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(Fr.: t. 697,1. 131'5" (gun deck); b. 34'5", dph. 11'; cpl. 180;
a. 32 12-pdrs.)
The first Raleigh, a frigate built by Messrs. Hackett, Hill and Paul at Portsmouth, N.H., under the supervision of Thomas Thompson, was authorized by the Continental Congress on 13 December 1775; laid down on 21 March 1776; and launched on 21 May 1776.
Raleigh with a full length figure of Sir Walter Raleigh as a figurehead, put to sea under Capt. Thomas Thompson on 12 August 1777. Shortly thereafter, she joined Alfred (24 guns) and sailed for France. Three days out they captured a schooner carrying counterfeit Massaehusetts money. Burning the schooner and her cargo, except for samples, the frigates continued their transatlantic passage. On 2 September they took the British brig, Nancy, and from her Thompson obtained the signals of the convoy from which the brig had lagged behind. Giving chase, the Americans closed the convoy on the 4th.
Raleigh, making use of the captured signals, joined the convoy and engaged HBMS Druid (20). In the ensuing battle she damaged nruid, but the approach of the remaining British escorts forced her to break off.
Then sailing on to France, Raleigh and Alfred took on military stores and on 29 December sailed from L'Orient. Following the northeast tradewinds, they swung down off the coast of Africa, thence, after capturing a British vessel off Senegal, crossed the Atlantic to the West Indies. There, in the Lesser Antilles on 9 March 1778, Alfred, some distance from Raleigh, was captured by the British ships Ariadne (20) and Ceres (16). Raleigh, unable to reach Alfred in time to assist her, continued north and returned to New England early in April.
Aecused of eowardiee and dereliction of duty in not aiding Alfred, Thompson was suspended soon after reaching port. On 30 May the Marine Committee appointed John Barry to replace him.
Barry arrived in Boston to assume command on 24 June only to find his ship without crew or stores and the Navy Board not wholly in support of the manner of his appointment. His reputation and eharaeter, however, neutralized the ill-will of the Marine Committee, drew enlistments, and helped to obtain the stores.
On 25 September Raleigh sailed for Portsmouth, Va., with a brig and a sloop under convoy. Six hours later two strange
sails were sighted. After identifieation of the ships as British the merchant vessels were ordered back to port. Raleigh drew off the enemy. Through that day and the next the enemy Unicorn (26) and E~periment (50), pursued Raleigh. In late afternoon on the 27th, the leading British ship closed her. A 7-hour running battle followed, much of the time in close action. About midnight, the enemy hauled off and Barry prepared to eoneeal his ship among the islands of Penobseot Bay.
The enemy, however, again pressed the battle. As Raleigh opened fire, Barry ordered a course toward the land. Raleigh soon grounded on Wooden Ball Island. The British hauled off but continued the fight for a while, then anchored. Barry ordered the crew ashore to continue the fight and to burn Raleigh.
A large party, including Barry, made it to shore. One boat was ordered back to Raleigh to take off the remainder of the crew, and destroy her.
Midshipman Jeaeoeks, however, forestalled Barry's plans and, as the British again fired on the ship, struck the Continental colors. The battle was over. All three ships had been damaged, Unicorn particularly so. Of the Amerieans ashore a few were captured on the island, but the remainder, including Barry, made it back to Boston, arriving on 7 October.
The British refloated Raleigh at high tide on the 28th, and after repairs, took her into the Royal Navy. As HBMS Raleigh, she continued to fight during the War for Independenee and took part in the capture of Charleston, S.C., in May 1780. She was decommissioned at Portsmouth, England on 10 June 1781 and was sold in July 1783.
History of Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina, was the namesake of Sir Walter Raleigh, who sponsored a settlement of about 115 people on Roanoke Island, in 1587 — a pioneer village in the New World that came to be known as the “Lost Colony.”
When it was named the county seat of Wake county as well as the state capital in 1792, Raleigh did not exist as a city or town, but was a more-centrally located area for better protection against the British and for better access by the rest of the state. The first capital, New Bern, was located on the Carolina coast. The new town was built 12 miles south of a once-popular hangout for state legislators called Isaac Hunter’s Tavern, and the state capital was officially moved there, in 1794.
Noteworthy in Raleigh’s history is Andrew Johnson, born in a log cabin there in 1808. In 1826, Johnson left Raleigh and moved to eastern Tennessee, where he opened a tailor shop and married the following year. In 1865, Vice-President Johnson was sworn in as president shortly after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.
Raleigh’s growth was slow despite surviving destruction during the Civil War. Its original size changed little from its origins, until streetcar lines were installed in the 1920s. Today it is known as the “City of Oaks,” and is part of the Raleigh-Durham metro area, the most-densely populated area of the state.
Growth in the city began to take off when the Research Triangle Park opened in 1959. It is anchored by RTI International, the nation’s second-largest independent nonprofit research organization. Near the "Triangle" cities, Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill, the park ushered in an era of extensive, high-tech growth for the area.
Among the natural disasters Raleigh has endured, Hurricane Fran, a Category 3 storm, hit the city in 1996. (Altogether, it inflicted $3 billion in damage to the eastern seaboard and killed 26 persons).
Notable transportation facilities
Major growth occurred within the area when a 24-mile loop of I-440, also known as the Raleigh Beltline or the Cliff Benson Beltline, first opened in 1984. The freeway circumnavigates downtown Raleigh, enabling easier access to other cities within the Triangle, as well as allowing through traffic to avoid the downtown area. The loop brought together various portions of existing expressways, such as I-40, US 1, and US 64, and new construction mainly on the city's south side.*
When it was built, the Beltline was the only U.S. interstate highway without compass directions (e.g. east/west), using an “inner” (clockwise) loop and “outer” (counterclockwise) loop as designations. As knowledge of its baffling signage became notorious, compass designations were assigned.
Raleigh-Durham International Airport is located northwest of Raleigh on I-40, between the two cities. While the airport was under constructon in 1942, it was commandeered by the U.S. military for wartime purposes. By May 1943, the Raleigh-Durham Army Air Base contained barracks, office buildings, and three airstrips. In the year following the war, the military returned more than 1,200 acres of the base to the cities from which they came. Raleigh-Durham International Airport began regular civilian commercial flights, provided by Capital Airlines, in 1947.
Institutions of higher learning
Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University, a public land-grant institution with a student enrollment of 30,000, and the state's largest university. It was founded in March 1887, by an act of the North Carolina General Assembly to provide education in agriculture and engineering.
Also included on Raleigh’s roster of colleges and universities are Meredith College, Shaw University, and Peace College, where women have been studying liberal arts since its establishment in 1857.
The second-oldest women's college in North Carolina, behind Salem College in Winston-Salem, Peace College was acquired by the First Presbyterian Church of Raleigh in 1962 after its former owner, the Synod of North Carolina, was forced to close its doors. St. Augustine's College, founded in 1867 to educate former slaves, has evolved from an African-American-based student body to one that is multicultural and multinational.
Museums and other cultural offerings
Raleigh boasts several interesting museums and venues for the performing arts. Included is the North Carolina Museum of History, which contains the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame. Sports fans will find such interesting pieces of sports history as Richard Petty’s stock car and Meadowlark Lemon’s Harlem Globetrotters basketball uniform. Among others that call Raleigh home is the North Carolina Museum of Art and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, which is the largest museum of its kind in the southeast United States.
Cultural activities can be enjoyed at the massive Progress Energy Center for the Performing Arts. This complex comprises the Fletcher Opera Theater, Kennedy Theatre, Raleigh Memorial Auditorium, and the Meymandi Concert Hall.
Raleigh Memorial Auditorium seats about 2,300 for such events as music concerts, dance, comedy, and Broadway productions. The Fletcher Opera Theater is a 600-seat facility that provides a more-intimate venue for dance, music, and theatrical productions, with the farthest seat in the balcony just 68 feet from the stage.
The Carolina Hurricanes, a professional ice hockey team, is the only remaining major-league sports franchise in Raleigh. Tensions over Raleigh’s inability to attract and keep a professional sports team were eased somewhat upon the completion of the RBC Center. The arena's name is from one of its principal owners, the Royal Bank of Canada and its subsidiary, Centura Bank.
Formerly known as the Raleigh Entertainment and Sports Arena, the RBC seats more than 19,700 people for basketball and more than 18,500 for ice hockey. Increased seating capacity is part of a package that might lure an NBA franchise to the city.
College sports are popular, given the large number of universities in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. A tense rivalry exists between the North Carolina State Wolfpack and such fellow Atlantic Coast Conference teams as the University of North Carolina Tar Heels (Chapel Hill), Duke University Blue Devils (Durham), and Wake Forest Demon Deacons (Winston-Salem), thanks to one another's proximity along about 100 miles of I-40.
Our bicycles are designed around one simple idea: make them really really fun.
An idea that inspired our very first bikes in 1887 and continues to inspire how we do things today.
After-all, fun makes people happy. And that’s something we proudly stand behind.
Enjoying the ride for more than a century.
Back in the late 1880's, co-founder of the Raleigh Bicycle Company, Frank Bowden wanted everyone to find the simple happiness that came with riding a bike. He made good on that wish by transforming a small shop on Raleigh Street in Nottingham, England into the largest bicycle manufacturer on the planet.
Raleigh bikes are everywhere. At the Tour de France, ridden by 1980 winner Joop Zoetemelk. In the Kevin Bacon, bike messenger film Quicksilver. And these days, alongside the championship Raleigh-Clement racing team. Not to mention countless trails, roads, bike racks and finish lines.
It's been over 125 years and Raleigh continues to show riders how much fun cycling can be. From the Roker Comp to the Urban Cross collection, Raleigh knows what it takes to enjoy the ride.
Richard Morriss Woodhead and Paul Eugene Louis Angois begun building bicycles in a small workshop on Raleigh Street, Nottingham
William Ellis joined Woodhead and Angois as the first principal financial investor. Thanks to the investment, the bicycle shop expanded around the corner onto Russell Street
Sir Frank Bowden, a recent convert to cycling, first saw a Raleigh bicycle in a shop window in Queen Victoria Street, London. Bowden purchases the Woodhead/Angois/Ellis bicycle shop on Raleigh Street and renames it the Raleigh Cycle Company. There are about a dozen employees and production is about three bicycles a week.
Raleigh has the world’s largest bicycle factory, occupying 7 ½ acres, employing 850 and producing 30,000 units per year
A.A. ‘Zimmy’ Zimmerman becomes Raleigh’s first world cycling champion. A fun-loving character, Zimmerman changed amateur racing from a sport for the wealthy to a sport with universal appeal
Raleigh started to build motorcycles
Raleigh comes known for ‘The All-Steel Bicycle’
Raleigh buys Sturmey-Archer. The Sturmey Archer three-speed gear hub, the world’s first practical gearing system, was offered to the public in 1903. It became a technological breakthrough
Raleigh introduced the Raleighette, a belt-driven three-wheel motorcycle with the driver in the back and a wicker seat for the passenger between the two front wheels, production only lasted until 1908.
Over 50,000 cycles produced
founder of Raleigh Bicycles, Sir Frank Bowden dies
Factory is increased to 20 acres
Sir Harold Bowden, son of Sir Frank Bowden, and chairman/chief executive of Raleigh Bicycle Company retires after mean years of strong leadership and devotion to the company and the world of cycling. Production had reached a staggering 62,000 bicycles a year
After World War II, Raleigh became known for its lightweight sports roadster bicycles, often using Sturmey-Archer three and five-speed transmissions. These cycles were considerably lighter and quicker than either the old heavy English utility roadster or the American cruiser bikes. Raleigh accounted for 95% of the bicycles imported into the United States.
Factory increases to 28 acres and has over 5,000 employees
The Duke of Edinburgh arrived in November 1952 to open an extension to Raleigh’s factory space which is now 40 acres with 7,000 employees. It included a bridge between the old and new factories complete with overhead conveyor system
Raleigh Industries merged with TI (Tube Investments) Group, forming TI Raleigh. With this came control of the Phillips, Hercules, Norman and Sun brands, making Raleigh the world’s largest producers of two wheeled personal transport
Raleigh UK launches the Chopper. In the late 1960s Schwinn and other US cycle makers had discovered the grassroots Californian trend towards high-rise cycles for teens and were capitalizing on it. Responding to this, the Raleigh Chopper was first available for sale in North America as a children's bicycle. The Chopper featured a 3-speed Sturmey-Archer gear hub, shifted using a top-tube mounted gear lever reminiscent of the early Harley-Davidson. Other differences were the unusual frame, long padded seat with backrest, sprung suspension at the back, high-rise handlebars, and differently sized front (16") and rear (20") wheels. It was too expensive and too late for the North American market but the following year it was released in the UK where it was hugely successful.
In the USA the demand for lightweight ten-speed cycles increased. Raleigh Record and Grand Prix models were sold in massive numbers
Joop Zoetemelk of Hollard riding for TI Raleigh Creda wins the Tour de France
Riding Raleigh-badged bicycles, Team USA scored several impressive victories at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles. Raleigh also supplied bicycles to the French Système U team in the late 1980s where Laurent Fignon lost the 1989 Tour de France to Greg LeMond by 8 seconds
Raleigh USA creates Raleigh-Clement cyclocross and cross country race team
Raleigh celebrates 125th birthday
The Raleigh UK team received high profile wins in the Tour de Normandie, Tour of the Reservoir and Tour Series Rounds 1 and 2.
Raleigh-Clement rider Caroline Mani wins French nationals and takes silver at the Cyclocross World Championships in Belgium
The Smoky Hollow Neighborhood May Be Making a Comeback
Looking West down Peace Street, August 2016
What would it take for a Raleigh neighborhood of the 1900s that was completely wiped out, literally paved over, to come back? It seems naming a new development in the 2000s after it would be a start.
The Smokey Hollow project will be a 12-story mixed-use project with 400 (400+ actually) apartments and retail according to the press release and recently submitted site plans. The press release doesn’t call out the name Smokey Hollow but the site plans on the city’s website are named just that.
A quick aside, I’m hung up on the spelling for some reason but to the best of my knowledge, the name of the neighborhood that was in this area of downtown Raleigh was Smoky Hollow (smells like smoke) and not Smokey Hollow. (the proper name of Smokey) As of this writing, Smokey Hollow will be the new development that is planned and Smoky Hollow will be the neighborhood that once existed in this area of Raleigh. (I’ve also tweaked previous posts to try and be consistent)
Now that I’ve got that out of my system, I’d like to dive back into the history of the area and how Smoky Hollow was cleared out by the State of North Carolina and their drive for what was called “urban renewal” in the 1950s and 1960s.
As part of a former project (Link Peace Street) that I was a part of, active in 2012, I have polished off this Google Map for reuse. Below is the map containing the old Smoky Hollow boundaries as well as former streets. There are also historic and present day photos.
As for the history of the neighborhood, Anna at her blog Reinvent Your Wheel has a great take on the area’s change in her blog post, “Capital Blvd: Raleigh’s Great Divide.” I’m posting a piece of the post with permission.
Smoky Hollow (which I’ve also seen spelled as “Smokey” Hollow) was a blue-collar neighborhood in downtown Raleigh prior to the construction of Capital Blvd in the 1950s. Everything I’ve found hints the it was a racially mixed area with both black and white residents which would have been somewhat unique to that time period. Its boundaries were roughly Peace St to the north, West St to the west, North St to the south and Wilmington St to the east. The residents of Smoky Hollow worked primarily for the railroad, mill, or other industrial businesses in the vicinity.
Children growing up in Smoky Hollow entertained themselves by playing on the train trestles and in the Pigeon House Branch creek, which has now been mostly buried. It was a solid community although it seems like it was considered to have been a little rough around the edges. The construction of Capital Blvd, with the addition of other projects, brought about the end this unique piece of downtown by the early 1960s when almost all the residents were forces to relocate. Only a few pieces of the Smoky Hollow neighborhood remain, including Finch’s Diner on Peace St and the store fronts found to the west of it.
Old storefronts along Peace Street, August 2016
Anna’s post also has a pair of maps, showing the before and after effects of Capital Boulevard punching through the Smoky Hollow neighborhood. In short, a grid of streets was removed resulting in two anti-urban hits to downtown Raleigh a fast moving highway and the state government complex.
A neighborhood faded away as well as a baseball park. The Devereux Meadow ballpark, which has been mentioned on this blog before, predates capital boulevard, as shown in this 1952 aerial photo taken by the News & Observer.
Reprinted with permission from The News & Observer. Click for larger.
This photo shows Capital Boulevard (then known as Downtown Boulevard) under construction in 1952 or so. The project was finished in 1953. The view is looking south. This photo shows the intersection of Peace Street and Capital Boulevard. The ramps for the bridge have been graded. Devereux Meadow ballpark is in the foreground and across the left field fence is the Raleigh Cotton Mill. Across the railroad tracks from the mill is the Seaboard Passenger station. In the center is the Seaboard half-roundhouse adjacent to the rail yards. To the right of the roundhouse is Finch’s with cars parked in front. To the right of Finch’s is a collection of storefronts including the dry cleaning building. These are among only a handful of buildings still standing in the former Smoky Hollow neighborhood. At the right, you can see the Norfolk Southern tracks and trestles including the one that passes over Peace Street. The boundaries of Smoky Hollow were basically that area between the Seaboard railroad yards and the Norfolk Southern Railroad tracks, and between North and Peace streets.
*Historical research by Karl Larson, History Editor, Goodnight Raleigh.
Let me add that you can still see some of the Smoky Hollow houses along West and Harrington Street.
The finished product can be seen below in this November 1964 photo, again from the News & Observer. The neighborhood is gone at this point.
Reprinted with permission from The News & Observer. Click for larger.
Over time, the area has filled in, mostly with state and county-owned properties. Economic development? I’m not convinced that was a successful result of the Capital Boulevard project of the 1960s.
Moving to the present, the original area of Smoky Hollow hasn’t seen any real movement lately except for the West at North tower. Located at, you guessed it, West and North Street the 17-story residential building opened in 2008 and is probably the anchor to any West Street activity near Glenwood South.
With a lot coming to West Street, the announcement of the Smokey Hollow project, artist’s sketch below, shows that we may be putting the pieces in place to bring back residential to Smoky Hollow once again.
Smokey Hollow, planned for the corner of Peace and West Street. Click for larger
It may not look the same as 75 years ago but the Smoky Hollow of the future may exist in mid-rise apartments with ground floor retail.
In a future post, let’s take a look at some of the factors supporting this residential drive in Smoky Hollow. The pieces are all there including a creek, a new park, and calmer, better connected streets.
Raleigh, N.C., History
Founded as the new state capital in 1792, Raleigh, N.C., is a natural playground for history lovers.
Check out these historic attractions plus a full, searchable list further down the page!
The North Carolina Museum of History boasts an impressive permanent collection including the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame. Showcasing more than 300 state athletic legends, the exhibit includes memorabilia from most inductees. While you’ve got your thinking cap on, continue to learn about city history at the City of Raleigh (COR) Museum, housed in a 19th-century building that was once a hardware store.
North Carolina Museum of History
The North Carolina Museum of History, located in downtown.
City of Raleigh Museum (COR Museum)
Featuring exhibits that change periodically and focus on the.
Discover the city’s African-American heritage with self-guided tour stops at sites like the Leonard Medical Building and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Gardens south and east of the city center. Head southwest to hit the small-town jackpot at The Fuquay-Varina Museums Complex, which consists of four museums focused on various aspects of the quaint town’s mineral springs history. Or, head north to Wake Forest Historical Museum for a chronicle of the college town’s past on Tobacco Road.
Kids will love the Raleigh Fire Museum, located within the fire department training center. Real-life fire fighter sightings are practically a guarantee! About 20 minutes southwest of downtown Raleigh, the North Carolina Railroad Museum & New Hope Valley Railway is the spot to see antique railroad equipment before going for a diesel or steam train ride through the woods.
If taking a walk in somebody else’s shoes is your preference, visit the Pope House Museum, a home built in 1901 by Dr. Manassa Thomas Pope. One of the first medical school graduates from Shaw University in downtown Raleigh, Pope’s legacy includes a home filled with a remarkable collection of original furnishings, artifacts and documents.
City of Raleigh
The city of Raleigh is named for Sir Walter Raleigh, explorer and noblemen who funded the first expeditions to the coast of modern-day North Carolina. Image courtesy of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. The 1792 design plans for the city of Raleigh. Image courtesy of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. The Joel Lane House, home of a wealthy landowner who settled in the Raleigh area in the 1760s and sold 1,000 acres for the site of the capital city. Image courtesy of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. The State House in Raleigh, circa 1940. Image courtesy of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. Fayetteville Street in downtown Raleigh, 1909. Image courtesy of the North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries.
Created by the State of North Carolina in 1792 as a planned capital city, the area encompassing present-day Raleigh, North Carolina had a handful of sparse colonial settlements as early as the 1760s. Enterprising landholders named Isaac Hunter and Joel Lane purchased large tracts of farmland in the area. Near their homes, they operated taverns and ordinaries for travelers on the main north-south route, cutting through central North Carolina. Called Wake Crossroads, this primitive outpost initially served as the county seat for Wake County, North Carolina. It was established in 1771 and provided a foundation for Raleigh&rsquos future development twenty years later.
By the late 1780s, North Carolina&rsquos General Assembly recognized a need for a permanent location to conduct state government. Prior to this time, the state&rsquos seat of government had been hosted by several existing cities. Rather than select one of these communities, the legislature decided to build a centrally located city. Eight commissioners were appointed to choose the capital&rsquos location. On March 30, 1792, the commissioners purchased 1,000 acres from Wake County landowner Joel Lane, and a city plan was quickly developed. On December 31, 1792, the North Carolina General Assembly officially approved the purchase and the site plan. The city was named &ldquoRaleigh&rdquo in honor of the sixteenth-century English explorer and nobleman Sir Walter Raleigh.
The city of Raleigh grew slowly. In 1794, the first State House was opened. It provided not only a location for governmental affairs but also a center for community activities. Over time, an increasing number of inns, taverns, dry-goods stores, coffin houses and brickyards supported the growing capital city. Until the Civil War, these businesses catered mostly to retail customers, providing services and basic needs. Fayetteville Street quickly became Raleigh&rsquos commercial core as storefronts replaced residences along the blocks south of the State Capitol. In addition to downtown commerce, a handful of mills and new ventures, such as the Raleigh & Gaston Railroad of 1840, comprised the composition of antebellum Raleigh.
North Carolina legislators voted to secede from the Union on May 20, 1861, the tenth of eleven states to do so. Very quickly, North Carolina–and Raleigh–prepared for war. Camp Ellis, the first training camp established in the state, was located at the state fairgrounds now east of town. Within a few weeks, more than five thousand North Carolinians arrived in Raleigh to train for war.
Raleigh was spared from the decimating destruction that other southern capitals suffered. Four days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 19, 1865, Union General William T. Sherman and more than 80,000 soldiers marched into Raleigh. To avoid the devastation experienced earlier in Atlanta, Georgia and Columbia, South Carolina, Governor Zebulon Vance and Mayor William H. Harrison formally surrendered. Although food supplies and other resources were raided, the city remained intact.
Starting in the 1870s, Raleigh experienced slow yet steady economic growth. Although an effort was made to establish a manufacturing base, the city did not develop into a manufacturing center like other North Carolina communities. Retail, however, flourished and a profusion of family-owned businesses dominated the downtown district. Raleigh also experienced a wave of publishing enterprises as newspapers, printers and bookbinders became an important means of communication and advertising.
In the early twentieth century, Raleigh evolved into the retail center for eastern North Carolina. People flocked to Fayetteville Street for shopping, entertainment, and parades. Whether grand opera, vaudeville, or motion pictures, Raleigh&rsquos theaters and public performance venues offered something for all ages. Meanwhile, East Hargett Street thrived as the African American retail and social hub of Raleigh.
Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, higher education in Raleigh contributed greatly to North Carolina&rsquos culture and economy. The establishment of women&rsquos colleges such as St. Mary&rsquos School (1842), Peace College (1857) and Meredith College (1891), and historically black colleges like Shaw University (1865) and St. Augustine&rsquos College (1867) solidified Raleigh&rsquos reputation as the state&rsquos educational and government center. In 1887, the establishment of present-day North Carolina State University as a land-grant institution further enhanced the city&rsquos standing.
Like all communities, Raleigh has been influenced by national events. During the world wars, Raleigh contributed to the war effort in many ways not only did families give up their sons to war, they sacrificed money and time, buying war bonds and volunteering for the Red Cross. After World War II, however, Raleigh experienced a boom in housing. The first suburb in Raleigh was developed in 1949 near Cameron Village, the Southeast&rsquos first shopping center. With the establishment of the Research Triangle Park between Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, the city experienced further population growth in the 1960s, when new arrivals moved to take advantage of employment opportunities at the newly built high-tech companies.
But possibly the greatest change of the 1950s and 1960s was the positive effects of the Civil Rights Movement. No other national event affected Raleigh more profoundly than the Civil Rights Movement. After suffering years of discrimination, black students and activists protested Jim Crow legislation by marching in the streets, sitting at whites-only restaurants&mdashin short, performing public protests. Their action transformed Southern culture and ensured that national, state, and local laws would one day protect all citizens.
Since the 1970s, Raleigh has experienced rapid suburban development&mdashespecially outside its northern limits–and continued to be a vibrant cultural center. In 1992, Raleigh celebrated its bicentennial, and in 1999, it started hosting the Carolina Hurricanes, a National Hockey League franchise. Today, approximately 320,000 people live within the city limits of Raleigh, making it North Carolina&rsquos second largest city.
Raleigh County and the surrounding area have long been home to many indigenous peoples. Early encounters describe the land as being the ancestral home of the Catawba-speaking Moneton people, who referred to the surrounding area as "okahok amai", and were allies of the Monacan people .  The Moneton's Catawba speaking neighbors to the south, the Tutelo, (a tribe since absorbed into the Cayuga Nation  ) may have absorbed surviving Moneton communities, and claim the area as ancestral lands. Cherokee and Shawnee and Yuchi peoples also claim the area as part of their traditional lands.  Waves of conflict and displacement connected to European settler-colonial conquest also resulted in varied communities finding home and refuge in southern West Virginia, becoming identified as Mingo—remote affiliates of the Iroquois Confederacy. 
Raleigh County was formed on January 23, 1850 from portions of Fayette County, then a part of Virginia. Alfred Beckley (1802–88) said that he named the county for Sir Walter Raleigh (1552–1618), the "enterprising and far-seeing patron of the earliest attempts to colonize our old Mother State of Virginia". 
Raleigh was one of fifty Virginia Counties that were admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863. Later that year, the counties were divided into civil townships, with the intention of encouraging local government. This proved impractical in the heavily rural state, and in 1872 the townships were converted into magisterial districts.  Raleigh County was initially divided into six townships: Clear Fork, Marsh Fork, Richman, Shady Spring, Town, and Trap Hill. These became magisterial districts in 1872, and the same year a seventh district, Slab Fork, was created from land that had previously belonged to Wyoming County. These remained largely unchanged over the next century, but in the 1970s the seven historic magisterial districts were consolidated into three new districts: District 1, District 2, and District 3. 
Heavily involved in the coal mining industry, Raleigh County has been the scene of numerous deadly incidents, of which the most severe was the Eccles Mine Disaster in 1914. At least one hundred and eighty miners died in what was the second-worst coal mining disaster in state history. More recently, the 2010 Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, which killed twenty-nine miners, occurred in Raleigh County. Raleigh County miners were also killed by violent suppression of labor organizing, such as in the so-called Battle of Stanaford during the 1902-1903 New River coal strike in which an armed posse led by a US Marshall who shot up miners' houses while they and their families slept, killing at least six. The perpetrators were later acquitted.  The lead-up and aftermath were witnessed and widely recounted by Mother Jones,  and the massacre been considered a prelude to the West Virginia coal wars. 
The town of Sophia in Raleigh County was the home of Senator Robert C. Byrd.
The New River flows northwestward along the county's east border. The county terrain consists of wooded hills, carved with drainages.  The terrain slopes to the north and west its highest point is near its southmost corner, at 3,524' (1074m) ASL.  The county has a total area of 609 square miles (1,580 km 2 ), of which 605 square miles (1,570 km 2 ) is land and 4.0 square miles (10 km 2 ) (0.7%) is water. 
North Carolina Museum of History
North Carolina has a fascinating history, and if you want to discover all of it in a dynamic and immersive setting, then the North Carolina Museum of History is the place to go. Located in downtown Raleigh, the museum showcases more than 14,000 years and 150,000 artifacts of N.C. history.
One of the museum’s permanent exhibits, The Story of North Carolina, holds amazing multimedia presentations, dioramas and interactive features, along with two, full-size historic houses and many recreated environments.
Marvel at items recovered from Blackbeard’s flagship Queen Anne’s Revenge. Or, take in a full-size replica of the 1903 Wright Flyer, the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft. Other can’t-miss artifacts include stone tools unearthed in North Carolina that date back to 12,000 to 10,000 B.C.E.ਊnd a lunch counter that played a pivotal role in a 1960 sit-in in Salisbury, N.C., during the American civil rights movement.
Temporary exhibits are always being featured𠅌heck out what&aposs going on, here. Past exhibits have included The Boomer List: Photography by Timothy Greenfield-Sanders, which featured 20 large-format portraits of some of the most fascinating Americans born during the period after World War II (1946)—the baby boom generation. Another popular exhibit, North Carolina’s Favorite Son: Billy Graham and his Remarkable Journey of Faith, explored the life and legacy of the American evangelist who preached to more people in live audiences than anyone else in history.
In addition to Billy Graham, the museum explores other legendary North Carolinians, including First Lady Dolley Madison, adventurer Daniel Boone, Scottish heroine Flora MacDonald, Lumbee folk hero Henry Berry Lowry, educator Charlotte Hawkins Brownਊnd basketball great Michael Jordan.
North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame
Sports fans will love the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame, featuring more than 200 items representing 319 Tar Heel sports heroes. Marvel at Richard Petty’s stock car, Jim Beatty’s running shoes, Mike Krzyzewski’s Duke University warm-up jacket and much more. New members are inducted in the Hall of Fame each spring.
For the kids
Kids will have a great time at the museum, too! With so many interactive displays and cool things to see, they may not want to leave. Tip: If you’re bringing children along, download and print one of Fred’s Finds, fun “scavenger hunts” available in both English and Spanish, at home here. It&aposll challenge and entertain young museum goers as they explore the exhibits.
Shopping and dining
The Museum Shop is a great place to pick up unique souvenirs and gifts that reflect the history and heritage of North Carolina. Snacks and light meals can be purchased during your visit as well. The museum offers a variety of menu options in their restaurant, Pharaoh’s.
Get more details, including museum hours, here.
After exploring the North Carolina Museum of History, head over to the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, right across the street (and free as well!).
From the South Carolina state line, US 1 passes through downtown Rockingham as a two-lane road with five-lane boulevard segments before and after downtown. North of Rockingham continues as a two-lane road. Between NC 177 and the Moore County line, begins the multilane highway where it is mostly a five-lane rural highway with a continuous center turn lane. Near the Moore County line becomes a 4 lane divided arterial. In southern Moore County, it continues as a 4 lane arterial with five-lane boulevard segments in Pinebluff, Aberdeen and the southern part of Southern Pines. After the Saunders Boulevard traffic signal, US 1 becomes an Expressway grade bypass in Southern Pines. After North May Street, it becomes a brief four-lane arterial before it becomes a four-lane Expressway after Aiken Road. A mile south of the US 15/US 501` juncture, downgrades as a 4 lane arterial towards Tramway. After Tramway, it becomes a freeway bypassing Sanford and continues to Raleigh as a freeway, sharing briefly with US 64 at Cary and 11 miles (18 km) of the Raleigh Inner-Beltline with I-440. North of Raleigh, US 1 continues as an expressway through Wake Forest and Henderson. Exiting off the connector road before I-85, the highway reverts to a two-lane rural road, paralleling I-85 into Virginia. US 1 through North Carolina generally follows the Fall Line between the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain.
Alternate names Edit
Though the highway is commonly known as "Highway 1" or "U.S. 1" throughout the state, the highway does have other known names it uses locally in areas.
- Capital Boulevard – Road name from I-440 north to the Franklin County line.
- Claude E. Pope Memorial Highway – Official North Carolina name of US 1, from I-40 in Cary south to the Chatham County line. 
- Cliff Benson Beltline – Road name of Raleigh northern inner-beltline, cosigned with I-440.
- H. Clifton Blue Memorial Boulevard – Official North Carolina name of US 1 through Southern Pines. 
- Jefferson Davis Highway – Road name in Lee County, approved in 1959 by county resolution at the request of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). 
The general route of US 1 in North Carolina was first part of the Capital Highway, an auto trail organized in 1909 to encourage counties along the route to improve the road between Washington and Atlanta.  It differed from US 1 north of Norlina, where it ran via Emporia and Roanoke Rapids, and between Southern Pines and Rockingham, where a route via Pinehurst - where the association's president lived - was followed.  The Quebec-Miami International Highway, organized in 1911 and renamed the Atlantic Highway in 1915,  also followed this corridor, overlapping many parts of the Capital Highway.  It initially followed even less of US 1 than the Capital Highway, only taking the same route between Raleigh and Cameron and south of Rockingham,  but was modified to match the Capital Highway by 1920.  
In 1922, the route was designated as North Carolina Highway 50, from the South Carolina state line to Roanoke Rapids. In 1923, the route from Norlina to Roanoke Rapids was renumbered as NC 48 redirecting NC 50 north to Virginia and continuing on to South Hill as VA 122. In 1926, US 1 was established, it was assigned to overlap all of NC 50 it would be in 1934 when NC 50 was dropped from the route. 
Since its establishment, US 1 has not changed its route from the South Carolina state line to Pinebluff. The first change along the route happened in 1930 in Raleigh, where minor road changes were done in the downtown area. In 1933, US 1 was moved off Rocky Church Fork Road near Tramway onto new road to the west. Between 1937 and 1944, US 1 was rerouted in Aberdeen to its current routing and also north of Wise where US 1 moved onto new road east of Mac Powell Road. In 1948, US 1 was removed from most of Wake Forest Road, in Raleigh, and placed onto Louisburg Road the old route became US 1A. In 1953, US 1 was placed on a bypass west of Wake Forest, leaving the old route to become US 1A. 
Around 1956–1957, several changes along US 1 were made: A new bypass build west of Sanford, old route replaced by US 1A (later US 1 Business). In Raleigh, US 1 was redirected onto one-way streets Dawson and McDowell that connected to a new road called Capital Boulevard, which connected US 1 back onto Louisburg Road Person Street and Wake Forest Road became secondary roads ever since. Finally, a new Super-2 bypass was built east of Henderson which would later become a full freeway between 1991 and 1993. 
In 1960, US 1 was placed on a Super-2, bypassing Moncure. Around 1963, US 1 was placed onto new freeway between Apex (via NC 55) to North Boulevard (today an extension of Capital Boulevard), in north Raleigh. The old route to Hillsborough Road became what is today Salem Street, Old Apex Road and Chatham Street (via Cary), while the routing through Raleigh became US 1 Business (1963-1975). Around 1965, the Super-2, from Moncure, extended north into Apex. In 1975, the Super-2, from Moncure, extended south to Sanford, connecting to its bypass. The entire route between Sanford to Apex became a freeway by the mid-1990s.  
In 1999, NCDOT submitted a request to AASHTO to designate 32.36 miles (52.08 km) of US 1 from I-40, in Raleigh, to the future US 421 (Sanford Bypass) interchange, in Sanford as I-140. On April 17, 1999, the request was disapproved by the committee and has since been dropped.  I-140 was subsequently designated along the western part of the Wilmington Outer Loop in 2002.
In June 2005, a new freeway bypass was built east of Vass and Cameron the old route became US 1 Business. 
The NCDOT, in collaboration with the Department of Commerce and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources,  has designated US 1 as a Strategic Highway Corridor from Interstate 85 in Henderson to the South Carolina state line. From I-85 to I-540 in Raleigh, US 1 is recommended to be improved to a freeway. From I-540 to I-440 (the Capital Boulevard section in Raleigh) it is recommended be improved to an expressway (nearby freeway I-540 will maintain mobility). From I-440 to south of I-74/US 220 in Richmond County, it is designated as a freeway. South of I-74 to the South Carolina state line, it is designated as an expressway.  The Strategic Corridors Initiative is an effort to protect and maximize mobility and connectivity on a core set of highway corridors, while promoting environmental stewardship through maximizing the use of existing facilities to the extent possible, and fostering economic prosperity through the quick and efficient movement of people and goods. 
Warren County Edit
US 1 is not designated as Strategic Highway Corridor from the Vance County Line to US 401, as it is a 2 lane highway, with mobility being met by nearby I-85. However, the part of US 1 that is concurrent US 401 near I-85 is designated as a boulevard. (US 401 is designated as a boulevard from US 1 in Wake County to I-85). The small section of US 1 from I-85 to the Virginia State Line is also not designated.  The 2010 Warren County Comprehensive Transportation Plan, which addresses transportation needs to the year 2035, concurs with these recommendations. The plan was adopted by all Warren County municipalities and NCDOT in 2007 and 2008. 
Vance County Edit
The Comprehensive Transportation Plan for Vance County, which will address transportation needs to the year 2040, is currently under study.  US 1 in Vance County from I-85 to the Warren County line not designated as a Strategic Highway Corridor, as mobility is served by nearby I-85. 
Franklin County Edit
The Franklin County Comprehensive Transportation Plan, which addresses transportation needs to the year 2035, US 1 is recommended to be improved to a 4 lane freeway throughout the county. The plan was adopted by all Franklin County Municipalities, the Capital Area Metropolitan Planning Organization, and NCDOT in 2011.  Recently, a US 1 Corridor Study, managed by the Capital Area Metropolitan Organization, identified improvements between I-540 in Wake County to US 1A in Franklin County. 
Wake County Edit
Recently, a US 1 Corridor Study, managed by the Capital Area Metropolitan Organization, identified improvements between I-540 in Wake County to US 1A in Franklin County. 
Lee County Edit
Based on the 2011 Lee County Comprehensive Transportation Plan, which addresses transportation needs to the year 2035, US 1 is recommended to be improved to a six-lane freeway from Chatham County to the US15-501 split. The remainder to the Moore County line is recommended to be improved to a four-lane freeway. The improvements will increase capacity to address anticipated deficiencies and maintain statewide mobility. The plan was adopted by the county, Sanford, Broadway, and NCDOT in 2008. 
Moore County Edit
In 2011, the North Carolina Department of Transportation, Moore County, and the Triangle Rural Planning Organization started work on a Comprehensive Transportation Plan to plan for future (2040) transportation improvements.  State Law calls on each municipality to work cooperatively with NCDOT to develop such a plan to serve present and future travel demand.  In November 2011, seven public charrettes were held to document local priorities on five transportation areas within the county, including US 1. 
Many in the community fear that a US 1 Bypass project has been planned even though NCDOT has said repeatedly that there is no US 1 Bypass  or any other US 1 improvements identified.  The strongest opposition of any type of US 1 improvement has come from some area residents, the equestrian community and some business leaders. It is the aspiration of the opposition to lead towards no-build alternatives.  However, since the Comprehensive Transportation Plan is based on 2040 travel demand, it is possible that no-build alternatives may not accommodate 2040 traffic, which may necessitate the need to plan for some type of future improvements. 
Moore County Commissioners held a meeting on December 15, 2011 and passed a resolution against a US 1 bypass. Furthermore, the Southern Pines town council voted 4–1 against any US 1 improvements. Southern Pines Town Council member Fred Walden was the only dissenter on a US 1 bypass. 
At this time, the cooperative effort to develop a Comprehensive Transportation Plan for Moore County is continuing. The plan which includes US 1, must address existing and future traffic and balance local priorities with future transportation needs.  In a February 2012 meeting with the town of Aberdeen, local officials raised concerns over the improvement of US 1. NCDOT officials stated that there are "no lines on maps for any roads at this point". Also, it was conveyed that without a Comprehensive Transportation Plan, money for future projects may be "adversely affected". 
Richmond County Edit
As of December 2011, there has been no opposition for a proposed north-south Rockingham bypass. The widening project from the Moore County line to near NC 177 has been recently completed from a two-lane principal highway to mostly a 5 lane road with a small divided section near the Mackall Airfield. US 1 is now four lanes or greater from the US 1/I-85 interchange in Henderson, Vance County. Once US 1 enters South Carolina, there is no intention of widening US 1 to Cheraw and points south to Camden
In December 2012, public hearings have been held in Richmond County for the $260 million bypass. The project would begin at NC 177 and rejoin US 1 south of Rockingham by Sandhill Road, near the South Carolina state line. 
Raleigh I - History
History of Sister Cities
In Raleigh, NC
Raleigh joined the Sister Cities movement in the early 1980s at the instigation of Ed Walters, Raleigh Mayor Pro Tempore, after he attended a National League of Cities conference. Established by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Sister Cities International was initially coordinated by the U.S. Department of State and then moved to the National League of Cities. This international program was established to promote friendly relations and mutual understanding between citizens of U.S. cities and those of similar cities in foreign countries.
On returning to Raleigh, Mr. Walters asked the City Council to study and recommend Raleigh&rsquos participation. In March 1984, Raleigh City Council appropriated $350 for membership in SCI and, in April 1984, appointed a 9 member ad hoc council Sister Cities Committee, chaired by Councilman Walters.
The first major undertaking of the Committee was to plan an International Festival for Raleigh. The Festival subcommittee, chaired by Millie Schecter, was successful, and the event took place in Raleigh Civic Center in October 1986.
With the support of the City Council, the Committee organized itself as a separate nonprofit organization: Sister Cities Association of Raleigh received its charter on December 31, 1985. Funding was initially received from both the Raleigh City Council and the Wake County Board of Commissioners.
During a trip to England, Mr. Walters met a representative from Kingston upon Hull and invited the Lord Mayor of Hull to visit Raleigh in October 1984. Two years later, at the opening ceremonies of Raleigh&rsquos first International Festival, Mayor Avery Upchurch and Lord Mayor Pearlman signed the Certificates of Affiliation making Hull Raleigh&rsquos first sister city.
In the ensuing years, Raleigh partnered with Shinyanga, Tanzania (1987), Compiègne, France (1989) Kolomna, Russia (1997) Rostock, Germany (2001) Xiangyang, China (2009): and Nairobi (2014). The affiliations with Shinyanga and Kolomna were suspended due to lack of grassroots committees in those cities. The other city committees continue to flourish, facilitating over 100 exchanges involving more than 1,000 citizens in the areas of education, business, culture, arts, history and sports.
The organization sponsors many social and cultural events for the community to enjoy. Jamhuri Day, Wine Tasting and Guy Fawkes Nights are only a few of the traditions celebrated by the city committees. Since 2006, RSC has sponsored an International Holiday Market to raise program funds and scholarships. Now an annual tradition at the Raleigh Christmas Parade, the market features food, beverages and holiday fare representing the cultures of the Sister Cities.
RSC joined the Cary, Chapel Hill, Durham and Southern Pines Sister Cities groups to create a work of public art at the RDU International Airport which would symbolize the spirit and mission of the International Sister Cities movement. Dedicated in February 2012, the 45 foot mural &ldquoFriendly Folks&rdquo is located at the International Arrivals baggage claim in Terminal 2.
To commemorate its 30th anniversary in 2016, RSC presented an array of programs and events to increase the public&rsquos awareness of RSC and to encourage their participation kick-off Celebration and City Council Proclamation International Student Panel &ldquoTaste of Our Cities&rdquo Farm-to-Fork Annual Meeting and &ldquoArt from Raleigh Sister Cities&rdquo exhibit.
In 2020, Gibraltar joined Raleigh as its newest Sister City. Currently, RSC continues to offer programs involving hundreds of citizens.