Siege of Acre, August 1189-12 July 1191

Siege of Acre, August 1189-12 July 1191

Siege of Acre

The Background to the SiegeThe Siege BeginsReinforcements arriveStalemateRichard the Lion Heart

The Background to the Siege

1187 saw the crusader kingdoms reach their low point. The crusaders fought amongst themselves, while at the same time Saladin was unifying large parts of the Muslim world, eventually coming to surround the crusaders. Despite this, the crusaders failed to observe their truce with Saladin, and eventually Saladin decided on war. In June 1187 he invaded Palestine. Guy of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, was able to raise an army of almost equal size to Saladins', but it was badly led, and the crusaders suffered a decisive defeat at the battle of Hattin (4 July 1187). Guy was captured, while the most able Crusader leader, Raymond of Tripoli, died of his wounds after the battle. The aftermath of the defeat saw the effective end of all but a tiny remnant of the crusader kingdoms. With their garrisons lost, Saladin was able to capture most cities, including Tiberias, Acre and Ascalon. Only at Tyre, where a combination of strong defences, and the arrival of Conrad of Montferrat with fresh troops thwarted Saladin. From Tyre, he moved on Jerusalem, which surrendered to him on 2 October 1187. News of the loss of Jerusalem broke on a stunned Europe, where moves were soon in hand for a fresh crusade, the Third. However, for the moment those crusaders left in Palestine has to survive.

The defences of Tyre were amongst the strongest in Palestine, with land access to the city only along a narrow isthmus, heavily defended by a series of walls. After the fall of Jerusalem, Saladin returned to besiege the city with a stronger army, complete with a siege train, and combined with a fleet. However, the siege engines proved to be unequal to the task, and his fleet was destroyed in a battle with the crusaders. Saladin withdrew to besiege Krak des Chevaliers, leaving the crusaders with a safe port for reinforcements. However, the crusaders continued to squabble amongst themselves. When Guy of Lusignan, released by Saladin under oath not to take up arms, found a priest to declare the oath invalid, Conrad refused to give him control of Tyre. Luckily, Saladin concentrated on the Crusader castles in northern Syria, before in March 1189 returning to Damascus.

The Siege Begins

Reinforcements for the crusaders has been slowly arriving at Tyre. Early in 1188 two hundred Sicilian Knights had arrived, while in April 1189 an expedition from Pisa joined them. This party soon argued with Conrad, and accepted the leadership of Guy, then camped outside Tyre. Encouraged by this reinforcement, Guy decided on a desperate move to regain himself a capitol, and at the end of August marched towards Acre. The expedition should have been a total disaster. The garrison of Acre was twice the size of Guy's army, while Saladin with his main army was in the area. A combination of illness and cautious advice decided Saladin against such a move, and Guy was allowed to reach Acre, arriving on 28 August 1189.

Acre had been the favourite residence of the kings of Jerusalem, as well as the richest of the crusader cities, and was strongly defended, by the sea to the west and south and by strong land walls to the north and east. Saladin had visited the city several times since capturing it, and it was well garrisoned and supplied. Three days after arriving at the city, and despite the disparity of numbers, Guy launched a direct assault on the city, which predictably failed.

Reinforcements arrive

It was soon clear that Saladin had made a grave mistake in not attack Guy before he reached Acre. New parties of crusaders, motivated by the fall of Jerusalem were beginning to arrive in Palestine, and Guy's active siege of Acre attracted most of them. In early September a Danish fleet (which allowed a blockade by sea) and a Flemish and French contingent arrived, while by the end of September a German party arrived. These were all small contingents, and the main body of crusaders were not to arrive until 1191, but they were sufficient to alarm Saladin, who moved to attack Guy's camp on 15 September. Although the attack failed, contact was made with the garrison, and the two forces found themselves camped very close to each other.

Soon after this attack, Guy was strengthened by a truce of sorts with Conrad of Montferrat, who agreed to join the siege although not to obey Guy. With this reinforcement, the crusaders decided to launch an attack on Saladin's camp (4 October). Confusion within the Muslim forces nearly handed the crusaders a great victory. Saladin's nephew Taki, commander of the right wing, feinted a retreat, with the intention of luring the Templers into a foolish attack. Unluckily, he also fooled Saladin, who moved troops from the centre to help his nephew. Saladin's right and centre broke and fled, with the crusaders in pursuit. Saladin then counter attacked with his undefeated left wing, forcing the crusaders to retreat into their fortified camp, where Saladin was unwilling to follow. The battle had been a victory for Saladin, but still left the crusader siege in place.

Stalemate

Reinforcements continued to arrive for both sides, allowing the crusaders to complete the siege on land, and Saladin to in turn besiege the crusaders. At sea things favoured Saladin. After an initial breakthrough in October, on 26 December 1189 an Egyptian fleet reopened communications with the besieged city. The rest of the winter passed without major incident, but the crusaders supply situation was poor, until in March Conrad managed to reach Tyre and return with supplies. Neither side was able to make any significant breakthrough, and the main event of 1190 was the death of Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem, through whom Guy made claim to the throne. The Crusader barons now favoured Conrad as King, and the year ended with both men claiming the throne, Conrad from Tyre and Guy from the camp outside Acre. The situation in the Crusader camp now became desperate. In the early months on 1191 Saladin could have been justified in his decision not to risk an attack on the Crusader camp as hunger and disease did their worst. However, he was soon to regret his inaction.

Richard the Lion Heart

In March 1191, the first corn ship to reach the camp outside Acre arrived. As welcome as the food was the news that Richard I of England and Philip II Augustus of France had finally arrived in the east. Philip arrived at Acre first, on 20 April 1191, but it was the arrival of Richard, eight weeks later on 8 June, that made the difference. Luck played a part in his success. Philip had spent his time building siege engines and pounding the walls, but it needed someone of Richard's military background and ability to energize the attackers. Despite a serious illness, Richard quickly became the effective leader of the crusaders, but every attempt to take the city was foiled by a counter attack from Saladin's forces. However, the newly arrived crusader fleets had regained control of the seas, and the defenders of Acre were close to surrender. A first offer of surrender on 4 July was refused, but after a failed attack by Saladin the next day, and a final battle on 11 July, another surrender offer was accepted the following day. The terms of the surrender were honourable. The most important clauses were that the 2,700 Saracens captured in Acre were to be swapped for 1,600 Christian prisoners and the true cross, captured by Saladin. Richard's reputation is blotted by his actions after the siege. When some of the named Christian prisoners were not turned over, apparently because they had not yet arrived at Acre, he took the chance to rid himself of the Saracen prisoners, and on 20 August they were massacred by the vengeful crusaders.

The recapture of Acre was of major importance for the survival of the crusader kingdoms. It reversed the trend of conquest, and marked the beginning of a new period of crusader success, as well as becoming the new capitol of the crusader kingdom. Symbolically, Acre was the last crusader possession in Palestine, finally falling in 1291, one hundred years after the end of the siege.


Acre 1189

The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the Sultan Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE), lasted from 1189 to 1191 CE The city of Acre offered terms of surrender to the Crusaders, and this time, these terms were considered suitable and were accepted. The siege had begun when Guy de Lusignan attacked Acre in 1189, and the Crusader army failed to capture the city for more than two years. The Siege of Acre, from Biblotheque Municipale de Lyo Illustration of the Siege of Acre (1189-91 CE) by Rocío Espin. Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers The two-year-long siege of Acre (1189-1191) was the most significant military engagement of the Third Crusade, attracting armies from across Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Maghreb. Drawing on a balanced selection of Christian and Muslim sources, historian John D. Hosler has written the first book-length account of this hard-won victory for the Crusaders, when England's Richard the Lionheart and King Philip Augustus of France joined forces to defeat the Egyptian Sultan Saladin. The final formula to convert 1189 acres to s.ft is: [s.ft] = 1189 x 43560 = 51792840 Both acres and square feet are units for measuring different sized plots of land. The imperial and the customary systems of US uses acre as the unit of any land area

The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE - World History Encyclopedi

  • How to convert 1189 square feet to acres? The simple answer is: 0.0272956841 Both acres and square feet are units for measuring different sized plots of land. The imperial and the customary systems of US uses acre as the unit of any land area
  • August 1189 bis 12. Juli 1191) war das wichtigste Ereignis des Dritten Kreuzzuges im Heiligen Land. Nach zweijähriger, verlustreicher Belagerung gelang den Kreuzfahrern schließlich die Rückeroberung der strategisch wichtigen Stadt Akkon, die für die folgenden 100 Jahre die Hauptstadt des Königreichs Jerusalem wurde
  • Finden Sie Top-Angebote für SIEGE OF ACRE 1189-1191 NEU HOSLER JOHN D. YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS HARDBACK bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel

This comprehensive account of the siege of Acre examines the experiences of the Christian and Muslim sides and provides a fresh perspective on the key players Philip Augustus, Richard the Lionheart and Saladin The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade | Hosler, John D. | ISBN: 9780300251494 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon Le siège de Saint-Jean-d'Acre est une opération militaire de la troisième croisade qui dure de 1189 à 1191. Après la défaite écrasante de Hattin, la prise de Saint-Jean-d'Acre est la première opération de reconquête du royaume de Jérusalem, qui permettra à ce dernier de se maintenir encore un siècle. Contexte. Le 4 juillet 1187, Saladin écrase l'armée franque conduite par Guy.

L ' Siège d'Acre Ce fut la première confrontation de troisième croisade, Il a commencé le 28 Août 1189 et il a duré jusqu'au 12 Juillet 1191, pour la première fois dans l'histoire roi de Jérusalem Il a été forcé de prendre personnellement de la défense Terre Sainte . AND, the The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, Vol. II, page 66, makes no mention of incest. If no reliable source can be provided that indicates that anyone thought the soon to be marriage was incestuous, I would removed said sentence.- Third Crusade Part 2 - Siege Of Acre 1189 || History With Sohail.After the conquest of Jerusalem, Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi laid siege to the city of Acre, a.. Ruad. The Siege of Acre was one of the first confrontations of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land

Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Siege Of Acre 1189-1191 frisch Hosler John D. bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel The Siege of Acre is a generic hybrid. Part of a Yale University Press series aimed at accessibility (and thus, presumably, at a more general, if educated, audience), it is light on footnotes but boasts an impressive, deep-bench bibliography establishes its tone in casual, slangy expressions but traffics in specialized techno-speak is constructed as an old-fashioned narrative (of the sort that depends on vivid characters and exciting skirmishes) but also offers monographic moments (of the.

End of the Siege of Acre (1189-1191) - Olivia Longuevill

  • The Siege of Acre took place August 28, 1189 to July 12, 1191, during the Third Crusade and saw Crusader forces capture the city. Following the loss of Jerusalem in 1187, efforts were made to launch a new crusade to retake the city. As a first step, Guy of Lusignan commenced a siege of Acre
  • The Siege of Acre was one of the first confrontations of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land. It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the Crusades for the Christian ruling class of.
  • Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusad
  • Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Siege Of Acre (1189) sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Siege Of Acre (1189) in höchster Qualität
  • A combination of illness and cautious advice decided Saladin against such a move, and Guy was allowed to reach Acre, arriving on 28 August 1189. Acre had been the favourite residence of the kings of Jerusalem, as well as the richest of the crusader cities, and was strongly defended, by the sea to the west and south and by strong land walls to the north and east. Saladin had visited the city.
  • Medieval Warfare X.6 with the Siege of Acre (1189-1191) Lasting almost two years, this siege would be a key struggle during the Third Crusade, bringing together armies from across Europe and the Middle East. €8.5

Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE (Illustration) - World History

El setge d'Acre fou la primera operació bèl·lica important organitzada pel rei de Jerusalem, Guiu de Lusignan per recuperar els territoris perduts en les campanyes de Saladí, cap dels musulmans de Síria i Egipte.Es considera una de les batalles de la tercera croada.El setge durà des de l'agost del 1189 fins al juliol del 1191 i no hagués estat possible sense la participació del rei d. John D. Hosler: The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 - Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade. 12 b-w illus. Sprache: Englisch. (Taschenbuch) - portofrei bei eBook.d The Siege of Acre was the first significant counterattack by King Guy of Jerusalem against Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt.This pivotal siege formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.The siege lasted from August 1189 until July 1191, in which time the city's coastal position meant the attacking Latin force were unable to fully invest the city and Saladin. Hosler first provides the necessary contextual backdrop (ch. 1), before reconstructing the siege's early phases in 1189 (ch. 2) its progression through the spring and summer (ch. 3) and autumn and winter (ch. 4) of 1190 the arrival and impact of Philip Augustus and Richard I in 1191 (ch. 5) and Acre's eventual surrender on 12 July 1191, which was followed by the infamous execution of.

Hosler, J: Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Amazon

  1. The Siege of Acre was the first significant counterattack by King Guy of Jerusalem against Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt. This pivotal siege formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade. The siege lasted from August 1189 until July 1191, in which time the..
  2. The Siege of Acre was one of the first confrontations of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land. [3] It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the Crusades for the Christian ruling class of the east. [4
  3. Third Crusade Part 2 - Siege Of Acre 1189 || History With Sohail. After the conquest of Jerusalem, Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi laid siege to the city of Acre, and conquered it. Following the Sultan's great conquest, Europe launched the # ThirdCrusade to recapture Jerusalem. This war began in 1187 AD with the siege of the city of Acre. In this battle, Frederick Barbarossa, King of the Holy.
  4. To calculate 1189 Square Feet to the corresponding value in Acres, multiply the quantity in Square Feet by 2.2956841138659E-5 (conversion factor). In this case we should multiply 1189 Square Feet by 2.2956841138659E-5 to get the equivalent result in Acres
  5. ently in both the contest of 1189-91, when Acre was besieged by the Third Crusade, and the Mamluk siege of 1291. During both epic sieges, efforts to storm the city were concentrated around this tower. The Accursed Tower was situated at the most exposed corner of the city's.
  6. The two-year-long siege of Acre (1189-1191) was the most significant military engagement of the Third Crusade, attracting armies from across Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Maghreb. Drawing on a balanced selection of Christian and Muslim sources, historian John D. Hosler has written the first book-length account of this hard-won victory for the Crusaders, when England's Richard.

La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Siege of Acre (1189-91) article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-12-31 01:17:53. Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 von John D. Hosler (ISBN 978--300-25149-4) bestellen. Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - lehmanns.d Belagerung von Acre (Frühling 1189) Guy de Lusignan, der vor einem Jahr von Saladin freigelassen wurde und prompt in einen Streit mit Konrad von Montferrat geriet, da dieser ihn nicht als rechtmäßigen König anerkennen wollte, sammelt ein Heer und greift damit Acre an. Zwar gelingt es ihm nicht, die Stadt zu nehmen, aber er beginnt eine Belagerung. Wenig später treffen auch Saladins. The Third Crusade (1189-1192), also known as The Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. The campaign was largely successful in capturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to capture Jerusalem, the emotional and spiritual motivation of the Crusade

1189 Acres to Square Feet

The first comprehensive history of the most decisive military campaign of the Third Crusade and one of the longest wartime sieges of the Middle Ages The two-year-long siege of Acre (1189-1191) was the most significant military engagement of the Third Crusade, attracting armies from across Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Maghreb. Drawing on a balanced selection o On the morning of September 14, 1189, the Muslims launched an attack, hoping to drive the Christians away from their encampment and punch a hole through to Acre's walls. But the Christians stood firm. Mounting another attack the following day, Muslim cavalry discovered a weak spot in the lines north of the city, and after an hour of desperate fighting, the Franks were driven back. Just as a.

1189 Square Feet to Acres

  1. Verfasst von: Hosler, John D. [VerfasserIn] Titel: The siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Titelzusatz: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the battle that decided the Third Crusad
  2. The siege of Acre was one of the most important events of the Third Crusade and one of the deadliest battles from all the crusades. It was also one of the longest sieges, lasting just under two years (August 1189 - July 1191). Background Information. After Saladin's crushing victory at the Horns of Hattin in July 1187, he was able to take a large portion of territory from the Kingdom Of.
  3. Siege of Acre (1189-1191) Share. Military conflicts similar to or like Siege of Acre (1189-1191) The first significant counterattack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade. Wikipedia. Third Crusade. Attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful.
  4. 1189.2mi² to ac Conversion: 1 mi² equals 640 ac, therefore 1189.2 mi² is equal to 761,088 ac
  5. The Siege of Acre (1189-1191 CE) as told through the vignettes of my toy soldiers. The Siege of Acre was fought between the invading army of the Third Crusade, led by Richard II King of England.
  6. The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the Sultan Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE), lasted from 1189 to 1191 CE. Thanks to their impressive siege weapons and tactics, and the leadership of such men.
  7. Crusader Identification: Draft Schedule of Maritime Echelons Arriving at Acre 1189-1191. Dana Cushing. ID draft 2 - Skeleton Chronology of Pax Movements through AO ** HdeC arrives first of all groups, says RicTrin p. 99 - but 3 poss arrivals ** my Crs have 2 poss arrivals >Oct 1189 if not too late sailing?? or >Summer 1190 otherwise Apr 1189 Pisans besiege Acre Rogers, p. 214 Spring 1189.

The Siege of Acre began in 1189 after most of Palestine, including Jerusalem, and the Levant had fallen to Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, resulting in Pope Gregory VIII issuing a papal bull. Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 by John D. Hosler, 2020, Yale University Press edition, in Englis The Siege Von Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard Löwenherz, Und The Battle Tha | Bücher, Sachbücher | eBay

Belagerung von Akkon (1189-1191) - Wikipedi

  • Spanish translation of The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle that Decided the Third Crusade (Yale, 2018). Available at: https.
  • The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 By John D. Hosler Yale University Press, 272pp, £25.00 ISBN 9780300215502 Published 15 May 201
  • Siege of Acre (1189): ltp|>||||| | | | |Siege of Acre | | | |Part of the |Third Crusade| | || | | || | | | |Date| |Aug. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the.
  • Média dans la catégorie « Siege of Acre (1189-1191) » Cette catégorie comprend 11 fichiers, dont les 11 ci-dessous. Akra1191.jpg 369 × 376 73 Kio. Conquest of Acre, 1191.jpg 320 × 267 24 Kio. Loutherbourg-Richard Coeur de Lion à la bataille de Saint-Jean d'Acre.jpg 2 246 × 1 845 1 005 Kio. Philippe Auguste et Richard Acre.jpg 967 × 953 450 Kio. Richard2.jpg 297 × 300 31.

Mar 14, 2021 - Illustration of the Siege of Acre (1189-91 CE) by Rocío Espin. Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers APA. Hosler, J. D. (2018). The siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the battle that decided the Third Crusade.. MLA. Hosler, John D Convert 1189 Acres to Hectares. To calculate 1189 Acres to the corresponding value in Hectares, multiply the quantity in Acres by 0.40468564224 (conversion factor)

In August 1189 a Frankish army under the command of King Guy of Jerusalem laid siege to the city of Acre. Once the economic heart of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Acre had surrendered to the Saracens just days after the Battle of Hattin, and by August 1189 it was garrisoned by Egyptian troops fiercely loyal to the Sultan Salah ad-Din This conversion of 1,189 acres to square feet has been calculated by multiplying 1,189 acres by 43,560.000001175 and the result is 51,792,840.0013 square feet Semantic Scholar extracted view of The siege of Acre (1189-1191) in the historiographical tradition by J. Hosler. Skip to search form Skip to main content > Semantic Scholar's Logo. Search. Sign In Create Free Account. You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: 10.1111/HIC3.12451 Corpus ID: 150313113. The siege of Acre (1189-1191) in the. Skip to Content Medievalist Toolkit. Inde How much is 1,189 acres? What are the dimensions? What size? We attempt to show the different possible widths of a 1,189 acres space. This is useful for estimating the size of a house, yard, park, golf course, apartment, building, lake, carpet, or really anything that uses an area for measurement. The calculators will also shows acres based on the square feet or dimensions 1189 acres is an.

Siege of Acre 1189-1191 Neu Hosler John D

The Siege of Acre was one of the first confrontations of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land. It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the Crusades for the Christian ruling class of the east The Siege of Acre (1189-91) DOI link for The Siege of Acre (1189-91) The Siege of Acre (1189-91) book. The Siege of Acre (1189-91) DOI link for The Siege of Acre (1189-91) The Siege of Acre (1189-91) book. By Peter W. Edbury. Book The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade. Click here to navigate to parent product. Edition 1st Edition. First Published 1999. Imprint Routledge. Pages 8. The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 by John D. Hosler. Browse The Guardian Bookshop for a big selection of Middle Eastern history books and the latest book reviews fr Acre, city, northwest Israel. Its natural harbor was a frequent target for Palestine's many invaders over the centuries and served as a principle base for the Romans. It is particularly known for withstanding Napoleon's siege in 1799. Today its port is secondary to that of Haifa across the bay

The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade, by John D. Hosler, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 2018, $30. When people think of the Crusades, it is the Third Crusade that usually springs to mind. Legend says Richard the Lionheart killed Saladin in one-on-one combat and single-handedly freed the Holy Land from the Saracen. Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade, The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191, John D. Hosler, Yale University Press. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction

The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 von John D

  1. Since 1189 the city of Acre had been under siege by the knights and soldiers remaining in the Latin Kingdom. The capture of Acre was to mark, it was hoped, the first stage in a Latin reconquest of the Holy Land. The siege, however, had not gone well and after a year and a half of fighting the city still held out. The explanation of the prolonged resistanceof Acre and its garrison lay, in part.
  2. Naughty Goat Acres breeds and sells quality myotonic goats registered with MGR. Offers goat yoga sessions and special events on the farm
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  4. g to surround the crusaders. Despite this, the crusaders failed to observe their truce with Saladin, and eventually Saladin decided on war. In June 1187 he invaded Palestine. Guy of.

The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the

Download this stock image: Third Crusade,Siege of Acre,1189-91 - JR30NE from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191: Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade: Hosler, John D.: Amazon.sg: Book

Siège de Saint-Jean-d'Acre (1189-1191) — Wikipédi

Referenz: na4-1189 . Auftragsnummer: 3787. Anzeige eines Unternehmens Agentur: Cabinet LE NAIL Agenturtarife abfragen Green-Acres.com verwendet die zur Verfügung gestellten Informationen ausschließlich zu den oben genannten Zwecken. Ihre E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht an Dritte übermittelt, mit Ausnahme der zuständigen Verkäufer. Sie haben Recht auf Zugang zu, Änderung von, Berichtigung. Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 - Book - Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade. by John D. Hosler. Book, hardback . 3-5 business days.

Siège d'Acre (1189-1191) - boowiki

  1. Retrieved from https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Conflicts_in_1189?oldid=285860
  2. Born: Abt 1140 - Oakham, Rutlandshire, England Christened: - Tutbury, Staffordshire, England Died: 1191 - Akko(Acre), Palestine Buried: Bef 21 Oct 1191 - Jerusalem In 1174 the Earl of FERRERS and Derby, with other powerful lords, came to Nottingham on behalf of a young Henry, son of Henry II., and took the castle from Richard de LUCY, whom the king had appointed guardian of the realm during.
  3. Read The Siege of Acre, 1189-1191 Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, and the Battle That Decided the Third Crusade by John D. Hosler available from Rakuten Kobo. The first comprehensive history of the most decisive military campaign of the Third Crusade and one of the longest warti..
  4. Download this stock image: Third Crusade,Siege of Acre,1189-91 - JR30N5 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors

The first comprehensive history of the most decisive military campaign of the Third Crusade and one of the longest wartime sieges of the Middle Ages The two-year-long siege of Acre (1189-1191) was the most significant military engagement of the Third Crusade, attracting armies from across Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Maghreb. Drawing on a balanced selection of Christian and. Mountains, NC Land for Sale between 11 and 50 Acres - 26-50 of 1,189 Listings. Sort. Default Acres: Small to Large Acres: Large to Small Newest Price: Low to High Price: High to Low Price per Acre: Low to High Price per Acre: High to Low Recently Changed $849,000. 16 acres - Mill Spring, North Carolina (Polk County) 5 beds - 6 baths - 3,857 sqft. Welcome to Walnut Ridge Farm, where.


Third Crusade: Siege of Acre

To the Christian army besieging the walled Muslim city of Acre in the spring of 1191, the situation appeared nearly hopeless.

While they tightened the noose around Acre, the entrenched Christians were, in turn, being systematically squeezed by a Muslim relief force commanded by the dreaded Saladin (born Salah-ad-Din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub). Two years of warfare on the sandy beaches and plains near the city had decimated their numbers, as had the ravages of disease and starvation. Stubbornly clinging to their siege works, sandwiched between the walls and Saladin, the Christian Franks were in dire need of both reinforcements and quality leadership.

Located on the Mediterranean coast in what is today northern Israel, Acre had been a goal of the First Crusade nearly a century earlier. In that initial attempt to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims, European Crusaders in 1099 had captured Jerusalem, the focal point of the Christian faith. Other cities, including Acre, were subsequently seized. As the Europeans, or Franks, settled in the Levant, they created Latin kingdoms buttressed by a series of fortified cities that carried on trade both with Europe and with the Muslims in Egypt and the Near East.

Internal Squabbling, however, began to weaken the unity of the Frankish states. The problem of feuding was compounded by the rise of Saladin in the II70s as Islam’s greatest military leader. A warrior of relatively low birth, Saladin had seized power through war and diplomacy in Egypt and Syria after the death of the Fatamid ruler Nur al-Din. After defeating jealous nobles, Saladin was quick to distribute his wealth to bind vassals to him. Frankish historian William of Tyre noted that the provinces of Saladin’s empire furnished him with ‘numberless companies of horsemen and fighters, men thirsty for gold.’

Saladin was quick to take advantage of the weakening Latin kingdoms. After a series of abortive truces, he brought the Frankish army to bay on the parched plain of Hattin near the Sea of Galilee on July 4, 1187. The shimmering heat was almost as great an enemy to the armored Christians as the Muslim blades and arrows, and they died by the thousands. ‘When one saw how many were dead, one could not believe there were any prisoners,’ wrote Arab chronicler Ibn alAthir, ‘and when one saw the prisoners, one could not believe there were any dead. Never since their invasion of Palestine had the Franks suffered such a defeat.’ Among those captured was Guy of Lusignan, who had been crowned King of Jerusalem the year before.

By July 10, Saladin had hammered through the Levantine littoral, capturing Jaffa, Haifa, Caesarea, Acre and Sidon. In early September, he captured the stronghold of Ascalon, and by the end of the month he had laid siege to Jerusalem, which capitulated on October 2. Only the well-defended bastion of Tyre, under the capable leadership of Conrad of Montserrat, and a handful of isolated Crusader fortresses maintained resistance.

After the debacle at Hattin, the remaining Franks blamed each other for the defeat. Sensing the Christian despair, Saladin released Guy of Lusignan, hoping to further cloud the already murky political waters of the Frankish states. Guy immediately traveled to Tyre to reclaim his right to command as king of Jerusalem. Conrad, however, would have nothing to do with that proposal, and he abruptly slammed the city gates shut on the shocked Guy.

Feeling in need of a decisive event to bolster his sagging fortunes, Guy collected a small army of 400 horse and 7,000 foot and recklessly marched on the Muslim stronghold of Acre. Rising next to the sea, Acre had well-manned battlements and a pair of towers that dominated the landscape: the Accursed Tower, facing landward, and the Tower of Flies, brooding over the harbor. With its rich maritime trade, the city was a jewel that Guy could not resist. However, considering the relatively puny size of his force and the vast scope of the project, he would have done better to eschew the immobility of siege warfare for a war of movement and maneuver against the Muslims.

Saladin, beset by malaria, was surprised that Guy would attempt such a foolhardy venture. He was even more taken aback when the Franks successfully invested the plains stretching north and east of the city and the beaches of a crescent-shaped bay to the south. About a mile east of Acre’s gates, Guy’s soldiers pitched their camp on a series of mounds that they named Toron. They dug protective ditches around the encampment and filled them with water diverted from several nearby streams. With a moat established, the Franks constructed an earthen wall around the tents.

Had Saladin been able to marshal his forces immediately, their combined strength undoubtedly would have crushed Guy of Lusignan’s army. But distances were great, and by the time troops from Mosul, Sinjar, Egypt and Dujar Bakr had gathered in September, the Franks had received reinforcements from Europe. According to the minstrel-chronicler Ambroise, James of Avesnes from Flanders had arrived with ‘fourteen thousand renowned men-at-arms.’ Shortly thereafter, ‘the fleet of Danemark came with many fine castellans, who had good brown horses, strong and swift.’

These first contingents of the Third Crusade had initially docked at Tyre but had quickly sailed to Acre upon hearing of peace with Guy of Lusignan. So numerous were the Christian ships now moored in the bay and blockading Acre’s harbor that their masts reminded one Muslim observer of ‘tangled thickets.’ Another emir, or Muslim prince, estimated the Franks’ numbers had soared to 2,000 horse and 30,000 foot.

Saladin’s war council decided it was time to test the Franks’ strength. On the morning of September 14, 1189, the Muslims launched an attack, hoping to drive the Christians away from their encampment and punch a hole through to Acre’s walls. But the Christians stood firm. Mounting another attack the following day, Muslim cavalry discovered a weak spot in the lines north of the city, and after an hour of desperate fighting, the Franks were driven back. Just as a Muslim victory seemed near, however, several attacking emirs suddenly abandoned the fray to water their horses and seek refreshments. By the time the attack was renewed, the Christians had re-formed and, according to Imad al-Din,’stood like a wall behind their mantlets, shields and lances, with levelled crossbows.’

Unable to dislodge the Crusaders, Saladin extended his lines to press the Christians from the rear–in essence, besieging them! His tight cavalry also opened a channel of supply and communication with the city. What the Muslims were unable to halt, however, was the seemingly continuous flow of fresh Europeans and equipment coming by sea. The heavily laden ships also bore timber for the construction of heavy siege engines.

More alarming to Saladin than Christian siege weapons was the news that Frederick Barbarossa, king of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, had reached Constantinople in August with an army of 200,000 Crusaders. The Muslim leader sent letters to emirs and caliphs throughout the length and breadth of Islam begging for more troops to counter this new threat. To his despair, he not only failed to garner additional support but he also found the fidelity of some of his vassals wavering. Several emirs left the Muslim camp to prepare to defend their own homelands against Barbarossa.

Rain squalls and heavy mists heralded the coming of winter weather prohibiting all but the most foolhardy from venturing out to sea. For the Franks, the season now meant little in the way of reinforcements until spring. To the daring Armenian Muslim Admiral Lulu, however, it offered a chance to whisk men and supplies into Acre’s harbor without having to contend with a heavy Frankish blockade. In December, Lulu led 50 Egyptian galleys into the harbor, brushing aside the few Christian vessels with gouts of Greek fire. Acre’s garrison went wild with excitement.

No major engagements emerged during the winter months, only several probing skirmishes outside Acre’s walls. With the coming of the calming influences of spring, the vast Frankish fleet once more resumed control of the Mediterranean. The influx of fresh troops allowed Guy of Lusignan to stage attacks that broke Saladin’s supply line and isolated Acre.

As the days continued to warm and the soggy ground dried out, the Crusaders constructed siege towers with the wood imported by the Italian merchant ships. Four stories high and capable of holding up to 500 men, these movable towers loomed as high as the walls of Acre. They were covered with hides soaked in vinegar and urine, which, it was believed, could provide protection from the deadly Greek fire that had been flung down by the garrison.

By the end of April 1190, the towers were ready. While Frankish bowmen in the crenelated tops dueled archers on the walls, thousands of Christian peasant soldiers and camp followers scurried to fill the city’s moat with rocks and fascines of brush. Once the ditch was filled, it was hoped, the towers could be pushed up against Acre’s parapets to disgorge their occupants and carry hand-to-hand combat to the enemy.

Boulders and fire pots hurled from Muslim mangonels had little effect on lumbering siege machines, which were reinforced with iron. The garrison was saved, however, by the son of a Damascus coppersmith who developed a new formula for making Greek fire. Initially scoffed at, he was finally allowed to try his creation.

On May 5, the new combustibles were shot from a mangonel and allowed to drench the siege towers. The Christians, believing they had nothing to fear, crowded the towers with archers as they jeered the defenders. Then, according to chronicler Ibn al-Athir, the man from Damascus launched a flaming pot: ‘The fire at once spread everywhere, the tower was consumed, and the outbreak happened so swiftly that the Christians had no time to flee. Men, weapons, everything was burned.’ Letters to Saladin’s camp reported that the moat around Acre had become ‘a pool of fire with the tower as a fountain.’

Crusaders and Muslims clashed on eight successive days in June, the heat baking the growing mounds of bodies. Clouds of flies accompanied the terrible stench, and disease gripped both camps. For nearly a month after, little fighting took place.

The Frankish men-at-arms tired at last of the waiting game. On St. James’ Day, July 25, they staged an attack on the Muslim lines north of Acre. It was a poorly conceived affair, with few armored knights participating. The Christian surge was primarily made up of peasant soldiers armed with pikes and axes. At-Adil, Saladin’s brother and the Muslim commander in that sector, lured the Christians into his own camp, where they broke ranks to plunder the tents. Saladin quickly sent reinforcements of Mosuli and Egyptian troops to hem in the enemy. Had it not been for the courageous efforts of Ralph de Hauterive, archdeacon of Colchester in England, the embattled soldiers might have been wiped out. Surrounded by his personal guard, the heavily armored Ralph cut a line of retreat through the Muslim ranks. The damage, however, had been done. A Muslim officer reported more than 9,000 Franks stain, including the gallant Ralph.

Three days later, on July 28, the besiegers welcomed the arrival of 10,000 men under Henry of Champagne. Henry’s army formed the vanguard of a much larger force that King Philip Augustus of France was bringing to the Holy Land. By fall, an English contingent headed by Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, landed with word that King Richard I of England had also embarked on the Crusade. It would be some time, however, before either Philip or Richard arrived at Acre.

While Henry of Champagne planned assaults on the city, including the use of battering rams, Saladin received word that Frederick Barbarossa had died while crossing a shallow river near Armenia. Although leadership fell to Barbarossa’s son Frederick of Swabia, the German crusade began to disintegrate. Numerous German nobles returned to Europe. Those who remained with the Duke of Swabia were beset by famine and stain in great numbers by Muslim Seljuk and Kurdish tribesmen. ‘We had many dead,’ reported a German knight. ‘We were obliged to kill our horses and eat their meat, and to feed the fire with our lances.’ Only 5,000 ragged survivors reached friendly Tripoli, finally joining the siege at Acre in October.

Frankish fortunes continued to slide. Henry of Champagne’s heavy mangonets were destroyed in a Muslim sally from Acre’s gates in early September. On September 24, the Christian fleet attempted to destroy the Tower of Flies, which guarded the city’s harbor, by ramming vessels loaded with combustibles into it. At a critical moment the wind shifted, and the ships collided with one another and were badly damaged. A specially built Pisan vessel, resembling a floating castle and outfitted with mangonels, was set afire during a sortie from the harbor by a flotilla of small Muslim boats.

Winter arrived early on the coast, temporarily putting an end to Christian naval supremacy. As the winter lengthened, plague and famine stalked the Crusaders’ camp. Thousands succumbed to an intestinal fever. Henry of Champagne hovered near death for many weeks. Frederick of Swabia, who had suffered through his father’s death and the terrible march from Germany, died in January 1191.

Food supplies had dwindled by early spring. In the Frankish camp, a silver penny bought a handful of beans or a single egg. A sack of corn cost 100 pieces of gold. The common soldier ate grass and chewed bare bones. Ambroise recorded that ‘a crowd gathered around whenever a horse was killed, and a dead horse sold for more than it had ever been worth alive. Even the entrails were eaten.’ So numerous were the dead that many bodies were carted to Acre’s moat to help fill it in.

April finally brought relief to the beleaguered Franks. A ship swollen with grain and corn arrived at the camp, followed on April 20 by King Philip Augustus of France in a fleet of ships crammed with soldiers and war engines. Seven weeks later, in June, King Richard I of England hove into view with 25 ships, fresh from his conquest of Cyprus. En route, they had overtaken a large Muslim supply ship loaded with 650 men for the relief of Acre. Richard’s vessel had rammed the enemy ship and sunk it with heavy loss of life. To the English soldiers now surveying the coast as they neared the Crusaders’ bay, the vista ahead seemed to promise an army of Muslims covering mountain and valley, hill and plain. Obvious and ominous, too, were the enemy’s multitudinous, brightly colored tents pitched everywhere.

The arrival of the new French and English Crusaders renewed Frankish hopes. Philip, eight years Richard’s senior, offered leadership based on his experience as French king. He preferred the intricacies of siege warfare as opposed to the hand-to-hand battle relished by Richard. Although the English king lacked ruling experience, he had gained renown as a fierce fighter endowed with great personal courage.

Richard, bearing the famous soubriquet ‘the Lion-Hearted,’ assumed command of the siegeworks. Attempts to scale the walls had failed, but Philip’s sappers had successfully tunneled beneath the Accursed Tower. The timbers supporting the mine shaft were then set on fire. Above ground, a ferocious mangonel bombardment further weakened the tower, which soon collapsed. Committing any able-bodied man who could bear arms to the breach, the Muslim defenders were barely able to fend off the attacking Franks.

Mighty siege engines continued to hurl heavy rocks and fire pots at the weakening city. French engineers constructed a stone-throwing catapult nicknamed the ‘Evil Neighbor’ and a huge mangonel dubbed ‘God’s Own Sling.’ Together these monstrous machines succeeded in fracturing Acre’s walls.

Italian merchant vessels plied the waters around Acre, delivering arms and armor while effectively sealing the city’s harbor. A Muslim chronicler bemoaned the fact that Acre’s garrison was running short of materiel, while the Franks were ‘clothed in a kind of thick felt, and coats of mail as ample as they were strong, which protected them against arrows.’

Sickness, however, struck both Philip and Richard, the latter seriously. Called leonardie by Ambroise, the disease resembled scurvy, with a wasting of body and loss of hair. Weakened, Richard nevertheless ordered that he be borne by litter to the siegeworks, both to inspect operations and to buoy the Crusaders’ spirits by his presence.

Saladin was unable to break through the ring of besiegers to relieve Acre. Volunteer swimmers carried messages from the city to the gathered emirs, pleading for help. A final appeal was sent out on July 7. Acre’s defenders by then were too weak to man the breach made by Philip’s sappers. They probably sensed they would all be massacred if the Christians were forced to take the city by storm. Against Saladin’s wishes, the city surrendered to the Franks on July 12, 1191. The great Muslim leader, noted one chronicler, received the news ‘like a mother who has lost her child.’

The first siege of Acre had taken nearly two years and may have cost more than 100,000 Christian casualties. The tenacity of the opposing armies, coupled with the bloodletting and abominable living conditions, led at least one historian to liken the siege to the terrible Battle of Verdun in 1916. The final savagery of the siege took place after the city had fallen. Perhaps as revenge for Muslim atrocities against Christians-but more likely because a term of surrender involving the return of the true cross (which had been captured by Saladin at Haddin) and payment of 200,400 gold pieces was not being met-Richard I ordered 2,700 of the survivors from Acre’s garrison executed.

Richard the Lion-Hearted then carried the Third Crusade deep into Palestine. Squabbles had already caused contact to be broken with Conrad of Montserrat and Philip Augustus, the latter returning to France, but the Franks still were strong enough to win stirring victories at Arsuf and Jaffa. The recapture of Jerusalem, however, was a goal not to be attained.

Acre knew relative peace and prosperity as a Christian city over the next century. The rise of the Mamelukes, ferocious slave-warriors from Egypt, in the mid- 13th century signaled an end to the Frankish states of the Levant. Under Sultan alMalik Baibars, the Mamelukes took Syria from the rising new Mongol powers. In 1268, Jaffa and Antioch, former Frankish strongholds, were captured. A series of truces kept the Mamelukes at bay until negotiations broke down in 1289. Tripoli was destroyed as the sultan Qalawan turned his attention to driving all Christians out of Palestine.

Acre, by then, had been heavily fortified with double walls and a string of 12 towers set at irregular intervals on both the inner and outer walls. The 14,000 defenders consisted of Acre’s citizenry, Pisan and Venetian pilgrims to the Holy Land, a contingent of Cypriots, and a small group of English and Swiss knights. The bulk of the defense rested on the knights of the Teutonic, Templar and Hospitaler military orders.

AI-Ashraf Khalil, the Mamelukes’ new sultan, had raised an army of more than 100,000 cavalry and foot. Among his huge siege weapons was a catapult dubbed ‘Victorious,’ which had to be transported in pieces on a train of specially constructed carts. ‘The carts were so heavy,’ noted Muslim chronicler Abu’l-Feda, ‘that the trip took us more than a month, although in normal times eight days would have sufficed.’

On April 5, 1291, Khalil arrived before the walls of Acre. His siege engines rained stones and fire pots upon the city. A steady fire was returned by the city’s mangonels and by a Frankish ship sporting a heavy catapult. The Mamelukes were also peppered with arrows, according to Abu’l-Feda, from ‘Frankish boats topped by wooden-covered turrets lined with buffalo hide, from which the enemy fired at us with bows and crossbows.’

Khalil ordered a general assault on Acre on Friday, May 18. Driven by the boom and bang of 300 drums and cymbals, the white-turbaned Mamelukes rushed the walls as mangonels and archers kept up a blistering fusillade. They stormed the Accursed Tower, rebuilt after its destruction a century earlier. A furious counterattack led by Hospitaler Marshal Matthew of Clermont stymied the Mamelukes for a time, but their numbers were too great. Tower after tower fell. The Templars and Hospitalers died in bands, surrounded by the screaming Egyptians. Matthew of Clermont finally fell as the Mamelukes burst into the city streets.

Defenders and noncombatants in Acre streamed to the harbor, where Venetian vessels waited to rescue them. There were too few ships, however, to save all the fugitives. Those Christians unable to leave the city were slaughtered by the Mamelukes.

Meanwhile, a desperate standoff developed at the castle of the Templars in the northwest part of Acre. The besieged knights fought valiantly for several days, and were actually offered their freedom–until treachery cut that hope short. Cypriot ships hovered about rescuing women and children from the castle’s seaward wall. Mameluke tunnels, however, crumbled the main landward wall. Sultan Khalil impatiently ordered 2,000 warriors to break through the dazed defenders at the breach. The sagging foundation of the castle suddenly collapsed, burying Christian and Muslim alike. As the dust settled, Acre had finally been returned to Muslim hands.

To make sure Acre never became a Christian bastion again, Sultan Khalil ordered its walls, castles and buildings to be torn down and burned. Boulders were rolled into the harbor to end its days as a port facility.

The fall of Acre to the Christians in 1191 had ignited a new wave of Crusading fervor that bolstered the faltering Latin Kingdoms. Richard I emerged as a larger-than-life hero in one of history’s last great sieges before the use of gunpowder. The city’s ultimate demise in 1291 at the hands of the Mamelukes was a bloody epitaph to 200 years of Crusader warfare.

This article was written by Kenneth P. Czech and originally published in the August 2001 issue of Military History magazine. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Military History magazine today!


Siege of Acre, August 1189-12 July 1191 - History

I n the year 1187, the Muslim leader Saladin re-conquered the city of Jerusalem [see "The Crusaders Capture Jerusalem"] as well as most of the Crusader strongholds throughout the Holy Land. In response, the kings of Europe including Frederick Babarossa of Germany (who died on route), Phillip of France and Richard I of England (the Lionheart) mounted a campaign to rescue the city. The Third Crusade was underway.

Key to the campaign's success was the capture of the port city of Acre. King Richard arrived on the scene in June 1191 to find the city under siege by a Christian army. In the distance, Saladin threatened - his army too weak to overwhelm the besiegers, but too strong to be dislodged.


Richard's progress through the Holy Land
Click underlined items for more information
Intensifying the bombardment of the city, Richard and the French King, Phillip, slowly broke the city's walls, weakening its defenses while simultaneously starving the occupiers into submission. Finally, on July 12, the Muslim defenders and Crusaders agreed to surrender terms. In exchange for sparing the lives of the defenders, Saladin would pay a ransom of 200,000 gold pieces, release some 1500 Christian prisoners and return the Holy Cross. These actions were to be accomplished within one month after the fall of the city. Richard would hold 2,700 Muslim prisoners as hostage until the terms were met.

Saladin immediately ran into problems meeting his part of the bargain and the deadline came without payment of the terms. As a compromise, Saladin proposed that Richard release his prisoners in return for part of the ransom with the remainder to be paid at a later date. Saladin would provide hostages to Richard to assure payment. Alternatively, he proposed to give Richard what money he had and allow Richard to keep the prisoners in return for Christian hostages to be held until the remainder of the money was raised and the Muslim prisoners released. Richard countered that he would accept the partial payment but Saladin must accept his royal promise to release his prisoners when he received the remainder of the ransom. Neither ruler would accept his opponent's terms. Richard declared the lives of the Muslim defenders of Acre forfeit and set August 20 as the date for their execution.

Beha-ed-Din was a member of Saladin's court and (along with much of the Saracen army who watched from a distance) witnessed the massacre of 2,700 of his comrades:

"Then the king of England, seeing all the delays interposed by the Sultan to the execution of the treaty, acted perfidiously as regards his Musulinan prisoners. On their yielding the town he had engaged to grant their life, adding that if the Sultan carried out the bargain he would give them freedom and suffer them to carry off their children and wives if the Sultan did not fulfill his engagements they were to be made slaves. Now the king broke his promises to them and made open display of what he had till now kept hidden in his heart, by carrying out what he had intended to do after he had received the money and the Frank prisoners. It is thus that people of his nation ultimately admitted.

In the afternoon of Tuesday, 27 Rajab, [August 20] about four o'clock, he came out on horseback with all the Frankish army, knights, footmen, Turcoples, and advanced to the pits at the foot of the hill of Al 'Ayadiyeh, to which place be had already sent on his tents. The Franks, on reaching the middle of the plain that stretches between this hill and that of Keisan, close to which place the sultan's advanced guard had drawn back, ordered all the Musulman


Richard watches the massacre
From a 15th century illustration
prisoners, whose martyrdom God had decreed for this day, to be brought before him. They numbered more than three thousand and were all bound with ropes. The Franks then flung themselves upon them all at once and massacred them with sword and lance in cold blood. Our advanced guard had already told the Sultan of the enemy's movements and he sent it some reinforcements, but only after the massacre. The Musulmans, seeing what was being done to the prisoners, rushed against the Franks and in the combat, which lasted till nightfall, several were slain and wounded on either side. On the morrow morning our people gathered at the spot and found the Musulmans stretched out upon the ground as martyrs for the faith. They even recognised some of the dead, and the sight was a great affliction to them. The enemy had only spared the prisoners of note and such as were strong enough to work.

The motives of this massacre are differently told according to some, the captives were slain by way of reprisal for the death of those Christians whom the Musulmans had slain. Others again say that the king of England, on deciding to attempt the conquest of Ascalon, thought it unwise to leave so many prisoners in the town after his departure. God alone knows what the real reason was. "


Medieval 2: Total War Heaven

The siege of Acre was one of the most important events of the Third Crusade and one of the deadliest battles from all the crusades. It was also one of the longest sieges, lasting just under two years (August 1189 - July 1191).

Background Information

After Saladin's crushing victory at the Horns of Hattin in July 1187, he was able to take a large portion of territory from the Kingdom Of Jerusalem with relative ease. The Kingdom of Jerusalem and other Christian kingdoms were now in control of Tyre, Antioch and Tripoli and in 1188 Saladin tried to take Antioch, but failed. Saladin also managed to take the port city of Acre along with the Palestine region.

But Saladin took the main prize: Jerusalem. The loss of Jerusalem sent shock waves throughout Europe and the Christian world. After the news there was mass demand for a crusade to be called and to retake the lost holy lands. In October 1187 Pope Gregory VIII called the third crusade and was upheld by his successor Pope Clement III.

Tyre had been attacked by Saladin in 1187 but Conrad of Montferret had managed to resist the attack and managed to broker a treaty with Saladin in mid-1188 to release King Guy Lusignan who was captured after the battle of Hattin. Guy was considered to be the person responsible for the disaster at Hattin and so when Guy arrived at Tyre Conrad refused to let him enter, claiming he was administrating it until the Christian kings arrive who would settle the succession. This was valid as it was put in Baldwin IV's will, as Conrad was the nearest kinsman of Baldwin IV, co-leading with Guy, before succumbing to leprosy in 1186.

Guy left and returned later with his wife Queen Sibylla, who held the legal title to the kingdom, but Conrad still refused, so Guy set up camp outside the gates. In the late spring of 1188 William II of Sicily sent a fleet of two hundred knights and on the 6th April Ubaldo Lanfranchi the Archbishop of Pisa arrived with fifty two ships. Guy easily brought both of them on to his side. In August Conrad again refused entry so Guy and his troops decided to move south with the Sicilians and Pisans using the coast. The target was Acre.

Battle of Acre

Acre was situated 50km (31 miles) south of Tyre, which lay on a peninsula in the gulf of Haifa. It was strategically important, as it was a port city and could allow supplies to land there instead of Antioch. But more of important for Guy it could be used as a major base of operations to launch counter-attacks against Saladin, and since Tyre could not be used due to Conrad's refusal Acre was the best option.

Acre was guarded very well. To the east was the open sea, while to the west and south the coast was well protected by a dyke wall. The peninsula was guarded on the mainland heavily, with double barrier walls, along with towers.

The garrison of Acre nearly outnumbered Guy's men two to one, when Guy arrived on the 28th August 1189. Guy tried to make a quick surprise attack on the walls, but this failed, thus forcing Guy to set up camp, waiting for reinforcements. This arrived a few days later in the shape of a Danish and Frisian fleet, which replaced the Sicilians, when hearing of the death of William II of Sicily. French and Flemish soldiers also arrived under James of Avesnes, Henry I of Bar, Andrew of Brienne, Robert II of Dreux, and his brother Philip of Dreux, the Bishop of Beauvais.

More reinforcements came with the Germans under Margrave Louis III of Thuringia and Otto I of Guelders, and Italians under Archbishop Gerhard of Ravenna and the Bishop of Verona, also arrived. Louis of Thuringia was able to convince Conrad, his mother's cousin, to send troops from Tyre as well and also Conrad came to Acre himself, agreeing that he and Guy were united against Saladin and Muslim tyranny.

When Saladin heard of the news that Acre had been lay under siege and of the Christians bolstering their troops he gathered his troops and marched to Acre. On September 15th he launched an unsuccessful attack on Guy's camp.

First Contact

Guy's crusader army was made up of feudal lords of Guy's kingdom, smaller contingents of European crusaders and members of military orders. Meanwhile Saladin's army was made up of troops from Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia (Modern day Iraq).

On October 4th Saladin moved his army to the east of the city to confront Guy's camp. Guy's crusader army, which due to reinforcements now numbered seven thousand infantry and a mere four hundred cavalry stood its ground in front of Saladin's forces.

The Saracen army lay in a semi-circle east of the city, facing inwards towards Acre. The crusader army lay in between, with lightly armed crossbowmen in the first line and heavy cavalry in the second. In the later battle of Arsuf the Christians fought coherently, but the battle of Acre began with a disjointed combat between the Templars and Saladin's right flank.

But the crusaders were so successful that Saladin had to send reinforcements from other parts of the battlefield to stabilize his right flank. Due to some Saracen troops moving to the right flank this allowed the Christian centre to advance at Saladin's opposite centre, which the crossbowmen paved the way for the men-at-arms to charge, meeting little resistance. Saladin's right flank and centre routed, with Guy's men seeming to be victorious.

Saladin's Counter-attack

But the victors started to plunder and while they did this Saladin rallied his men and while the crusaders retired with their booty Saladin released his light cavalry upon the crusaders. The crusaders were hideously exposed and were cut down where they lay, and were only saved when fresh troops arrived from the right flank.

Due to Saladin's quick thinking Guy had to commit his reserves, which were tasked with holding the besieged Saracen army in Acre. Due to the reserves being committed against Saladin's relief army the five thousand strong garrison of Acre sallied out northward, thus linking up with Saladin's right flank.

This caused problems for Guy and it was the Templars who were to receive the brunt of Saladin's attack. As the Templars retreated they were scythed down by the cavalry and suffered heavy losses while retreating. The Templars suffered so badly that the Grand Master of the Templars Gerard de Ridefort was killed along with Andrew of Brienne and Conrad has to be rescued by Guy.

In the end the crusaders managed to repulse Saladin's relief army, but at the cost of seven thousand men. Saladin suffered losses as well and knew that he couldn't push back the crusaders without another pitched battle, but he didn't have enough men, so his victory was incomplete. Both Guy and Saladin had squandered chances to win the battle, but more Guy due to the plundering of Acre by the crusaders.

Double Siege

During the autumn more crusaders from Europe arrived, allowing Guy to blockade Acre by land. Then news of the imminent arrival of Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick I reached the crusaders and raised morale high. But when Saladin heard the news this made him to bring in so many troops that he could surround the city of Acre and the camp in two sieges.

Stalemate

Throughout the next fifteen months stalemate ensured, as the Christians and Saracens battled it out to get a favourable position.

On October 31st fifty Saracen galleys broke through the sea blockade, supplying the city with food and weapons. On December 26th an Egyptian fleet arrived with the aim of taking control of the port and the road leading up to it. In March 1190 when the weather was better Conrad sailed to Tyre on his own ship and returned with suppliers, helping the resistance against the Egyptian fleet at the port. However the building materials brought by Conrad were constructed into siege machinery, but were lost when the crusaders tried to attack the city again on May 5th and failed.

On May 19th Saladin after bolstering his army over the previous months, launched a large attack on the Christian camp. The attack was so large and fierce that it took the crusaders eight days before they repelled the attack. On July 25th under orders from Guy and other commanders the crusaders attacked Saladin's right flank and were defeated.

Over the summer further reinforcements from France arrived to the crusader's camp led by Henry II of Champagne. Alongside Henry II were: Theobald V of Blois, Stephen I of Sancerre, Ralph of Clermont, John of Fontigny, Alain of Saint-Valery, the Archbishop of Besancon, the Bishop of Blois, and the Bishop of Toul.

Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia arrived at the beginning of October with the rest of his father's army, after the emperor drowned in the Saleph River on June 10th, and shortly afterwards English crusaders arrived under Baldwin of Exeter, Archbishop of Canterbury. In October the Count of Bar also arrived. Also in October the Christians had a breakthrough in Haifa, which allowed more food to be brought to the camp at Acre.

Life in Besieged Acre

Life in the city and camp for the Crusaders was tough after Saladin had lay siege to both places. There was limited food and the water supply was now contaminated with human and animal corpses. This started to cause epidemics and it soon spread. Louis of Thuringia had malaria made plans to leave when the French contingent arrived in the summer and died in Cyprus on the way back on October 16th.

Bad News for King Guy

At some point between late July and October Queen Sibylla a few days after her daughters Alais and Marie died. This wasn't good news for Guy, as he lost his claim to the throne of Jerusalem, as Sibylla was the rightful heir.

The barons of the kingdom used Sibylla's death as a chance to get rid of Guy and arranged a marriage for Conrad to marry Isabella of Jerusalem. The reason why the barons arranged Conrad to marry Isabella was that Isabella was the rightful heir to the throne, but Guy has dismissed her.

However, Isabella was already married to Humphrey IV of Toron, and Conrad's marital status was uncertain as he had married a Byzantine princess in 1187, a few months before arriving at Tyre, and it was unclear whether she had annulled Conrad in his absence.

Also, Sibylla's first husband had been Conrad's older brother William Longsword, which made a marriage between Isabella and Conrad 'incestuous'. Patriarch Eraclius was sick, and his appointed representative Baldwin of Exeter died suddenly on November 19th. Therefore it was Archbishop Ubaldo Lanfranchi of Pisa and papal legate, as well as Philip, Bishop of Beauvais, who gave their consent to divorce Isabella from Humphrey on November 24th. Conrad withdrew with Isabella to Tyre, but Guy still insisted that he was king: the succession would not be settled finally until an election in 1192.

Sickness & Death

Saladin's army was now so large that it was now impossible for any more crusaders to arrive my land, and with winter coming this meant that no more supplies or reinforcements could arrive by sea. In the Christian camp the leaders began succumbing to the epidemic. Theobald of Blois and Stephen of Sancerre died, and Frederick of Swabia also died on January 20th 1191. Henry of Champagne struggled with sickness for many weeks before recovering. Patriarch Eraclius also died some time during the siege, but the date is unknown.

On December 31st the crusaders tried another attempt to breach the wall failed, but on January 6th 1191 the partial collapse of the walls led to many crusaders try to overrun the Saracen garrison, but failed. But on February 13th Saladin succeeded in breaking through the Christian lines and reached the city, so he could replace the Saracen garrison with new recruits, as the old garrison was near to breaking point and sick with disease. Conrad tried to make a sea attack on the Tower Of Flies, but strong winds and rocks prevented his ship from doing any damage. In March when the weather was better ships could unload supplies on the coast and danger of defeat was averted for the crusaders. In the spring Leopold V of Austria came over and took temporary charge of the Christian forces from Guy of Lusignan. Leopold took full control of the deceased Duke Of Swabia's troops.

Also in the spring morale rose when ships came in with the news that King Philip II of France and King Richard I of England were on their way. For Saladin this meant his chance of victory had now slipped away.

The Kings Arrive

King Philip arrived on April 20th 1191 and Richard on June 8th after Richard took the opportunity of invading Cyprus along the way. Richard arrived with English fleet of a hundred ships, carrying an army of eight thousand men. King Philip had arrived with a Genoese fleet.

Philip used the time before Richard's arrival to build siege engines, and now that strong leadership from Europe had arrived the Saracens had targeted the city not the Christian camp. When Richard arrived he arranged a meeting with Saladin and both agree three days of peace shall happen, when the meeting took place. But the meeting didn't take place as Philip and Richard fell ill.

The siege machine broke large holes into the walls of Acre, but every breach caused Saladin's army to attack, causing the garrison of Acre to repair the damage as the crusaders were distracted by Saladin's relief army.

On July 1st Philip of Alsace died in the camp, causing a major crisis for King Philip, as the lord of Alsace was an important member of the King's retinue and left no heir.

Final Attacks

On July 3rd a very large breach was again opened, but the Christian attack was repelled again. The following day the city offered its surrender, but Richard rejected the conditions. This time Saladin didn't make a large scale attack on the camp. On July 7th the besieged Saracen troops in the city sent an emissary to Saladin asking for assistance one last time or they would surrender to the crusaders.

On July 11th there was one final battle and on the 12th the city offered terms of surrender to the crusaders, who found the offer to be acceptable. Conrad of Montferret who had returned to Tyre because of Richard's support for Guy of Lusignan as King of Jerusalem was recalled to act as a negotiator, at Saladin's request.

Saladin was not personally involved in the negotiations, but accepted the surrender. The Christians entered the city and the Muslim garrison was taken into captivity. Conrad raised the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and of France, England and Austria over the city of Acre.

Leopold of Austria left shortly after the capture of the city, after quarrelling with Richard: as the surviving leader of the German imperial contingent, he had demanded the same position as Philip and Richard, but had been rejected and his flag torn down from the ramparts of Acre. On July 31, Philip also returned home, to settle the row of who was to be Philip of Alsace's heir, and Richard was left solely in charge of the Christian expeditionary forces.

The Execution of the Saracen Prisoners

It was now up to Richard and Saladin to finalize the surrender of the city. The Christians began to rebuild Acre's defenses, and Saladin collected money to pay for the ransom of the imprisoned garrison. On August 11th Saladin delivered the first of the three planned payments and prisoner exchanges, but Richard rejected this because certain Christian nobles were not included.

The exchange was broken off and further negotiations were unsuccessful. Richard had also insisted on the hand-over of Philip's share of the prisoners, whom the French king had entrusted to Conrad of Montferrat. Conrad reluctantly agreed, under pressure.

On August 20th Richard thought that Saladin had delayed too much, and had 2,700 of the Muslim prisoners from the garrison of Acre killed, including women and children despite having promised that he would only sell the prisoners off. The Muslims fought back in an attempt to prevent this, but they were defeated. On August 22nd Richard and his army left the city, now fully under the control of the crusaders.

Aftermath

The recapture of Acre was of major importance for the survival of the crusader kingdoms. It reversed the trend of conquest, and marked the beginning of a new period of crusader success, as well as becoming the new capitol of the crusader kingdom. The casualty list is unknown but they were known to be heavy on both sides, due to combat and disease, although Saladin's army did suffer worse, as Saladin's poured in more reinforcements as the siege wore on.

After the bloody siege of Acre Richard and his army moved south where he clashed with Saladin again in the battle of Arsuf, where he won a crucial victory allowing him to move south. Sadly Richard never managed to take Jerusalem and left the Holy Land, with Jerusalem still under Saracen control.

Symbolically, Acre was the last crusader possession in Palestine, finally falling in 1291, one hundred years after the end of the siege.


Al-Jazeera Remembers July 12, 1191: Acre Falls to the Crusaders

On July 12, 2008 Arabic news station al-Jazeera did a recurring five minute piece lamenting the fall of the Muslim city of Acre (Arabic: ‘Akka) to the Crusaders. The Siege of Acre commenced August 28, 1189, concluded

July 12, 1191, and was the first confrontation of the Third Crusade, also known as the Kings’ Crusade.

As reported by Raymond Ibrahim for Jihad Watch, the al-Jazeera narrator was more or less objective regarding the facts of this battle, though much more emphasis was placed on the “atrocities” committed against the Muslim inhabitants of Acre than anything else.

Were atrocities committed? One would be naive to reply in the negative. This does not negate the justification for the Third Crusade, or the first one for that matter. What the West is failing to acknowledge for the sake of political correctness and/or a misguided attempt at appeasement for peace’s sake is historical accuracy of the Western world’s struggles with Islam. Revising history doesn’t change it, it hides it. History is usually interesting and always relevant, we must heed the lessons regardless if we like the message or not. If the West continues to bury their heads in the sand, regarding Islamic ideology, they risk finding the same removed from its host.

One thing for certain is that the “radical” or perhaps a more apt description is “devout,” regardless of the adjective the Islamic world is winning the hearts and minds of their citizens, especially the young. Islamic ideology is furthered by great propagandist machines, dressed up as objective and secular entities such as al-Jazeera. As the al-Jazeera “Today in History” segment revealed, historical context is simply to further a jihadist agenda.

In order to convince the populous that jihad is justified in contrast to the view of the “religion of peace” the Islamic supremacists must convince the populous that they are merely defending themselves from the kafir (non-Muslims) or as Osama refers to such ilk, the as-Salibin: “the Crusaders.”

When media outlets such as al-Jazeera report their version of history, it is not for history’s sake folks. It is to say “Hey on July 12, 1191 the Crusaders (modern day Americans and Europeans) disrespected Muslims AND they are still doing it today. Those in the West suffering from Bush Derangement Syndrome, or just at the mall, or stuck in their version of reality [television], replies, “Hey, that’s right dude” and returns to their next purchase of blue jeans and super-sized cups of kool-aid.

The West over the years has furthered the mantra that the West was the perpetrators of that era. The problem with such revisionist way of thinking is it gives present day Islamic jihadists encouragement and justification. Young Muslim men graduating madrassas and entering Taliban University aren’t saying “Yeah dude that was 1191 no big deal.” No, they are saying “Death to America.”

Mr. Ibrahim reminds us that Osama bin Laden reveals that he (Osama) has a prodigious memory concerning both the former glory of Islam as well as the “indignities” it has been made to suffer at the hands of the Crusaders and their descendants, modern day Westerners, whom he, and almost every other “radical,” refers to simply as as-Salibin: “the Crusaders.”

Political correctness be damned, let the West not forget their past accurate historical accounts and the indignities it has been made to suffer at the hands of the “religion of peace.”

The eventual Fall of Acre was realized in 1291 and that siege lasted only six weeks, beginning on April 6 and ending with the fall of the city to the Muslims on May 18, though the Templars would hold out in their fortified headquarters until the 28th.

Al-Jazeera’s take? Stay tuned.

Today, the old city of Acre (Hebrew: Akko) located in the Western Galilee area of northern Israel has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and contains a tunnel leading to a 13th century fortress of the Knights Templar. Acre has one of the highest proportions of non-Jews of any of Israel’s cities with an Arab and Druze population, as well as a small community of Baha’is [baa haa hees], who regard Acre as the most sacred city in their faith. The city is a magnet for tourists and the home of the country’s steel industry. It also produces exports including iron, chemicals, and textiles. Source: wikipedia


Battle of Arsuf

Richard and his army continued to march towards Jaffa, but his cavalry were frequently attacked by skilful archers who would fire a swarm of arrows before making a rapid retreat. As soon as it became clear that these random attacks would not prevent Richard from progressing across the Holy Land, Saladin ordered his army to move within a few miles north of Jaffa in Arsuf in battle formation.

Sadly for Saladin, this decision proved a mistake and resulted in the crusaders crushing the lighter troops with a strong charge. It wasn’t long before Saladin made a full retreat and decided to never again face the Christian armies in a set piece battle.


Background

One of the major differences between the First and Third Crusades is that by the time of the Third Crusade, and to a certain degree during the Second, the Muslim opponents had unified under a single powerful leader. At the time of the First Crusade, the Middle East was severely divided by warring rulers. Without a unified front opposing them, the Christian troops were able to conquer Jerusalem, as well as the other Crusader states. But under the powerful force of the Seljuq Turks during the Second Crusade and the even more unified power of Saladin during the Third, the Europeans were unable to achieve their ultimate aim of holding Jerusalem.

After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din Zangi had control of Damascus and a unified Syria. Nur ad-Din also took over Egypt through an alliance, and appointed Saladin the sultan of these territories. After Nur ad-Din’s death, Saladin also took over Acre and Jerusalem, thereby wresting control of Palestine from the Crusaders, who had conquered the area 88 years earlier. Pope Urban III is said to have collapsed and died upon hearing this news, but it is not actually feasible that tidings of the fall of Jerusalem could have reached him by the time he died, although he did know of the battle of Hattin and the fall of Acre.

Saladin’s Conquest (1174-1189). Map of Saladin’s Conquest into the Levant, including invasions routes, major conflicts, strongholds, and occupations.


Siege Of Acre

The Siege of Acre was the first confrontation of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history that the King of Jerusalem was compelled to personally see to the defence of the Holy Land.

It was also the deadliest event of the whole period of the Crusades for the Christian ruling class of the east.

King Guy was released from prison by Saladin in 1189. He attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre, but Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defence of the city from Muslim attacks. Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. He amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly-arrived French army. However, it was still not enough to counter Saladin's force, which besieged the besiegers. In summer 1190, in one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavoured to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name.


The Third Crusade

The news of the fall of Jerusalem reached Europe even before the arrival there of Archbishop Josius of Tyre, whom the Crusaders had sent with urgent appeals for aid. Pope Urban III soon died, shocked, it was said, by the sad news. His successor, Gregory VIII, issued a Crusade bull and called for fasting and penitence.

Before a new Crusade could be organized, however, a modest recovery had begun in the East. Scarcely two weeks after Ḥaṭṭin, Conrad of Montferrat, Baldwin V’s uncle, had landed at Tyre with a small Italian fleet and a number of followers. He immediately established himself sufficiently to stave off an attack by Saladin. Conrad also refused to submit to King Guy when Saladin released the king at the end of 1188 as promised.

In a daring move to reestablish his authority, Guy suddenly gathered his few followers and besieged Acre, taking Saladin completely by surprise. When the Muslim leader finally moved his army toward the city, the Crusaders camped outside had begun to receive reinforcements from the West, many under the banner of Henry of Champagne. By the winter of 1190–91, neither side had made progress Saladin could not relieve the city, but the Crusaders had suffered losses from disease and famine.

Among the victims of disease was Guy’s wife, Sibyl, the source of his claims to the throne. Many of the older barons who had thus far supported him now turned to Conrad. The marriage of Sibyl’s sister, Isabel, to Humphrey of Toron was forthwith annulled, and she was constrained to marry Conrad. But Guy refused to abandon his claim to the throne. Such was the situation in May 1191 when ships arrived off Acre bringing welcome supplies and news of the approach of the armies of the Third Crusade.

The first ruler to respond to the papal appeal was William II of Sicily, who immediately abandoned a conflict with Byzantium and equipped a fleet that soon left for the East, though William himself died in November 1189. English, Danish, and Flemish ships also departed. Meanwhile, Gregory VIII had sent a legation to the Holy Roman emperor and participant in the Second Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa, now nearly 70 years old and approaching the end of an eventful career. Although excommunicated by Pope Alexander III and a supporter of antipopes in the 1160s and ’70s, Frederick had made peace with the church in 1177 and for some time had been genuinely desirous of going on Crusade again.

He set out in May 1189 with the largest Crusade army so far assembled and crossed Hungary into Byzantine territory. The Byzantine emperor, Isaac II Angelus, had made a secret treaty with Saladin to impede Frederick’s progress through Greece, which he did quite effectively. Frederick responded by capturing the Byzantine city of Adrianople, returning it only when Isaac agreed to transport the Germans across the Hellespont into Turkey. In May 1190 Frederick reached Iconium after defeating a Seljuq army. His forces then crossed into Armenian territory. On June 10 Frederick, who had ridden ahead with his bodyguard, was drowned while attempting to swim a stream. His death broke the morale of the German army, and only a small remnant, under Frederick of Swabia and Leopold of Austria, finally reached Tyre. To Saladin and the Muslims, who had been seriously alarmed by Frederick’s approach, the emperor’s death seemed an act of God.

In Europe, Archbishop Josius had won over Philip II Augustus of France and Henry II of England, whose son and successor, Richard I (Richard the Lion-Heart), took up the cause when Henry died in 1189. The extensive holdings of the English Angevin kings in France and especially Philip’s desire to recover Normandy, however, posed problems that were difficult to lay aside even during a common enterprise. Thus, it was not until July 4, 1190, three years after Ḥaṭṭin, that the English and French rulers met at Vézelay and prepared to move with their armies.

The two kings who finally led the Third Crusade were very different persons. Richard had opposed his father and was distrustful of his brothers. He could be lavishly generous even to his adversaries but often violent to anyone who stood in his way. His abilities lay not in administration, for which he had no talent, but in war, at which he was a genius. The favourite son of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard epitomized the chivalrous Crusader and personified the contemporary troubadour’s view of war with all its aristocratic courtoisie. Richard could honour his noble Muslim opponents but be utterly ruthless to lowborn captives.

Unlike Richard, Philip II had been king for 10 years and was a skilled and unscrupulous politician. He had no love for ostentation. Though no warrior himself, he was adept at planning sieges and designing siege engines. But he was a reluctant Crusader whose real interests lay in the expansion of his own domains.

At the suggestion of King William II, Richard and Philip met at Messina, in Sicily, where they signed an agreement outlining their mutual obligations and rights on the Crusade. Philip arrived with the French fleet at Acre on April 20, 1191, and the siege was begun again in earnest.

After a stormy passage, Richard put in at Cyprus, where his sister Joan and his fiancée, Berengaria of Navarra, had been shipwrecked and held by the island’s Byzantine ruler, a rebel prince, Isaac Comnenus. Isaac underestimated Richard’s strength and attacked. Not only did Richard defeat and capture him, but he proceeded to conquer Cyprus, an important event in the history of the Crusades. The island would remain under direct Latin rule for the next four centuries and would be a vital source of supplies throughout the Third Crusade and beyond. Even after the fall of the Crusader states, Cyprus remained a Christian outpost in the East.

Richard left Cyprus and arrived on June 8 at Acre, where he reinvigorated the siege. A month later, after constant battering at the walls by siege engines and after Saladin’s nephew had failed to fight his way into the city, the garrison surrendered in violation of Saladin’s orders. The Muslim leader was shocked by the news but nevertheless ratified the surrender agreement. In exchange for the lives of the Muslim garrison, he agreed to return the True Cross, render 200,000 dinars, and release all his Christian prisoners—still more than 1,000 men.

As the Crusaders entered the city, disputes arose over the disposal of areas. Richard offended Leopold of Austria, and Philip, who felt that he had fulfilled his Crusader’s vow and who was unwell, left for home in August. Though the English and French troops resented Philip’s departure, it did leave Richard in control. When Saladin failed to pay the first installment of the ransom for the prisoners on schedule, Richard flew into a rage. He ordered that all 2,700 members of the Muslim garrison be marched outside the city and executed in view of Saladin and his army. Saladin responded by massacring most of his Christian hostages. Clearly, the deal was off.

The first and only pitched battle between the forces of Saladin and the Third Crusade occurred on September 7, 1191, at Arsuf. Richard’s military brilliance won the day, forcing Saladin to retreat with heavy losses, while the English king’s casualties were very light. After Arsuf, Saladin decided not to risk open battle with Richard again, who quickly recaptured Jaffa and established it as his base of operations. Richard next reestablished Christian control of the coast and refortified Ascalon to the south. Twice Richard led the Crusaders to Jerusalem, yet on both occasions he was forced to retreat after coming within sight of the holy city. Without control of the hinterland, the king knew that he could not hold Jerusalem for long. Although tactically sound, Richard’s refusal to lay siege to the city was bitterly unpopular among the rank and file. As a result, his suggestion that the Crusade attack Saladin’s power base in Egypt was rejected by most of the Crusaders.

After Philip returned to France, he preyed upon Richard’s lands though forbidden by the church, these actions were lucrative nonetheless. Richard received urgent messages from home requesting his return. Meanwhile, he had been in constant communication with Saladin and his brother al-ʿĀdil, and various peace proposals were made, which included marriage alliances. In fact, there seemed to be warm cordiality and considerable mutual respect between Richard and Saladin. Finally, on September 2, 1192, the two signed a three-year peace treaty. The coast from Jaffa north remained in Christian hands, but Ascalon was to be restored to Saladin after Richard’s men demolished the fortifications that they had painstakingly built. Pilgrims were to have free access to the holy places. On October 9 Richard left. He was shipwrecked and finally fell into the hands of Leopold of Austria, who had not forgotten the slight at Acre.

The Third Crusade had failed to attain its main objective, the retaking of Jerusalem, but in every other way it was a great success. Most of Saladin’s victories in the wake of Ḥaṭṭin were wiped away. Before he left, Richard consented to the request that Guy, who had lost the support of nearly all the barons, be deposed and Conrad immediately be accepted as king. No sooner was this done than Conrad was killed by members of the Nizārī Ismāʿīliyyah, a movement within Shiʿi Islam. Isabel was persuaded to marry Henry of Champagne, and Guy was given the governorship of Cyprus, where his record was far more successful than his ill-starred career in Jerusalem. Although he had failed to recapture Jerusalem, Richard had put the Christians of the Levant back on their feet.


Aftermath of Arsuf

Exact casualties for the Battle of Arsuf are not known, but is estimated that Crusader forces lost around 700 to 1,000 men while Saladin's army may have suffered as many as 7,000. An important victory for the Crusaders, Arsuf boosted their morale and removed Saladin's air of invincibility. Though defeated, Saladin quickly recovered and, after concluding that he could not penetrate the Crusader's defensive formation, resumed his harassing tactics. Pressing on, Richard captured Jaffa, but the continued existence of Saladin's army prevented an immediate march on Jerusalem. Campaigning and negotiations between Richard and Saladin continued over the next year until the two men concluded a treaty in September 1192 which allowed Jerusalem to remain in Ayyubid hands but permitted Christian pilgrims to visit the city.


Watch the video: Fall of Acre 1191 - Third Crusade DOCUMENTARY