Cossack-Sorcerers: The Secretive and Magical Warrior Society of Ukraine

Cossack-Sorcerers: The Secretive and Magical Warrior Society of Ukraine

Almost everyone knows about Japanese Ninjas and Chinese Shaolin monks. However, few know that at one time in Europe there were soldiers, whose abilities were not inferior to the Japanese ninja or the Shaolin monks, and perhaps even exceeded them. These warriors were called the Cossacks and their combat skills extended to the use of sorcery.

Who Were the Cossack-Sorcerers?

In the 16th century, in the territory of modern Southern Ukraine, an organization was formed called the Zaporizhian Army, with headquarters in the fortress on the river Dnipro called Zaporizhian Sich.

Zaporizhian Sich , (reconstructed open Museum) 16 th century headquarters for the Zaporizhian Army. (Credit: Dodenrutj )

Its members were drawn from various social strata of the population of Ukraine, which was then part of Poland, known as the Commonwealth of Rye. Its political structure was democratically organized, largely resembling the community of pirates of the Caribbean. The main occupations were hunting, fishing, trade, sea voyages to the Ottoman Empire and also as vassal of the Crimean Khan. The community also participated in the organization of rebellions against the Commonwealth, although they rarely participated in its military campaigns against the Moscow kingdom and Sweden. They called themselves ‘Cossacks to themselves’, which in translation from the Turkic language means ‘free people’.

Among these Cossacks who lived within the territory of the Zaporizhian Sich, there were said to be some with magic abilities, who were called the Cossack-Sorcerers. According to folklore, these were true war mages, of which legends were born. However, unlike the modern fantasy warriors, they did not throw lightning-bolts and issue fire from their staffs. Their weapons and abilities were somewhat different.

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Model of the layout of Zaporizhzhya Sich in the site museum.

Cossack-Sorcerers’ Special Abilities

According to the people's imagination, the Cossacks were able to find and hide treasures, to heal wounds with spells, and to evade and catch bullets. They could withstand hot-rods, change the weather and open castle doors with their bare hands. They were able to float on the floor in boats, as if on the sea, to cross the rivers on rugs (sounds pretty much like a flying carpet to me) and instantly transport themselves from one side of the steppe to another. They knew psychotherapy, understood herbalism, and also possessed the art of hypnosis. There were also claims about the super-human physical training the Cossacks endured, and much more.

What were their Origins?

How the Cossack-Sorcerers actually began is shrouded in secrecy. Many believe that the Cossacks of legend have come from the ancient Slavic Yazykh priests of the Magi. It is said that after Prince Vladimir the Great was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity in 988 and christianized the Kievan Rus , the priests did not agree that the prince should have accepted a foreign faith from Byzantium and so fled to the steppe where the warlords set up, teaching their followers in the martial arts.

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However, these speculations do not have any historical or archaeological basis, although in the steppes between the Azov Sea and the Danube there did exist a stray Slavic population of Brodnici (cf. Slavic brodŭ) and the Berladnici, who are considered by some to be the prototype of the Zaporizhian Cossacks who participated in the internal wars of the Rus princes and the campaigns of the Turkic nomadic tribe of Polovtsy to Hungary and Bulgaria. But this group lived two centuries later than Prince Vladimir and there is no mention in their history that they professed paganism or among their leaders were sorcerers or pagan priests. Most likely, they were people from the social gentry, or prince expatriates, who escaped from their lands to the south of the steppe and were united in combat troops and participating in hostilities as mercenaries. They would often have been fought by Rus princes and Hungarian kings, of which there is evidence from that time.

"Rear guard of Zaporozhians" by Józef Brandt in National Museum in Warsaw.

A Claim of Aryan Descent

According to another version, the beginning of the Sorcerer class takes place among the Aryan tribes of the Bronze Age of the 2nd millennium BC, before their emigration to India from the steppes north of the Black Sea. It was alleged that among the Aryan tribes there were magic warriors, some of which went to India where they became known as Maharathi - soldiers who are capable of defending themselves alone against a large number of opponents with the help of martial arts and mystical practices. Maharathi is mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata. The group that remained in the steppes of the Black Sea would then have become the basis of the sorcerers.

However, this version seems dubious because the history of the Black Sea peoples is well documented, even in ancient times. For example, the very first Herodotus description, which gave us a reference to the Scythians and the peoples neighboring them. Nowhere in this account does he mention an organization of sorcerer warriors. Other Greek and Roman historians also did not mention them. There is an account in the Rus epics about the Rus warrior Volga Vseslavovich, who could turn into animals, but no specific reference that could have ties over the centuries to Cossack-Sorcerers is known.

A Community of Refugees

Most likely, the Cossack-Sorcerers existed in the midst of all sorts of diviners, witch-hunters, black bookkeepers and forefathers of destiny. Indeed, among the Cossacks were not only poor brokers or peasants who escaped the tyranny of Polish lords and the attacks of the Tatars, as the official history says. Among the Sow Society, as the Cossacks called themselves, there were many diverse people with different professions. And it is obvious that among them there were people of magic professions who adapted their knowledge and skills to the military art of the Cossacks. It should also be noted that at that time wandering artists, circuses and magicians were spread among the Eastern Slavic peoples.

Cossack Watch over the Dnieper by Jozef Brandt (1841–1915) .

Tricks, Illusions and Ninja Skills

Just as the Zaporizhzhya Sich was a melting pot for different people, it became possible that such a variety could exist among the Cossacks, sharing their knowledge, skills and abilities with them. By mastering this knowledge, the Cossacks could combine the practice of divination, charisma, and mysticism with the illusion and art of battle, as did the Japanese ninja. For example, the well-known Japanese stray ninja Kato Danzio (1503-1699) combines various mystical practices with illusive art. Such practices have long been adhered to by the ancient priests of Ancient Egypt and Babylon and medieval magicians who, speaking at Western European fairs, combine card divination, magic spells with card tricks, head offs and healing. Therefore, the word abracadabra, which originally had a mystical character, as a spell from illnesses and evil spirits, came to us, but eventually, under the influence of the use of its magicians, changed the character and began to be used as a simple circus magic spell.

Kozak Mamay on an old Ukrainian painting, early 19 th century.

A Foundation for Legends and Heroes

The Cossack-Sorcerer is just one of the many intriguing parts of the history of mankind, however, for the history of Ukraine, they became a very special entity. After all, the Ukrainian people, who toiled for many years under the yoke of foreigners, loved the idea of freedom and the success of their heroes. Even in the nineteenth century, a cartoon of a Cossack, Mamay, was hung in wealthy rural Ukrainian huts, which embodied the idealized image of a Cossack-wanderer, a wizard, a sage and a sorcerer in one person. Such heroes are plentiful in Ukrainian folklore and these stories will be told in future articles.


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Cossack-Sorcerers: The Secretive and Magical Warrior

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  • His story is heavily biased by Soviet and Russian propaganda that impute ancient Ukrainian history (including Cossack movement) to Russian empire
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Than both warrior charged at each other on their horses,but then Sioux managed to pushed the Cossack by hitting him in the chest,but the Cossack got up and pulled down the Sioux from his horse.In the next momment the Cossack realised,that he lost his shashka,and he pulled out his kindjal.Than the Sioux swung his club at the Cossacks,but the

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Cossacks was not another society - they was a part of Ukraine nation and they realy fight for their freedoms becouse it was alawed by Rech Pospolita (PLC) acts and laws, but polish magnats didn't want to let cossacks to use what belonged to them and plunder, killing ukrainians and ukraine warriors cossacks anyway.

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Cossacks: Origins, History, and Military Prowess - Realm of History Our popular notions about the Cossacks tended to portray them as the energetic and rambunctious horsemen of the lower steppe from Russia and Ukraine.


Current Europeans emerged from the Ukraine, says study

http://windowoneurasia2.blogspot.com/2019/09/moscow-has-long-sought-to-destroy.html Pomor, he continues, “has a distinctive phonetic system and grammar which corresponds to the norms of the Novgorodian language of the middle ages,” a language which is “much more ancient than the Moscow dialect which lay at the basis of the literary norms developed in the 18th century.”

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Contrary to what many people assume, redheads did not originate in Scandinavia, Scotland or Ireland, but in central Asia. Their coloring is due to a mutation in the MC1R gene that fails to produce sun-protective, skin-darkening eumelanin and instead causes pale skin, freckles and red hair.

The genetic causes, ethnic origins and history of red hair, came to Europe from the Iranic-speaking steppe tribes who inhabited the areas north of and around the Black Sea from 4,000 years ago to the 6th century, when they were replaced by the Slavs whose predominant hair color is shades of brown and dark blonde.https://aratta.wordpress.com/2015/01/25/the-genetic-causes-ethnic-origins-and-history-of-red-hair/

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Ukraine and Russia “share a long and common history” FAQ = NOT

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cxiU6pAJ0g History of Eastern Europe should be rewritten, PR Magocsi

Published on Dec 8, 2014 Remarks by Professor Paul Robert Magocsi at the public book launch of History of Ukraine-Rus', Vol. 10, by Mykhailo Hrushevsky (Історія України-Руси, Михайло Грушевський) and celebration of the Life of the Hon. John Yaremko, St. Vladimir Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 7 December 2014.

2:20 Peter Jacyk creation of educational foundation. Submitted proposal to Jacyk which included translating the entire ten volumes of Hrushevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus

4:05 By 1988, Jacyk decided to establish a foundation at the University of Alberta

6:04 History of Eastern Europe should be rewritten

6:30 These are not just translations. Each volume is a major scholarly work unto itself

7:10 Not easy to translate Hrushevsky, who was not the greatest stylist in the world. The translator's, Marta Olynyk, ability to render into readable English, very complex terminology and ideas is a talent in itself.

7:44 Substantive introductions (works of scholarship in themselves), glossaries, notes, corrected bibliography, updated bibliography, readable informative maps, carefully chosen works of art for the book covers

Paul Robert Magocsi is holder of the John Yaremko Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto.

This publication is available for purchase at CIUS Press

he History of Ukraine-Rus' is the most comprehensive account of the ancient, medieval, and early modern history of the Ukrainian people. Written by Ukraine's greatest historian, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, the ten-volume History remains unsurpassed in its use of sources and literature. The English-language edition makes the national history of Europe's largest new state available to the English reader for the first time.

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Scientists: Between the Ukrainian and Russian peoples no "relationship" even at the DNA level

Knew that already now searching for the 2 studies . collected already a lot

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Don's Maps - Palaeolithic / Paleolithic European, Russian and Australian Archaeology / Archeology

History Transcarpatia in Ukraine

UKRANIAN CAPITAL HAS ONLY ONE SPELLING and that is KYIV. The spelling of Kiev is in Russian. LEGENDARY ORIGINS OF THE NAME ‘KYIV’ Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv (Ukrainian: Кий, Щек, Хорив) are the three legendary brothers, sometimes mentioned along with their sister Lybid (Ukrainian: Либідь), who, according to the Primary Chronicle, were the founders of the medieval city of Kyiv – now the capital of Ukraine Historical background for the legend Archaeological excavations have shown there indeed was an ancient settlement from the 6th century. Some speculate that Kyi was a real person, a knyaz (prince) from the tribe of Polans. According to legend, Kyi was a Polianian Prince, and the city was named after him, the eldest brother to Shchek and Khoryv and their sister Lybid. There are numerous different theories concerning the origin of the names among the most popular is that legend of three brothers and their sister is an attempt to explain the local names. Kyi appears to be derived from Slavic kij or kiy, which means "bat". Shchek and Khoryv, according to this theory, represent the actual Shchekavytsia and Khorevytsia mountains in the center of Kiev, while Lybid is the actual river, a right tributary of the Dnieper and an important landscape factor in the city. Lybid means "swan" in Slavic. Goddess Zorya (Danica) was identified with white swan, white bird.


Transforming Magic and the Demonic into Science: Changing Science into Magic

“Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.”
–Revelation 9:21

“And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.”
–Revelation 18:23

The end times are a time of great sorceries.

That is, a time when wicked men access illegitimate supernatural (demonic) power, in spite of the warnings contained throughout God’s Word.

Though men give demonic power many different names, it is all basically the same.

“There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. For all that do these things are an abomination unto the LORD”
–Deuteronomy 18:10-12

In the times in which we live, it is the job of popular culture to make such demonic power less scary or creepy to the public. And so, the Corporate Media–along with Big Education and Big Entertainment–have turned witchcraft into something cool and desirable–even fashionable.

The same goes with wizards and sorcerers.

The latest from this deceptive crew is the blurring of magic into science (once claimed to be a very objective-based discipline) and science back into magic. This prepares the public to accept the claim that magic is really just “science we don’t yet understand.”

To this end, many resources of the mystery of iniquity has been poured into this end times project of claiming science, magic, sorcery and witchcraft–actually all demonic power–is merely an advanced form of science.

Also to this end, “science” has been transforming into the occult, esoteric and mystical.

This helps explain the recent fascination with all things quantum i.e., basically a realm too small for humans to see–and therefore ripe for the stories of those who use such fables to control the masses.

Actually, magic is little more than science–IF one knows the occult origins of science and where the stories of science were always headed.

The last days are a time when the use of demonic power–even more so than at the present–is commonplace.

“And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.”
–Revelation 16:13-14,16

“And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk”
–Revelation 9:20

The groundwork has already been laid the foundations have been constructed: end times demonic power (magic, sorcery, witchcraft, divination, etc.) will be something man sees as something everyday normal scientific.

This familiarity and comfort with demonic power is one reason the entire end times world worships the dragon [Satan].

“And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him? And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”
–Revelation 13:4,8

What is sad is that many in the end times worship Satan, not necessarily out of love of Satan, but because they are comfortable with lies–and because they trusted the words of man over the Word of God.

HAS the reader put his faith in things of this world–such as science and politics–which cannot last?

It is not YET too late: there is still time to change direction (repent), place your faith for the future entirely on Jesus Christ and enter the kingdom of heaven.

DOES the reader believe he is saved?

DOES the reader believe he is NOT saved?

“Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. ”
–1 Corinthians 15:1-8

“For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.”
-–Romans 1:16

by Jeremiah Jameson
–with Mondo Frazier

image: Sira Anamwong, FreeDigitalPhotos.net

© Jeremiah J. Jameson and End Times Prophecy Report, 2012-18. © Mondo Frazier and End Times Prophecy Report, DBKP 2007-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Jeremiah J. Jameson and End Times Prophecy Report with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

RE: our link disclaimer: there are links, from time-to-time which appear on this site which we neither approve nor endorse. The frequency of these types of links will no doubt grow worse. All effort is made to remove such links when we become aware of them.]


Transforming Magic and the Demonic into Science: Changing Science into Magic

“Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.”
–Revelation 9:21

“And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.”
–Revelation 18:23

The end times are a time of great sorceries.

That is, a time when wicked men access illegitimate supernatural (demonic) power, in spite of the warnings contained throughout God’s Word.

Though men give demonic power many different names, it is all basically the same.

“There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. For all that do these things are an abomination unto the LORD”
–Deuteronomy 18:10-12

In the times in which we live, it is the job of popular culture to make such demonic power less scary or creepy to the public. And so, the Corporate Media–along with Big Education and Big Entertainment–have turned witchcraft into something cool and desirable–even fashionable.

The same goes with wizards and sorcerers.

The latest from this deceptive crew is the blurring of magic into science (once claimed to be a very objective-based discipline) and science back into magic. This prepares the public to accept the claim that magic is really just “science we don’t yet understand.”

To this end, many resources of the mystery of iniquity has been poured into this end times project of claiming science, magic, sorcery and witchcraft–actually all demonic power–is merely an advanced form of science.

Also to this end, “science” has been transforming into the occult, esoteric and mystical.

This helps explain the recent fascination with all things quantum i.e., basically a realm too small for humans to see–and therefore ripe for the stories of those who use such fables to control the masses.

Actually, magic is little more than science–IF one knows the occult origins of science and where the stories of science were always headed.

The last days are a time when the use of demonic power–even more so than at the present–is commonplace.

“And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.”
–Revelation 16:13-14,16

“And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk”
–Revelation 9:20

The groundwork has already been laid the foundations have been constructed: end times demonic power (magic, sorcery, witchcraft, divination, etc.) will be something man sees as something everyday normal scientific.

This familiarity and comfort with demonic power is one reason the entire end times world worships the dragon [Satan].

“And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him? And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”
–Revelation 13:4,8

What is sad is that many in the end times worship Satan, not necessarily out of love of Satan, but because they are comfortable with lies–and because they trusted the words of man over the Word of God.

HAS the reader put his faith in things of this world–such as science and politics–which cannot last?

It is not YET too late: there is still time to change direction (repent), place your faith for the future entirely on Jesus Christ and enter the kingdom of heaven.

DOES the reader believe he is saved?

DOES the reader believe he is NOT saved?

“Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. ”
–1 Corinthians 15:1-8

“For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.”
-–Romans 1:16

by Jeremiah Jameson
–with Mondo Frazier

image: Sira Anamwong, FreeDigitalPhotos.net

© Jeremiah J. Jameson and End Times Prophecy Report, 2012-18. © Mondo Frazier and End Times Prophecy Report, DBKP 2007-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Jeremiah J. Jameson and End Times Prophecy Report with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

RE: our link disclaimer: there are links, from time-to-time which appear on this site which we neither approve nor endorse. The frequency of these types of links will no doubt grow worse. All effort is made to remove such links when we become aware of them.]


Exploring Other Hominid Relations

After completing their studies, both groups of researchers turned their curiosity on exploring the relations between the DNA of modern humans and other hominids, such as Denisovans. The process continues.

Replica of one of the Denisovan molars discovered in Denisova Cave. Museum of Natural Sciences in Brussels, Belgium. ( Public Domain )

Back in 2013, researchers said Denisovans share up to 8% of their genome with a “super archaic” and unknown species that lived about 1 million years ago. Their genes suggest the Denisovans bred in Asia with a species that was neither modern human nor Neanderthal. The unknown genome was detected in two teeth and a finger bone of a Denisovan. That isn’t the only study which has suggested there are unknown species waiting to be discovered in the hominid family tree.

Relationship of Neanderthal Y Chromosome to Those of Modern Humans. The genealogy (red tree) can be parsimoniously explained as mirroring the population divergence (gray tree). Researchers found no evidence for (a) a highly divergent super-archaic origin of the Neanderthal Y chromosome, (b) ancient gene flow post-dating the population split, or (c) relatively recent introgression of a modern human Y chromosome into the Neanderthal population. ( Mendez et al. )

Following methods such as the ones outlined in the abovementioned studies, as well as creating new ones alongside technological advances have and will continue to provide us with surprising and interesting insight into who we are and our ancient origins.

Top Image: A modern human, left, and Neanderthal woman, right. Source: Genetic Literacy Project/ Fair Use


Blog del Guerrillero

Casi todo el mundo ha oído hablar sobre los Ninja japoneses o sobre los Monjes Shaolin chinos. Ellos han sido muy bien promocionados por Hollywood. Pero pocos saben que hubo en Europa soldados cuyas habilidades eran iguales o superiores a las de los Ninjas o los Monjes Shaolin. Estos guerreros eran los Cosacos, y sus conocimientos se extendían incluso al uso de la magia.

¿Quienes eran los magos cosacos?

En el siglo XVI, en el territorio que abarca el sur de la actual Ucrania, se formó una organización llamada los Cosacos de Zaporozhia, que tenía su cuartel central en una fortaleza en el Río Dniéper llamada el Sich de Zaporozhia.

Sich de Zaporozhia reconstruido como museo.

Sus miembros procedían de varias clases sociales de la población de Ucrania, la cual era entonces parte de Polonia, un estado conocido como la Mancomunidad de Polonia-Lituania. Sus estructuras políticas estaban organizadas democraticamente, de una forma parecida a la de la comunidad de los piratas del Caribe. Las ocupaciones principales eran la caza, la pesca y el comercio. Los cosacos a menudo se rebelaban contra la Mancomunidad, y rara vez participaban en las campañas militares de la misma contra Rusia o contra Suecia. Cosacos en la lengua túrquica significa gente libre.

Entre estos cosacos que vivían en el Sich de Zaporozhia, se dice que había algunos que tenían habilidades mágicas, los llamados magos cosacos. Según el folclore cosaco, estos eran auténticos magos guerreros, los cuales provocaron el nacimiento de leyendas. Pero a diferencia de los guerreros de fantasía actuales, estos no lanzaban flechas luminosas o tiraban fuego de sus bastones. Sus armas y habilidades eran algo diferentes.

Según la imaginación de algunos, los cosacos eran capaces de esconder y encontrar tesoros, a curar las heridas con hechizos y a esquivar y parar las balas. Ellos podían cambiar el tiempo y abrir las puertas de los castillos con sus manos. Tenían barcos voladores que los llevaban de un lugar a otro de las estepas en cuestión de segundos. Tenían conocimientos de psicoterapia, hierbas tradicionales, y podían hipnotizar a la gente. También hay impresionantes historias sobre el entrenamiento físico sobrehumano que realizaban. Y muchas cosas más.

Los orígenes de los cosacos
Los orígenes de los magos cosacos están rodeados de misterio. Muchos creen que los legendarios cosacos descendían de los magos y sacerdotes eslavos de la antigüedad. Se dice que después de que el Príncipe Vladimir el Grande abandonó el Paganismo eslavo para convertirse al Cristianismo en el año 988 convirtiendo oficialmente a esta religión todo su pueblo, los sacerdotes no aceptaron que el Príncipe hubiera aceptado esta religión extranjera procedente del Imperio Bizantino y huyeron a las estepas, donde se convirtieron en señores de la guerra, y enseñaron artes marciales a sus seguidores.

De todas formas, todas estas cosas no tienen ninguna base histórica o arqueológica, aunque en las estepas entre el Mar de Azov y el río Danubio existían poblaciones eslavas las cuales pueden considerarse los precursores de los cosacos que participaron en las guerras internas de los príncipes rusos y en las campañas de los Cumanos en Bulgaria y en Hungría. Pero estas poblaciones vivieron dos siglos después del Príncipe Vladimir y no hay ninguna mención de que profesaran el paganismo o que hubieran magos y/o sacerdotes paganos entre sus líderes. Seguramente eran fugitivos que se unieron en grupos de guerreros y que participaban como mercenarios en las guerras, y hay indicios de que lucharon contra los príncipes rusos y húngaros.

La teoría de la descendencia aria
Según otra versión, los magos cosacos tienen su origen en las tribus arias de la Edad de Bronce el segundo milenio antes de Cristo, antes de su emigración hacia la India desde las estepas al norte del Mar Negro. Se decía que entre las tribus arias había guerreros mágicos, algunos de los cuales fueron a India donde fueron conocidos como los Maharati -soldados que eran capaces de defenderse contra un gran número de oponentes con la ayuda de artes marciales y prácticas místicas. Los Maharati son mencionados en la épica india del Mahabharata. El grupo que se quedó en las estepas del Mar Negro fue la base luego de los magos.

De todas formas, esta versión es dudosa, porque la historia de los pueblos del Mar Negro está bien documentada, incluso en épocas remotas.

Una comunidad de refugiados
Entre los cosacos no solo había gente que se escapaba de la tiranía de sus señores feudales polacos y los ataques de los Tártaros, sino también adivinos, videntes y magos negros. Muchos de estos profesionales de la magia usaban sus cualidades en el campo de batalla. También es importante decir que en aquella época los espectáculos circenses de magia eran muy populares en la Europa del Este.


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Dinsdag 3 april 2018

LOS MAGOS COSACOS: LA SOCIEDAD SECRETA DE LOS MAGOS GUERREROS DE UCRANIA

Casi todo el mundo ha oído hablar sobre los Ninja japoneses o sobre los Monjes Shaolin chinos. Ellos han sido muy bien promocionados por Hollywood. Pero pocos saben que hubo en Europa soldados cuyas habilidades eran iguales o superiores a las de los Ninjas o los Monjes Shaolin. Estos guerreros eran los Cosacos, y sus conocimientos se extendían incluso al uso de la magia.

¿Quienes eran los magos cosacos?

En el siglo XVI, en el territorio que abarca el sur de la actual Ucrania, se formó una organización llamada los Cosacos de Zaporozhia, que tenía su cuartel central en una fortaleza en el Río Dniéper llamada el Sich de Zaporozhia.

Sich de Zaporozhia reconstruido como museo.

Sus miembros procedían de varias clases sociales de la población de Ucrania, la cual era entonces parte de Polonia, un estado conocido como la Mancomunidad de Polonia-Lituania. Sus estructuras políticas estaban organizadas democraticamente, de una forma parecida a la de la comunidad de los piratas del Caribe. Las ocupaciones principales eran la caza, la pesca y el comercio. Los cosacos a menudo se rebelaban contra la Mancomunidad, y rara vez participaban en las campañas militares de la misma contra Rusia o contra Suecia. Cosacos en la lengua túrquica significa gente libre.

Entre estos cosacos que vivían en el Sich de Zaporozhia, se dice que había algunos que tenían habilidades mágicas, los llamados magos cosacos. Según el folclore cosaco, estos eran auténticos magos guerreros, los cuales provocaron el nacimiento de leyendas. Pero a diferencia de los guerreros de fantasía actuales, estos no lanzaban flechas luminosas o tiraban fuego de sus bastones. Sus armas y habilidades eran algo diferentes.

Según la imaginación de algunos, los cosacos eran capaces de esconder y encontrar tesoros, a curar las heridas con hechizos y a esquivar y parar las balas. Ellos podían cambiar el tiempo y abrir las puertas de los castillos con sus manos. Tenían barcos voladores que los llevaban de un lugar a otro de las estepas en cuestión de segundos. Tenían conocimientos de psicoterapia, hierbas tradicionales, y podían hipnotizar a la gente. También hay impresionantes historias sobre el entrenamiento físico sobrehumano que realizaban. Y muchas cosas más.

Los orígenes de los cosacos
Los orígenes de los magos cosacos están rodeados de misterio. Muchos creen que los legendarios cosacos descendían de los magos y sacerdotes eslavos de la antigüedad. Se dice que después de que el Príncipe Vladimir el Grande abandonó el Paganismo eslavo para convertirse al Cristianismo en el año 988 convirtiendo oficialmente a esta religión todo su pueblo, los sacerdotes no aceptaron que el Príncipe hubiera aceptado esta religión extranjera procedente del Imperio Bizantino y huyeron a las estepas, donde se convirtieron en señores de la guerra, y enseñaron artes marciales a sus seguidores.

De todas formas, todas estas cosas no tienen ninguna base histórica o arqueológica, aunque en las estepas entre el Mar de Azov y el río Danubio existían poblaciones eslavas las cuales pueden considerarse los precursores de los cosacos que participaron en las guerras internas de los príncipes rusos y en las campañas de los Cumanos en Bulgaria y en Hungría. Pero estas poblaciones vivieron dos siglos después del Príncipe Vladimir y no hay ninguna mención de que profesaran el paganismo o que hubieran magos y/o sacerdotes paganos entre sus líderes. Seguramente eran fugitivos que se unieron en grupos de guerreros y que participaban como mercenarios en las guerras, y hay indicios de que lucharon contra los príncipes rusos y húngaros.

La teoría de la descendencia aria
Según otra versión, los magos cosacos tienen su origen en las tribus arias de la Edad de Bronce el segundo milenio antes de Cristo, antes de su emigración hacia la India desde las estepas al norte del Mar Negro. Se decía que entre las tribus arias había guerreros mágicos, algunos de los cuales fueron a India donde fueron conocidos como los Maharati -soldados que eran capaces de defenderse contra un gran número de oponentes con la ayuda de artes marciales y prácticas místicas. Los Maharati son mencionados en la épica india del Mahabharata. El grupo que se quedó en las estepas del Mar Negro fue la base luego de los magos.

De todas formas, esta versión es dudosa, porque la historia de los pueblos del Mar Negro está bien documentada, incluso en épocas remotas.

Una comunidad de refugiados
Entre los cosacos no solo había gente que se escapaba de la tiranía de sus señores feudales polacos y los ataques de los Tártaros, sino también adivinos, videntes y magos negros. Muchos de estos profesionales de la magia usaban sus cualidades en el campo de batalla. También es importante decir que en aquella época los espectáculos circenses de magia eran muy populares en la Europa del Este.


Magic and Mystery.

Ethnologists are people who study human cultures and describe how they run. By poking about in the remnants of ancient societies, they can tell us a lot about how our distant ancestors lived. One thing ethnologists find to be common among just about all prehistoric cultures is superstition.

Even in our scientific age, when we have an explanation for most things, superstitions are widespread. The numbering of floors in many high-rise buildings jumps from 12 to 14 we pretend there is no thirteenth floor because of a superstitious belief that the number 13 is unlucky. Many people put horseshoes up on their homes, or wear particular clothing for an important event in the belief that these actions will bring them good luck.

So, try to imagine the power of superstition in a primitive society. So many things happened for which there was no explanation. It didn't take a vivid imagination to see a thunderstorm as evidence of an angry god. Suppose there was a drought and the game your tribe relied on for food died off wouldn't you, as a stone-age hunter, think some mysterious force was behind the misfortune?

Thousands of natural events - going blind, an earthquake, snow on a mountain top - gave rise to superstitions. And, at the same time, people came to believe there was a link between their own actions and these inexplicable events. The experts call this a belief in correspondences. It's still around today in students who carry a lucky charm such as a rabbit's foot, coin, or religious medal into an exam in the belief it will help them ace it, or the sports team taking to the field with its mascot.

At this point in ancient times, the magician enters the picture. At first, he or she might have had a knack for forecasting the weather. Superstitious people would be very impressed by someone who could tell that rain was going to fall the next day. They would be quick to believe this person had special powers, and magicians would be quick to encourage and exploit this. Soon, they would be inventing all sorts of rituals to improve the clan's chances of surviving from the mysterious forces over which magicians appeared to have some control. It's possible the first magicians and sorcerers were on the job soon after humans started to walk upright about a million years ago.

Those ethnologists we met earlier have studied cave paintings at Altamira in Spain, Lascaux in France, and elsewhere that date from 25,000 years ago. The paintings show animals, geometric designs, and human figures. The experts say these paintings were done to give hunters magical powers over the game they sought. Within the caves, magicians probably performed ceremonies and sacrifices intended to increase the supply of game. The knowledge of how to control the mysterious forces gave the magicians a special status.

So, it was the person who knew the secrets of how and when to use the magical powers who became the tribe's leader. The secrets were guarded and passed down from generation to generation within the ruling family - magician-king dynasties were founded.

Somewhere between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago, the magician king became the god king.

The line between magic and religion could get blurry. It wasn't long before that line disappeared altogether. The ancient Egyptians called their kings Pharaohs and believed them to be gods who walked among humans. Many of the early Roman Emperors were also believed to be gods.

Monarchs in these societies had the best of everything. They lived in magnificent palaces, were provided with the best food, enjoyed the finest entertainments of their times, had unlimited access to as many of the most desirable sex partners as they wanted, and were indulged in every way imaginable. But, they all shared an unfortunate occupational hazard if they didn't deliver the goods, in the form of rich harvests, or protection from flood, tempest, or plague, their lives were short. The failed monarch would be bumped off by family members in order to preserve the royal hold on power or by the disappointed community as a whole.

Some monarchs developed the scheme of appointing someone as a substitute king in case their divine powers failed. The substitute monarch then had the honour of dying on behalf of the real monarch. Surprisingly, it seems there was no shortage of volunteers for the stand-in role.

Among the Aztecs who ruled Mexico in the 14th and 15th centuries, the execution of substitute kings became an annual event. A young warrior, chosen from among those taken captive in war, would be made king for a year. He would be pampered royally for 12 months and then taken by priests to the top of a pyramid. There, stretched across a stone, his heart was cut out with a sharp knife and his head severed.

As the population of the tribe increased it needed new land. Aggressive tribes might start to hunt or plant on the land of a neighbouring clan. Conflicts arose that involved fighting. Magicians or gods, whatever their talents with spells and potions, might not be very effective on the battlefield. So, it became the practice to pick a young, vigorous, and courageous member of the magician's family to lead the tribe in warfare. It would have been assumed that the warrior would have inherited at least some magical powers.

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) built the largest empire the world had ever seen. His army conquered everyone from Greece to the Indus Valley of India, and down the Mediterranean coast into Egypt. He believed he was descended from the Greek gods Heracles and Achilles, and that he was the son of the god Amon. When Alexander's friend Cleitus criticized him for disowning his birth father, King Philip of Macedonia, the great warrior king plunged his spear into Cleitus's stomach.

Other warrior kings could be just as violent. Genghis Khan (1167-1227 AD) led his soldiers out of Mongolia to conquer a vast empire that stretched from China to Russia. As they advanced, the Mongol army left the land drenched in blood. At Herat alone they were said to have murdered more than a million and a half people. When Genghis Khan died, 40 slave girls and 40 horses were slaughtered in his honour.

In Africa, Shaka (1787-1828) became king of the Zulus in 1816. He reorganized his army, developed new fighting tactics, and wreaked havoc among neighbouring tribes in southern Africa. Shaka's conquests were followed by the extermination of anyone left alive.

Whether they were magicians, gods, or warriors all these early monarchs had One thing in common - their rule was absolute. Whatever they decided was the law, and, whatever the law, they were above it. They could do whatever they pleased with no restrictions on their power.

In 1887, the British historian and philosopher Lord Acton noted where such uncontrolled dominance could lead. In one of the world's most famous quotations Lord Acton wrote that "Power tends to corrupt absolute power corrupts absolutely." This is certainly true of many of the monarchs that wielded absolute power. It was corruption, or the refusal to give any of their powers to the common people, or both, that brought down many of world's most important royal houses.

Assign individual students to research the lives of the following monarchs and present five-minute reports on them to class:

Philosopher - Edward of Portugal (1391-1438)

Gods - Sargon of Akkad (24th-23rd century BC) Pachacutec of the Incas (1438-71)

Warriors - Richard I of England (1157-1199) Timur of Mongolia (1336-1405).

RELATED ARTICLE: GOD KINGS

For almost 700 years, starting in 1185, Japan was ruled by powerful warlords called Shoguns. During those seven centuries, Emperors followed one another but they were virtual prisoners of the Shoguns and lived in poverty. Under the Shoguns, Japan remained a backward, divided, and isolated country.

In the mid-1800s, a movement to restore the Emperor to his former power started. Prince Ito Hirobumi was a major organizer of the restoration of the monarchy which he saw as a unifying force in the country. By 1868, the Emperor Meiji had recaptured the mystery and power of his ancient ancestors. Prince Ito also used religion as a unifying force. In 1868, religion in Japan centred around thousands of local gods. Prince Ito brought back the ancient practice of Shinto, which had fallen into disuse in Japan, and made it the state religion. Under Shinto doctrine, the Emperor governed by divine right through his direct descent from the Sun goddess Amaterasu Omikami. Prince Ito drafted a new constitution for Japan and in a commentary on it he wrote: "The Emperor is heaven descended, divine, and sacred. He is pre-eminent above all his subjects."

Within one generation the Japanese people came to regard their monarch as a god who they loved and worshipped. But, it wasn't long before they had to adjust again.

The Emperor Hirohito was on the throne from 1926 to 1989. He allowed his military leaders to take the country into World War II, and Japan's forces committed terrible atrocities in his name. Eventually, Japan was crushed. The Emperor cooperated with occupation forces and presided over the conversion of Japan into a democracy. In 1946, he publicly denied his divinity, and the Japanese monarchy was reduced to ceremonial functions.

RELATED ARTICLE: WARRIOR KINGS

Charles XII of Sweden seems to have been an unpleasant man. Here's how Harold Nicholson describes him in his book Monarchy: "He was sullen, secretive, inarticulate, and unwashed . he never noticed what he ate and he never touched wine: he was harsh and stark in all his ways he seemed totally unaware of the sufferings to which . he exposed his armies and his country." Yet, this man who had no personal magnetism was able to command the loyalty of his soldiers through 20 years of warfare, sometimes triumphant and sometimes disastrous.

He came to the throne in 1697 at the age of 14. In 1700, Sweden was attacked by Denmark, Poland, and Russia at the beginning of the Great Northern War. Within two weeks, Charles knocked the Danes out of the war. A few months later, in a blinding snowstorm, he personally led the attack that destroyed the whole Russian army. His third foe, Augustus II of Poland and Saxony, withdrew and settled for peace. In 1707, Charles made his big mistake he attacked Russia. After two years of fighting, he lost most of his army at the Battle of Poltava in Ukraine. He fled to Turkey and governed Sweden from there for five years. He returned to Sweden which was once again under attack, and Charles led his soldiers into Norway. While laying siege to the fortress of Fredriksten in 1718, he stuck his head up out of a trench and stopped a Norwegian sniper's bullet.

RELATED ARTICLE: PHILOSOPHER KINGS

The Greek philosopher Plato wrote that the ideal form of government was led by what he called "Guards" and what later scholars renamed "Philosopher Kings." These supermen would have "perfect knowledge," which they would acquire through long and rigorous training. They would govern to achieve the maximum amount of happiness for the state as a whole. Philosopher kings would not seek to benefit personally from their position and would rule only through the power of reason. There would be no restriction on their powers and there would be censorship to prevent "wrong ideas" from being expressed.

Plato admitted that his "Guards/Philosopher Kings" were probably not a practical proposition. However, there have been rulers who tried to give his philosophical notion a real form. Notable among these is Marcus Aurelius. He was born in 121 AD into one of the Roman Empire's richest and noblest families. In his youth, he slept on bare boards and trained himself to be indifferent to food, heat, or cold. He studied philosophy and held several important government jobs, while consciously setting out to be the model king when his time came, which it did in 161.

Marcus Aurelius lived simply with no courtiers or elaborate ceremonies. He surrounded himself with learned men with whom he would discuss the nature of goodness. In his Meditations he defined perfect kingship. He wrote that the ruler must be the first servant of the people. He should "prize above all things the liberty of the subject." No amount of wealth, no bodyguard, can ever protect a ruler, unless he "has first of all the goodwill of the governed."

During his reign he refined many laws to improve the lives of less fortunate people such as slaves, widows, and minors. He sold his personal possessions to reduce suffering from famine and plague. He founded schools, orphanages, and hospitals for the poor and cut taxes.

For all his goodness, Marcus Aurelius was neither a good general nor a great administrator. He got bogged down in wars he couldn't win and the state's finances were handled poorly during his reign.