 1943 Crew gasses up B-29 K-75 in China for bombing of Yawata June 1944
B-29 5 of the 499th BG B-29 42-24427 1944 B-29 42-63455 “Genie” of the 40th BG, 25th Bomb Squadron 1945 F-13 42-24621 Yokohama Yo-Yo of the 3rd Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 11th Photographic Reconnaissance Group
YB-29 41-36960 in flight Ground crew turning over B-29 propellers at Roswell AB 1945 B-29 Saipan 1944 B-29 15 of the 19th Bomb Group
Burning B-29 Iwo Jima Sergeant Krantz, a waist gunner hangs out of the window B-29 take off Pair of B-29 bombers in flight 42-24558 and 24554
Decoy B-29 bomber painted on the Tien Ho Airfield in China Unveiling of B-29 44-70118 “The Ernie Pyle” Tail guns of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bombardier amid Instruments in nose of B-29
YB-29 escort conversion 1943 B-29 42-24628 “Special Delivery” of the 497th BG, 870th BS 1944 B-29 55 of the 9th BG B-29 of the 500th Bomb Group
B-29 42-24731 K-297 444th BG, 677th Bomb Squadron Burma B-29 42-24616 “Haley’s Comet” of the 870th Bomb Squadron, 497th Bomb Group Medals Awarded to B-29 “Tokyo Rose” of 3rd PRS Crew Saipan 1944 B-29 44-61679 of the 6th BG 2
B-29 42-24904 Ramp Tramp II of the 768th Bomb Squadron, 462nd Bomb Group 1945 B-29 42-24596 “Little Gem” of the 497th BG, 869th BS Saipan, 22 March 1945. Crew of Lt Seitz B-29 42-63355 “Bella Bortion” of the 468th BG, 793rd BS YB-29 Superfortress 41-36957
B-29 42-63455 “Genie” of the 40th BG, 25th Bomb Squadron Tinian 1945

Boeing B-29 Superfortress photo gallery part 2.

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Production

A highly sophisticated aircraft, problems persisted even after the B-29 entered production. Built at Boeing plants in Renton, WA, and Wichita, KS, contracts were also given to Bell and Martin who built the aircraft at plants in Marietta, GA, and Omaha, NE respectively. Changes to the design occurred so frequently in 1944, that special modification plants were built to alter the aircraft as they came off the assembly line. Many of the problems were the result of rushing the aircraft in order to get it into combat as quickly as possible.


29 April 1944 - History

“Ray” is blown up with the boat.

Wilbur Larson isn’t the last one on PT347 after all. Seaman Raymond Juneau who is still firing away with the boat’s twin 50’s refuses to abandon ship. About three minutes had passed when a bomb made a direct hit on the 347 and blew her apart. After Lt. Williams looked over at the 346 and saw that she was burning furiously, and the TBF's where still skip bombing and corsairs were strafing, he then ordered his men who were drifting towards the shore to "REMAIN DISPERSED". My father also ordered everyone to take off their life jackets, place their helmets on top of them and dive under when the strafing started.

Four corsairs strafed the men in the water for approximately 45 minutes, this is what caused many of the casualties. One of the Officers who were killed was a Lieutenant Colonel Petitt he was a *U.S. Army observer on the 346. Many witnessed his head blown off while he clung to a life raft after losing a lung.

After the attack while wading in the water, Lt. Williams gave Forrest May a shot of morphine. They were able to see, and identify the pilots' faces as they banked their planes so they could try to see their handiwork. The attack ended at about 1530, at which time the four remaining corsairs headed east.

At about 1650 a Catalina was sighted with fighter cover heading in their direction. The fighters showed up flying wagging their wings. The Catalina flew over and dropped an inflated life raft. Ray Sequin, barely being able to see with his eyes still burning from oil, swam over to life raft, then rowing to the 347's bow that was still sticking out of the water, he was able to get into the forward lockers and find a carton of cigarettes and a can of hard candy, they had to light the cigarettes off the smoldering bow. The rest of the survivors then rowed back over to the 347 where there is a beacon buoy (or reef stake, known to this day by the locals as the German Marker - Put there by Germany in the 1920's). They tied up to the stake in the reef where they stayed for a long evening. I remember my father telling me about the campfires and talking they could see and hear close by in the jungle. PT's 351 and 355 picked them up in the early hours and brought them back to the Hilo.

Out of the three boats involved,

14 seamen killed or missing (including U.S. Army Lt. Colonel Petitt) 14 seamen wounded

The demarcation line dividing the South Pacific from the Southwest Pacific is what separated General MacArthur from Admiral Nimitz who with large egos disliked each other intensely. Making it a rule for personnel not to cross over the other's line without express authorization and a specified period of time. They were briefly brought together in some power struggle over the incident.

Nimitz was more powerful, both militarily and politically. Doug knew this to be true. The best thing he could do is leak this to the press.

(Although a small clip, It was front-page news across the country).


29th Division in World War II

On February 3, 1941, President Roosevelt called up the 29th Division’s component National Guard units from Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia for one year of active service. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and America’s entry into World War II, however, would eventually extend that one year to nearly five.

The 29th Division sailed for England in September 1942 aboard the famous Cunard liners Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. The division began incessant training in central and southwest England, which would continue for twenty consecutive months. In July 1943, a new commanding general arrived who would instill a unique spirit within the 29th and carry it through to the end of the war. Major General Charles Gerhardt, a cavalryman and member of the West Point class of 1917, was a tough disciplinarian, but transformed the division into one of the finest fighting outfits in the U.S. Army.

The 29th Division joined with the 1st Division to assault Omaha Beach on D-Day, June 6, 1944. The 116th Infantry landed in the first wave at 0630 hours on the western half of the beach and met unexpectedly fierce resistance from German troops entrenched on the coastal bluffs. Despite heavy losses, the 116th penetrated the enemy defenses and established a tenuous beachhead by nightfall.

The 115th Infantry landed at about 11 AM, and the 175th the next morning.

Over the next two weeks, the 29th Division advanced toward the key objective of St. Lo against stiffening enemy resistance. Only on July 18, 1944, six weeks after D-Day, did the division secure St. Lo, freeing the U.S. First Army to launch a devastating breakthrough of the German lines in Operation Cobra. After a short rest behind the front, the 29th joined in the destruction of the enemy in the Falaise Pocket by advancing southward from St. Lo, liberating the key crossroads city of Vire in on August 6. Ten days later, as the Americans raced toward Paris, General Bradley pulled the 29th Division out of the line. After a five-day break, he ordered the 29th with two other divisions to race into Brittany to seize the port of Brest, one of France’s largest harbors.

On August 25, Gerhardt’s men commenced their attack on Brest. What was conceived as a comparatively easy operation, however, turned out to be one of the 29th’s most costly operations of World War II. Defended by thousands of fanatical German paratroopers, the Americans took more than three weeks to subdue the enemy and seize the port, but by then the Germans had destroyed all the port facilities and rendered the harbor useless unless the Americans could commit months of repair work. Eisenhower decided to abandon Brest and use other harbor facilities much closer to the front, which by that time had reached the western frontier of Germany.

In late September 1944, the 29th Division was transferred 500 miles from Brittany to southern Holland, a journey that half the division took in uncomfortable “forty-and-eight” boxcars, while the other half made the move in trucks and jeeps. The 29th entered Germany on October 1, 1944, holding an extended front north of the historic city of Aachen. For more than a month, the division engaged in frustrating positional warfare as the weather deteriorated sharply and an ammunition shortage worsened to a critical level. Fully recovered from the debacle in Normandy, the Germans gave little ground and inflicted heavy casualties each time the 29ers launched an attack. In mid-October, the 29th loaned the 116th Infantry to the 30th Division, and it joined in the American effort to capture Aachen against a resolute enemy defense. Helping to close the pincer around Aachen, the 116th fought one of its most severe battles of World War II in the town of Würselen, an Aachen suburb.

On November 16, 1944, the 29th Division joined in one of the largest U.S. Army offensives of the war to date as a component of the Ninth Army. The goal was to smash through the German lines in the Rhineland, cross the Roer River at Jülich, and drive on to the Rhine by Christmas 1944. In three weeks of brutal combat, however, Gerhardt’s men only managed to advance nine miles and were halted on the west bank of the Roer just short of Jülich. The miniscule German towns through which the 29th fought—Siersdorf, Dürboslar, Aldenhoven, Bourheim, Koslar, and others—would be remembered by the 29ers as some of the most brutal fighting they experienced in World War II. Further, as cold and wet weather set in, the 29th Division lost hundreds of men due to exposure and trench foot.

The exhausted 29th Division called off its offensive on December 8. Eight days later, the massive German Ardennes offensive erupted forty miles to the south, catching the U.S. First Army by surprise. Ninth Army divisions on either side of the 29th were pulled out of the line and rushed to the Ardennes as Gerhardt extended his front along the Roer River to cover the vacated space. While the Battle of the Bulge raged to the south, the 29th Division patrolled aggressively over the Roer and prepared for the Allied offensive to resume as the enemy offensive petered out and winter weather waned.

On February 23, 1945, the 29th Division executed its most successful offensive of World War II by launching an attack across the flood-swollen Roer on either side of Jülich. That key city, which Gerhardt’s men had been within sight of for three months, fell to the 29th on the first day of the assault. The division penetrated onto the flat and featureless Cologne Plain, swung 90 degrees to its left, and attacked relentlessly to the north in an effort to link up with Montgomery’s Twenty-First Army Group, which was progressing southward in an effort to encircle German troops west of the Rhine River.

On March 1, 1945, the 29th Division seized München-Gladbach, the largest German city captured by Gerhardt’s men in World War II. Pulled out of the line for its first significant period of rest and recuperation during its time in combat, the 29th set up a headquarters in Schloss Rheydt, a castle owned by Joseph Goebbels, the notorious Nazi propaganda minister. The 29ers cleaned up, received hundreds of new replacements, and enjoyed plentiful passes to Dutch towns in the rear area. On the open pastures surrounding München-Gladbach, Gerhardt ordered several parades to honor those 29th Division units that had gained the highly prized Distinguished Unit Citation during combat in Normandy: the 115th, 116th, and 175th Infantry, along with the 121st Engineer Combat Battalion.

The 29th Division crossed the historic Rhine River on March 31, 1945, and joined in the Allied Expeditionary Force’s blitzkrieg across central Germany. The end was in sight for the next five weeks, the 29ers mopped up scattered pockets of German resistance and exerted administrative control over thousands of displaced persons fleeing westward into the U.S. Army’s operational area. On May 2, the 175th Infantry’s 3rd Battalion encountered elements of the Soviet 6th Guards Cavalry Division on the Elbe River. The Americans and Soviets greeted each other enthusiastically, exchanging hats, weapons, and other items of military memorabilia. Five days later, Nazi Germany collapsed the war in Europe was over.

In eleven months of nearly continuous combat from D-Day to the Elbe, the 29th Division had participated in seven major offensives, gaining a reputation as one of the U.S. Army’s finest outfits in World War II. Two members of the 29th, T/Sgt. Frank Peregory of Company K, 116th Infantry, and S/Sgt. Sherwood Hallman of Company F, 175th Infantry, gained the Medal of Honor—both posthumously. The 29th paid a severe price in the triumph against Nazi tyranny: during the European campaign, more than 20,000 29ers fell in battle several thousand more became non-battle casualties. Among the sixty-plus U.S. Army divisions that participated in the campaign, only one other division had more losses.

After V-E Day, the 29th Division garrisoned the German port of Bremen, the point from which thousands of American troops eventually returned to the States. The last elements of the division did not depart Europe until late 1945 and finally arrived in New York City in January 1946.

The 29th Division’s remarkable record in World War II forged the high standards maintained by all post-war 29ers. Today, the young men and women populating the Maryland and Virginia National Guard units tracing their lineage back to the 29th Division in both world wars have fully lived up to those standards on the distant battlegrounds of Iraq and Afghanistan in the Global War on Terror.


The 42nd and 45th Infantry Divisions and the 20th Armored Division of the US Army liberate approximately 32,000 prisoners at Dachau.

On April 26, 1945, as American forces approached, there were 67,665 registered prisoners in Dachau and its subcamps more than half of this number were in the main camp. Of these, 43,350 were categorized as political prisoners, while 22,100 were Jews, with the remainder falling into various other categories. Starting that day, the Germans forced more than 7,000 prisoners, mostly Jews, on a death march from Dachau to Tegernsee far to the south. During the death march, the Germans shot anyone who could no longer continue many also died of hunger, cold, or exhaustion. On April 29, 1945, American forces liberated Dachau. As they neared the camp, they found more than 30 railroad cars filled with bodies brought to Dachau, all in an advanced state of decomposition. In early May 1945, American forces liberated the prisoners who had been sent on the death march.

Emaciated survivors sit outside a barracks in the newly liberated Dachau concentration camp. —US Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Frank Manucci, David J. Levy, Kathleen Quinn, Theodore A. Kane Jr.


29 April 1944 - History


( All weblinks within this document are highlighted in " Blue " )

Last update to this webpage:

( Originally created in June, 2009 )

Displayed on this page are:
Last Names Beginning with: " Letter's A through K "

For Last Names Beginning with L - Z



The following list was created in the memory of the brave men and women from the City of Baltimore that gave their all for their State and Country during World War II. Soldiers, Sailors and Merchant Marine, are all included on this listing.

There are personal "online memorials" for each of these honored men and women that were created for them by using the "Find A Grave" website. You will see a blue " Yes " behind their names and by clicking on the " Yes " you will see their personal memorial that has been created for them. On "many" of the online memorials you will see a small biography for each soldier which includes: parent's names, where they lived and where and how they actually died. If you see one without a bio and you have information on them please email me and I'll update their records.

The City Of Baltimore had a total of:

Soldiers, Sailors & Merchant Marine who "Gave Their All" during World War II

( I'm 99.9% sure all from The City Of Baltimore are included in the below listing ) Who Is Included in this listing:

Soldiers and Sailors who died during the war - December 7, 1941 through September 2, 1945 .

( Some others may have been included that died close to the war's end from " wounds " and/or " disease ". ) -->


Information was used from the following links at the National Archives for this report on the "Army & Air Force":

"Multiple" links were used at the National Archives for those in the "Navy & Coast Guard"


Also Please Note: The records show these men and women as either enlisting, being originally from, or having strong ties to the City Of Baltimore. Therefore some of these soldiers may not necessarily be from the particular county noted.

On some of the records you will note that the "Cemetery/Memorial" column shows " Unknown " . If you know where any of these men or women are interred please let me know by sending me an " email " to: " [email protected] " - ( or by clicking here ) " and I'll insure that the information is noted for their record.


Whether a soldier or sailor was " Killed In Action " , " Missing In Action " ,
" Died of Wounds " , or even died in the " Line Of Duty " .

Whether a soldier or sailor was awarded medals or not .

They are all " HERO'S " in my book and deserve all the recognition they can get !!

Special Thanks To Find A Grave Members:
( For all their countless hours of " Volunteer Time " to remember our Veterans )

" Dan Phelan " :
For his great help locating burials, record updates, Merchant Marine Research,
" and " taking photos for " All Of Maryland " and " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !

" Andy " :
For his great photos and research work in the Epinal American Cemetery, France
" and " record updates " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Anne Cady " :
For her great help locating burials in Maryland & New York
" and " record updates " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Eric Ackerman " :
For all his great research " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Janice Hollandsworth " :
For her great help locating burials, research,
" and " record updates " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" John Dowdy " :
For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials
" and " flight crew reports " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Shaneo " :
For his great help locating burials
" and " record updates " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Steve S " :
For his great photos and research work in the Manila American Cemetery,
" and " record updates " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !
" Tim Cook " :
For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials, taking photos,
" and " flight crew reports " For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide " !

Key to Abbreviations and Notes:

AM = Awarded the " Air Medal "

( Meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flight. )
AM+ = Awarded " Multiple Air Medals "

( Noted as Oak Leaf Clusters attached to " First " Air Medal. )

BS = Awarded the " Bronze Star "

( 4th highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service )
BS+ = Awarded multiple " Bronze Stars "

( Noted as Oak Leaf Cluster attached to " First " Bronze Star. )

DFC = Awarded the " Distinguished Flying Cross "

( Awarded for heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight. )

DSC = Awarded the " Distinguished Service Cross "

( 2nd highest award for extreme gallantry and risk of life. )

DSM = Awarded the " Distinguished Service Medal "

( Awarded for Exceptionally meritorious service to the Government of the United States. )

FDC = Awarded the " Croix de Guerre "

( Awarded by France for those soldiers who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism. )

LOM = Awarded the " Legion Of Merit "

( Awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. )

MM = Awarded the " Mariner's Medal "

( Awarded to the Merchant Marines for being wounded or killed in action )
MM* = Awarded the " Mariner's Combat Bar "

( Awarded to Merchant Mariners who have been in combat action )
MM** = Awarded the " Mariner's Combat Bar Star "

( Combat Star's awarded to those who are forced to abandon ship when attacked or damaged )
MDS = Awarded the " Mariner's Distinguished Service Medal "

( Awarded for " Heroism Beyond the Call of Duty ". )

MOH = Awarded the " Medal Of Honor "

( Highest military honor, awarded for personal acts of valor above and beyond the call of duty. )

NC = Awarded the " Navy Cross "

( 2nd highest military decoration for valor that may be awarded to a member of the Navy, Marines, or Coast Guard. )

PH = Awarded the " Purple Heart "

( Awarded for being wounded in action. )
PH+ = Awarded " Multiple Purple Hearts "

( Noted as Oak Leaf Clusters attached to " First " Purple Heart. )

POW = Awarded the " Prisoner Of War Medal "

( Awarded for serving as a Prisoner of the enemy. )

PUC = Awarded a " Presidential Unit Citation "

( Awarded to a unit for heroism or extraordinary achievement. )

SM = Awarded the " Soldier's Medal "

( Awarded for distinguished heroism not involving actual conflict with an enemy )
SS = Awarded the " Silver Star "

( 3rd highest award, awarded for gallantry in action )

Other Medals
Such as Good Conduct, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign, American Defense Service Medals, etc. " Are Not " included in this listing.

= Photo of person shown on online memorial
= Photo of tombstone or listing shown on online memorial
N/A

( in awards field ) = not applicable
N/A

( in photo field ) = not available

Cenotaph = A memorial stone only, remains not recovered or possibly interred somewhere unknown.

Those Included: = Died during the war

" December 7, 1941 " through " September 2, 1945 " .
( Some others have been included that died close to the war's end possibly from wounds or illiness )


29 April 1944 - History

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    When diplomats met to form the United Nations in 1945, one of the things they discussed was setting up a global health organization.

    WHO&rsquos Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 &ndash a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day.

    In April 1945, during the Conference to set up the United Nations (UN) held in San Francisco, representatives of Brazil and China proposed that an international health organization be established and a conference to frame its constitution convened. On 15 February 1946, the Economic and Social Council of the UN instructed the Secretary-General to convoke such a conference. A Technical Preparatory Committee met in Paris from 18 March to 5 April 1946 and drew up proposals for the Constitution which were presented to the International Health Conference in New York City between 19 June and 22 July 1946. On the basis of these proposals, the Conference drafted and adopted the Constitution of the World Health Organization, signed 22 July 1946 by representatives of 51 Members of the UN and of 10 other nations.

    The Conference established also an Interim Commission to carry out certain activities of the existing health institutions until the entry into force of the Constitution of the World Health Organization. The preamble and Article 69 of the Constitution of WHO provide that WHO should be a specialized agency of the UN. Article 80 provides that the Constitution would come into force when 26 members of the United Nations had ratified it. The Constitution did not come into force until 7 April 1948, when the 26th of the 61 governments who had signed it ratified its signature. The first Health Assembly opened in Geneva on 24 June 1948 with delegations from 53 of the 55 Member States. It decided that the Interim Commission was to cease to exist at midnight on 31 August 1948, to be immediately succeeded by WHO.


    The Journal of Negro History

    The Journal of Negro History is the original name of a quarterly journal on African-American history, published since the early 20th century.

    Publication History

    The Journal of Negro History was founded in 1916 by Carter G. Woodson, who edited the early volumes. The first actively copyright-renewed issue is October 1940 (v. 25 no. 4). We know of no actively copyright-renewed contributions. (More details) In 2002, the journal was renamed the Journal of African American History.

    Persistent Archives of Complete Issues

    • 1916-1925: HathiTrust has page scans of volumes 1-10 freely readable online. Later volumes may be searchable but not readable here.
    • 1916-1923: Project Gutenberg has transcriptions of volumes 1-8.

    Official Site / Current Material

    This is a record of a major serial archive. This page is maintained for The Online Books Page. (See our criteria for listing serial archives.) This page has no affiliation with the serial or its publisher.


    Little Boy: The First Atomic Bomb

    Two American atomic bombs ended World War II in August 1945, and the devastation will be forever remembered. In an instant when the first bomb was dropped, tens of thousands of residents of Hiroshima, Japan were killed by “Little Boy,” the code name for the first atomic bomb used in warfare in world history.

    The Project

    Scientists developed the technology for the atomic weapon during the highly classified project code-named “The Manhattan Project.” U.S. Army Col. Leslie R. Groves oversaw the military’s participation, while civilian scientist Robert Oppenheimer was in charge of the team designing the core details of Little Boy. Facilities for the research were set up in Manhattan, Washington State, Tennessee, and New Mexico. Scientists on the project drew from the earlier work done by physicists Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard, both of whom received funding from the U.S. Government in the late 1930s to study enriched uranium in nuclear chain reactions. The enriched uranium-235 was the critical element in creating an explosive fission reaction in nuclear bombs.

    The Manhattan Project team agreed on two distinct designs for the atomic bombs. In Little Boy, the first atomic weapon, the fission reaction occurred when two masses of uranium collided together using a gun-type device to form a critical mass that initiated the reaction. In effect, one slug of uranium hit another after firing through a smooth-bore gun barrel. The target was in the shape of a solid spike measuring seven inches long and four inches in diameter. The cylinder fit precisely over the spike as the two collided together creating the highly explosive fission reaction. While the theory of the gun firing concept was not fully tested until the actual bomb dropped on Hiroshima, scientists conducted successful lab tests on a smaller scale that gave them confidence the method would be successful.

    The final construction of Little Boy occurred in stages. Various components of the bomb were transported by train from Los Alamos, New Mexico, to San Francisco, California. There, the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis shipped the collection of parts to Tinian Island in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan, where it arrived on July 26. In order to prevent a catastrophic accident, the target piece of enriched uranium flew separately aboard three C-54 Skymaster transport planes to Tinian Island, where it also arrived on July 26. Upon final assembly, Little Boy weighed 9,700 pounds and measured 10 feet in length and 28 inches in diameter.

    Once on Tinian, the officer in charge of Little Boy’s assembly, U.S. Navy Capt. William S. Parsons, decided to forestall the final segment of assembly until the very last moment. He did this in order to prevent a catastrophic accidental detonation caused by an electrical short or crash.

    The Mission

    In the early morning hours of August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay took off from Tinian and proceeded north by northwest toward Japan. The bomber’s primary target was the city of Hiroshima, located on the deltas of southwestern Honshu Island facing the Inland Sea. Hiroshima had a civilian population of almost 300,000 and was a critical military center that included 43,000 soldiers.

    The aircraft, piloted by the commander of the 509th Composite Group, Col. Paul Tibbets, flew at low altitude on automatic pilot before climbing to 31,000 feet as it closed in on the target area. At approximately 8:15 a.m. Hiroshima time, the Enola Gay released “Little Boy” over the city. Forty-three seconds later, a massive explosion lit the morning sky as the bomb detonated 1,900 feet above the city, directly over a parade field where soldiers of the Japanese Second Army were doing calisthenics.

    Even though the Enola Gay had already flown 11 and a half miles away from the target after dropping its payload, it was rocked by the blast. After the initial shock wave hit the plane, the crew looked back at Hiroshima, and Tibbets recalled that “The city was hidden by that awful cloud . . . boiling up, mushrooming, terrible and incredibly tall.” [1] The force of the explosion was later estimated at 15 kilotons (the equivalent of 15,000 tons of TNT).

    Many Americans viewed the bombing as a necessary means toward an end to the conflict with Japan. When Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer was briefed on the bombing, he expressed guarded satisfaction. He, more than any other, understood the power of the weapon he helped produce and the destruction that was unleashed on humanity.

    We will never definitively know how many died as a result of the bombing of Hiroshima. Some 70,000 people are estimated to have perished as a result of the initial blast, heat, and radiation effects. This included about 20 American airmen who were held as prisoners in the city. By the end of 1945, because of the continuing effects of radioactive fallout and other after effects, including radiation poisoning, the Hiroshima death toll was likely over 100,000. The five-year death total may have even exceeded 200,000, as cancer and other long-term effects are considered.

    Read the blog post Harry Truman and the Bomb and the notes of Captain Robert Lewis, co-pilot of the Enola Gay, to learn more about the first atomic aomb.


    Watch the video: GUN CAMERA FOOTAGE ON MSNBC: brueland 29 april 1944