Gwin TB-16 - History

Gwin TB-16 - History


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Gwin

William Gwin was born 6 December 1832 in Columbus, Inc, and appointed a Midshipman 7 April 1847. One of the most promising officers in the nation, he had risen to the rank of Lieutenant Commander by the time of his death. During the Civil War he commanded several ships of the Mississippi Squadron. He was one of Flag Officer Foote's "can do" officers, displaying outstanding initiative, energy and dash. After the fall of Fort Henry he swept with his wooden gunboats up the Tennessee River all the way to regions of Alabama, spreading destruction and terror. This action was a major factor in the collapse Of the Confederate lines far behind him in Kentucky. Fire support from two of his gunboats, Tyler and Lexington, helped save Union troops from disaster in the Battle of Shiloh, bringing high praise from General Grant. He was wounded in action 27 December 1862 while commanding gunboat Benton in the Battle of Haines Bluff on the Yazoo River. He died from these injuries 3 January 1863 on board a hospital ship in the Mississippi River.

I

(TB-16: dp. 46, 1. 100' b. 12'6", dr. 3'3", s. 20 k.
cpl. 16; a. i 1-pdr., 2 18" tt)

The first Gwin (TB-16) was launched 15 November 1897 by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Co., Bristol, R.I. commissioned at Newport 4 April 1898, L,t. (j.g.) C. S. Williams in command. She departed Newport 24 June, cruising down the eastern seaboard as far as Florida, thence on patrol Off Cuba during 6 to 14 August 1898 as America went to war with Spain. She returned north to Annapolis 31 August and served as cadet training ship for the Naval Academy until placed in reserve at Norfolk 10 July 1903.

Gwin remained in reserve until June 1908 when she began assisting In experimental torpedo work out of Newport, R.I. This duty terminated 18 April 1914 when Gwin decommissioned for use as a ferryboat. On 11 April 1918 her name was changed to Cyane and she was reclassified YFW4 on 17 July 1920. Her name was struck from the Navy List 30 April 1925 and she was sold for scrapping 24 September 1925.


Person:David Gwinn (1)

Augusta County records show that David Gwin purchsed the farm of John Peoples, Sr. from his two sons, John and Thomas Peoples in 1805. John and Thomas Peoples moved to Kentucky and Missouri respectfully. This land was originally patented by Captain Wallace Estill in 1746 and John Peoples, Sr. purchased it in 1772 fromCaptain Wallace Estill.

David Gwin served as Lieutenant and Captain in the Revolutionary War. He commanded a company at the battle of Guilford Court House. (Ibid., Vol. I, pg 199 and 204 Vol. II, pg 494 and 495 A History of Highland County, Oren F. Morton, pg 193 and 222 Annals of Bath County, Virginia, Oren F. Morton, pg 95 and 96 Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary WAr, J. T. McAllister, Sectins 33, 58, 76, 92 and 253 Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, Jos. A. Waddell, pg 281 and Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, John H. Gwathmey, pg 334).

The south branch valley chapter of the Virginia Daughters of the American Revolution placed a memorial marker over his grave, together with a government marker on August 14, 1936. The government marker was secured through the efforts of Geo. W. Cleek, Staunton, Virginia, a descendant of Captain David Gwin.


RonDoids

This Day In Naval History - August 11
1812 - USS Constitution captures and destroys brig Lady Warren
1887: Prof. Asaph Hall of the U.S. Naval Observatory discovers the first of two satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, using the largest refractor of the time, a USNO 26-inch (66-cm) telescope. He found the second one within a week.
1898 - During the Spanish-American War, USS Cushing (TB 1), USS Gwin (TB 16), and USS McKee (TB 18) captured and burned the Spanish schooner Jover Genard at Carendas, Cuba.
1921 - Carrier arresting gear first tested at Hampton Roads.
1960 - USNS Longview, using Navy helicopters and frogmen, recovers a Discover satellite capsule after 17 orbits. This is first recovery of U.S.
satellite from orbit.
1967 U.S. pilots cleared to bomb Hanoi-Haiphong area »
This Day In Naval History - August 12
1812 - USS Constitution captures and destroys brig Adeona
1918: The Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels approves the acceptance of women in the Marine Corps. The following day, Aug. 13, Opha M. Johnson becomes the first woman Marine.
1942 - USS Cleveland (CL-55) demonstrates effectiveness of radio-proximity fuze (VT-fuze) against aircraft by successfully destroying 3 drones with proximity bursts fired by her five inch guns.
1944 - LT Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., USNR, the older brother of John F.
Kennedy, was killed with his co-pilot in a mid-air explosion after taking off from England in a PB4Y from Special Attack Unit One (SAU-1). Following manual takeoff, they were supposed to parachute out over the English Channel while the radio-controlled explosive filled drone proceeded to attack a German V-2 missile-launching site. Possible causes include faulty wiring or FM signals from a nearby transmitter.
1957 - In first test of Automatic Carrier Landing System, LCDR Don Walker is landed on USS Antietam.
1958 - USS Nautilus (SSN-571) arrives Portland, England completing first submerged under ice cruise from Pacific to Atlantic Oceans.
This Day In Naval History - August 13
1777 - American explosive device made by David Bushnell explodes near British vessel off New London, CT.
1846 - Joint expedition led by CDR Robert Stockton seizes Los Angeles, CA
1870 - Armed tug Palos becomes first U.S. Navy ship to transit Suez Canal
August 11
991
Danes under Olaf Tryggvason kill Ealdorman Byrhtnoth and defeat the Saxons at Maldon.
1492
Rodrigo Borgia is elected to the papacy as Pope Alexander VI.
1792
A revolutionary commune is formed in Paris, France.
1856
A band of rampaging settlers in California kill four Yokut Indians. The settlers had heard unproven rumors of Yokut atrocities.
1862
President Abraham Lincoln appoints Union General Henry Halleck to the position of general in chief of the Union Army.
1904
German General Lothar von Trotha defeats the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa.
1906
In France, Eugene Lauste receives the first patent for a talking film.
1908
Britain's King Edward VII meets with Kaiser Wilhelm II to protest the growth of the German navy.
1912
Moroccan Sultan Mulai Hafid abdicates his throne in the face of internal dissent.
1916
The Russia army takes Stanislau, Poland, from the Germans.
1929
Babe Ruth hits his 500th major league home run against the Cleveland Indians.
1941
Soviet bombers raid Berlin but cause little damage.
1942
The German submarine U-73 attacks a Malta-bound British convoy and sinks HMS Eagle, one of the world's first aircraft carriers.
1944
German troops abandon Florence, Italy, as Allied troops close in on the historic city.
1965
A small clash between the California Highway Patrol and two black youths sets off six days of rioting in the Watts area of Los Angeles.
1972
The last U.S. ground forces withdraw from Vietnam.
1975
US vetoes admission of North and South Vietnam to UN.
1978
Funeral of Pope Paul VI.
1984
Carl Lewis wins four Olympic gold medals, tying the record Jesse Owens set in 1936.
1988
Al Qaeda formed at a meeting in Peshawar, Pakistan.
1989
Voyager 2 discovers two partial rings around Neptune.
1990
Troops from Egypt and Morocco arrive in Saudi Arabia as part of the international operation to prevent Iraq from invading.
1999
A tornado in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah, kills one person.
2003
Temperatures rise to 112 degrees Fahrenheit (44 degrees Celsius) over 140 people die in the heat wave.
2003

NATO assumes command of the international peacekeeping force in Afghanistan, its first major operation outside Europe.

if you want to live longer!

Interview with 101 year-old Hattie Mae MacDonald of Feague, Kentucky:

Reporter: Can you give us some health tips for reaching the age of 101?

Hattie : For better digestion, I drink beer.

In the case of appetite loss, I drink white wine.

For low blood pressure I drink red wine.

In the case of high blood pressure, I drink scotch.

And when I have a cold, I drink Schnapps.
Reporter : When do you drink water?
Hattie : I've never been that sick.

You have been hearing that China has put troops on their border with North Korea. That is only to prevent millions of starving North Koreans from migrating into China and becoming their responsibility. North Korea is totally dependent on China for just about everything they need. They can grow rice, but they produce very little else. Fuel must come from China, as well as most of their staples. So our pressure upon China is to bring Kim down to earth and to stop threatening us. China knows that a war in their neighborhood would overwhelm them with refugees. So, the ball is in their court.

2013: Obama admin tried to KILL this report! Obama knew about North Korea's miniaturized nukes bought from Iran. and he still went ahead with his "Iran Deal"

Obama administration knew about North Korea's miniaturized nukes

By Fred Fleitz Published August 09, 2017

Tuesday's bombshell Washington Post story that the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) has determined North Korea is capable of constructing miniaturized nuclear weapons that could be used as warheads for missiles – possibly ICBMs – left out a crucial fact: DIA actually concluded this in 2013. The Post also failed to mention that the Obama administration tried to downplay and discredit this report at the time.

During an April 11, 2013, House Armed Services Committee hearing, Congressman Doug Lamborn, R-Colo., inadvertently revealed several unclassified sentences from a DIA report that said DIA had determined with "moderate confidence" that North Korea has the capability to make a nuclear weapon small enough to be launched with a ballistic missile.

The Director of National Intelligence and Obama officials subsequently tried to dismiss Lamborn's disclosure by claiming the DIA assessment was an outlier that did not reflect the views of the rest of the U.S. Intelligence Community.

Obama officials tried to downplay the DIA assessment to prevent it from being used to force the president to employ a more assertive North Korea policy.

It was clear what Obama officials were doing in 2013. The DIA report represented inconvenient facts that threatened President Obama's North Korea "strategic patience" policy -- a policy to do nothing about North Korea and kick this problem down the road to the next president. Obama officials tried to downplay the DIA assessment to prevent it from being used to force the president to employ a more assertive North Korea policy.

It's worth noting that the Trump White House has not condemned the Washington Post story as a leak. That's probably because it was an authorized disclosure of classified information to advance President Trump's North Korea strategy. That is, instead of concealing intelligence to avoid taking action against the tough North Korea problem like the Obama administration did, the Trump administration publicized this same intelligence to demonstrate the seriousness of this threat and why decisive action by the United States is required.

I believe Trump officials timed the release of the North Korea missile warhead information to bolster their efforts to pressure China to abide by new sanctions imposed on North Korea last weekend by the UN Security Council. If so, this is a good strategy to highlight to Beijing the urgency that it abide by these sanctions and also implement other kinds of diplomatic and economic pressure against North Korea that it has so far refused to employ. As I wrote in an August 7 Fox News Opinion article, this may be China's last chance to prevent a military conflict with North Korea.

Americans need to recognize as they ponder the increasingly dangerous North Korea situation that the Obama administration not only refused to do anything about this crisis but tried to downplay and conceal intelligence from the American people and Congress on how serious it was.

Fred Fleitz is senior vice president for policy and programs with the Center for Security Policy, a national security think tank. Follow him on [email protected]

So, where did North Korea get the plans to make a nuke ?

Well, North Korea got it from China, and China got it from Russia, and Russia got it from us. Yes, spies and traitors in our midst delivered the secrets and the uranium ore to the Russians in the closing days of World War II. Let me tell you a bit of how that was accomplished.

First of all, there was a race between us and the Germans to develop an Atomic bomb.Whoever got it first would win the war. But some smart scientists defected and came here, and with our home team built the two bombs that ended World War II with the bombing of Japan. That was the Manhattan Project. President Truman's decision to end the war with Japan likely saved a million of our soldiers and Marine's lives. And several million Japanese.

Germany would have likely beat us to it but for some courageous commandos who slipped in and destroyed their supply of Heavy Water, or D20. Duterium oxide. (Get the movie, "The Heroes of Telemark' for one).

But here on the homefront, President Roosesvelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill had met secretly at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland and later they both met with the chairman of the Soviet Union, Josef Stalin at Yalta and Potsdam. Not much is known of what was discussed and agreed upon at those meetings.

But both Churchill and Roosevelt were surrounded by Soviet agents. Churchill had the 'Cambridge Five', led by Harold "Kim" Philby who got the secrets to Stalin immediately. You can google them and read up.

Roosevelt never knew it, but his three closest friends and advisors were working for Stalin. They were Harry Dexter White, Alger Hiss, and Harry Hopkins. Hopkins felt that Stalin should be as well off as we were in the atomic bomb race. So, according to an Army Major who kept a diary, later released in an obscure book, "Major Jordan's Diary" he told of the material being sent to the Russians via Great Falls, Montana to Fairbanks, Alaska and on to Siberia. He recorded hundreds of suitcases of uranium ore labeled under diplomatic cover. He also saw blueprints in diplomatic pouches going to the USSR.

The Russians were an ally, but they were never a 'friend'. Stalin had his own agenda and it was domination of all Eastern Europe. He had made a pact with Adolph Hitler before the war on how Europe would be divided after Germany won the war. But Hitler made a big mistake, Operation Barbarossa, and once he had conquered all of Western Europe, he turned his Army loose on Russia. Stalin wanted the Americans to get into the war in Europe to take the pressure off his forces. And you know from the recent movie, 'Dunkirk" the Germans had driven the British and French Armies into the sea. Stalin felt that we delayed our landing on Normandy so that the Russian Army and the German Army would destroy each other.

While it was not widely known, the Russians were 'liberating' the German's POW camps, or Stalags, that were holding our men and putting them on trains to Siberia, never to return. The took away 25,600 American POWs. General Patton knew this and wanted to go after them and fight the Russians right now while they were in a weakened state from taking Berlin. He raised such a storm that Supreme Commander General Eisenhower decided to have him assassinated. Squeaky wheel gets replaced, you know. He passed the order to General 'Wild Bill' Donovan of the OSS and he assigned it to OSS agent Douglas Bazata. But he botched it. The plan was to slam into Patton's staff car with a big Army truck, but it didn't kill him. It only broke his neck. He was taken to the Army Hospital at Heidelberg and while in traction it is believed the Russian came in and gave him the needle. Bazata said he did not go to the hospital.
So, we had the advantage with any conflict with the Russians, but it died there. Within a month, the Iron Curtain would fall from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste and we would enter thirty years of a Cold War that few even know about.

The Russians built the atomic bomb and in 1949 tested their first one in Kazakhstan. We no longer had the advantage.

Vice President Harry Truman was thrust unexpectedly into the presidency upon the death of President Roosevelt. He served out FDR's fourth term and ran for election against Tom Dewey. He beat Dewey. the New York Times had backed Dewey and printed the Headlines "Dewey Defeats Truman" and delivered the papers to the news stands at Midnight, but by Dawn the count was final and Truman won. Same mistake in backing Hillary Clinton, it would seem.

Two of the spies that tried to get the plans to the Russians were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. The FBI arrested them and President Eisenhower had them electrocuted at Sing Sing Prison. Congressman Richard Nixon would bring Alger Hiss to trial and send him to prison. But Hopkins and White skated.

So, that's how it all happened.

Thanks to John…I live here and we are on the slippery slope to be sure

…Judicial Watch lays out the specifics: "[T]here were more total registered voters than there were adults over the age of 18 living in each of the following eleven (11) counties: Imperial (102%), Lassen (102%), Los Angeles (112%), Monterey (104%), San Diego (138%), San Francisco (114%), San Mateo (111%), Santa Cruz (109%), Solano (111%), Stanislaus (102%), and Yolo (110%)." The letter notes that the percentage in L.A. Country may be as high as 144%.

The musings, rants, and dissertations of 3 retired military guys and 1 chick. Two Air Force, two Navy. Old AF Sarge, Juvat, Tuna, & LUSH.

Dunkirk Air Tasking Order

ATO A: USCINCCHANT UNCLAS EXER/ //
MSGID/AIR TASKING ORDER #1(G.I.)//AOC//
PERID/201707240000Z/TO:2017072359Z//
AIRTASK/ATO A//
TASKUNIT/JUVAT (AIR PIRATE)//
MSNDAT/AF003/-/juvat/1XF150/AIR SUPERIORITY (OF COURSE)/15M/A1/-/31511-//
TGTLOC/FRITZTOWN CINEMA//
AMPN/A. OBSERVE AND EVALUATE BOTH FRIENDLY AND ENEMY AIR ACTIVITY VIC DUNKIRK. AS THIS MISSION WILL REQUIRE TIME TRAVEL, DO NOT ENGAGE ENEMY UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. OUR LAST SORTIE OF THIS TYPE (OPERATION PRAIRIE ADVENTURE) WITH CVN68, ALMOST CAUSED A TEMPORAL RIFT FOREVER ALTERING THE TIME LINE. WE WON WWII WITHOUT ANY INTERFERENCE, DO NOT ENGAGE NO MATTER HOW EFFECTIVE AN F-15 WOULD BE AGAINST FOKKERS AND MESSERSCHMITS AND FOKKERS FLYING MESSERSCHMITS.

B. REPORT OBSERVATIONS AND EVALUATIONS TO THIS HQ NLT 201707241100Z.//

Given the above tasking from USCincChant, callsign Sarge, I entered the target area at precisely 201707221850Z (1350 local. All right! 1:50PM Saturday! Sheesh, a guy can't wander around dreaming of his Glory Days?)

The mission, as assigned, was to evaluate the "flying sequences" for accuracy. The short version is they were pretty good with a couple of "nice touches" that few would have noticed had they been omitted, but that showed RJ Casey, the Aerial Safety Coordinator/Military Advisor, knew what he was about.

Before I get into the specifics of the above mission, first let me say, I went to a theater, by choice, by myself, at almost 2 O'Clock on a Saturday.

It was exhilarating! I compounded the Decadence by consuming an ice cold Shiner Bock while watching the movie evaluating the tactics.

Also, let me say this, Yes, my precious snowflake, whomever you are, there are no "people of color" or women in any significant role in the movie. There is the possibility that French Senaglese troops were there, but the French forces played little role in the movie either. Similarly, for injured troops being rescued, the female nurses were singularly important to them personally, but again played little role in this story.

Get over it. The solar system revolves around the Sun, not Uranus!

Given that there are only two intact Stukas left in the world and neither are flyable, their scenes were done with radio controlled aircraft. That having been said, I had to google that info before I realized that the movie used radio controlled models for their scenes, they were that well done.

However, the smaller size of the R/C aircraft as well as sheer physics of cameras led to a historical error. According to Hans Rudel in his book "Stuka Pilot" standard Stuka tactics would involve approaching the target at 15000', then push over or roll and pull into an 80odive.

With a dive this steep accuracy is greatly enhanced. (If I've done the math right, you've traveled about 2350' forward from 15000' until the release point. Compared to a little over 6000' for the usual 30o dive used back in my day.)

So, putting an actual Stuka (with a 45' wingspan) at altitude to give the picture historical accuracy would have meant filming an object only slightly bigger than the size of this period.

Another factor was the extreme stress on the aircraft in the recovery from the dive. Because of this, the actual Stuka required a dive checklist to be completed before the attack began. That checklist looked like this:

Landing flaps at cruise position

Elevator at cruise position

Rudder trip at cruise position
Contact altimeter ON
Contact altimeter set to release altitude
Supercharger set at automatic
Throttle fully closed
Cooler flaps closed
Dive brakes open

All that would have been difficult to achieve in an R/C aircraft.

So, the dive angles weren't quite right.

The second quibble about the Stukas was there were 5 explosions during the attack on the beach. True Stukas carried 5 bombs (1 x 250kg +4 x 50kg), but they would have been released in pairs from the wings. The reason the bombs would have been released in pairs is that releasing them singly would have induced a differential in lift and drag on the two wings, inducing a lateral motion of some sort, thereby reducing accuracy.

However, even though the Stukas were in a lower angle dive than was historically accurate, and as mentioned above, the horizontal distance across the ground was increased, the string of bomb explosions was accurate in that there were a long string of separate explosions.

So, Stuka tactics in the movie were not exactly historically accurate, but aerodynamically accurate and would reflect modern air to ground tactics.

Again, a certain amount of tactical accuracy had to be sacrificed simply to film the movie. Air to Air action, even in WWII (heck, even in WWI) involves a lot of space, both horizontally and vertically. So getting all the players into one camera scene means the formations and the maneuvering has to be tighter and smaller than would be the case in reality.

That having been said, the escort formation on the Heinkel was correct. The Messerschmits (with their Fokkers in them) were above and behind the bomber positioning themselves in between the bomber and the most probable avenue of attack.

Wider spread, Excellent post describing the how and why of the formation at the source.

There formation was accurate for Luftwaffe formations at the time. The wingman was positioned far enough away from his lead to protect his six as well as to keep a lookout.

The defensive jinking of the ME-109s was far more accurately portrayed than that of the Spitfires. He was changing all three planes as he jinked, vastly improving his chances of survival. But, let's be honest. If someone shows up at your six and the first time you see him is when he opens fire, your chances of survival, or at least returning the aircraft to maintenance undamaged are next to non-existent. So any improvement to those chances is a vast one.

So, the realism of the ME-109 scenes was accurate within the confines of camera physics.

Initially, I thought the Spitfire scenes were the least accurate in the film. Then I realized that, in fact, they were the MOST accurate. The Luftwaffe had cut their teeth in the Spanish Civil War and learned what formations and tactics had worked and, more importantly, what had not.

The RAF however had not had that advantage, and entered WWII with only lessons learned from the First War. They would learn fast, and indeed, according to this post, shot down 326 Luftwaffe aircraft to the loss of 121 of their own during the extraction.

One of those lessons was shown in the first scene of the Spitfires. They're flying in what was referred to as the VIC formation, and the intent was to concentrate all three aircraft's weapons on a single target. The two wingman fly fingertip formation on each wing of the leaders apparently having no other responsibilities other than to be gun bearers. That's about all they CAN do since, having flown fingertip a time or two in my day, I'm here to tell you that the wingman's attention is 98% consumed with flying formation. He can only spare a quick glance at a fuel gauge or a radio channel change.

Visual lookout is non-existent in this formation.

Yet, it was the standard combat formation for the RAF up til someone recognized the error of their ways during the Battle of Britain and the RAF adapted a version of the Luftwaffe spread formation for the rest of the war.
Similarly, at no point in the movie, except when they were actually under fire, did I see a Spitfire pilot actively "Checking Six".

I think I actually said "Move the aircraft and check six" out loud as, during one scene, a Spitfire watched his target slowly crash into the sea. Sure enough, everyone else in the audience jumped in their seat as the bullets started flying around him. I think I mumbled something along the lines of "Tolja, ya dumb SOB"

But, that is an entirely accurate situation. At that moment in time, the Spit pilot was master of the universe and invincible. I understand the feeling but it was hammered into me, in F-15 school, that the second most dangerous place to be in an Air to Air engagement is in the general vicinity of your victim. The first being, of course, in the cockpit of your victim.

Move the aircraft, and check six. "Bastards have brothers!"

One of the things that I did find very accurate was the gun shots. Neither Spitfire pilot pulled the trigger (yes, the Spit didn't have a trigger, it had a firing button, I know) when he had enough lead. Just like any shot taken on a moving target, you don't aim where he is, you aim where he will be when the bullets arrive.

The pilots pushed the button (OK?) when the pipper was on the target. That is correct nowadays with lead computing sights that account for time of flight, but that wasn't the case back then. However. the movie correctly portrayed the shots taken with that aimpoint as misses.

I did notice that during those engagements, my legs tensed up, my breath started coming in little gasps, my head would lean in the direction of the turn and my right arm would be moving also. It was a good thing it was a matinee, dark, and there wasn't anybody within about 10 feet of me.

I also noticed one of those little "bon mots" I spoke of earlier. In the first fight scene, as the leader spots the ME-109s. He calls them out and then says "Feet up on the bar, boys". That is a little known and totally accurate thing about the Spitfire. It's rudder pedals had an upper level to them. When about to engage in high G maneuvering combat, Spit pilots would put their feet on the upper level, to reduce the amount of blood pooling in their legs which improved G tolerance by keeping more blood (AKA Oxygen) in the brain.

Since that was in one of the initial scenes, it was one of my first indications that this was going to be a good movie. I was not disappointed, and I highly recommend it.

To be honest, the credits hadn't even started rolling when I texted Sarge "Great Fricking Movie!"

Item Number:1 Date: 08/11/2017 AFGHANISTAN - ISIS COMMANDER DIES IN CLASH WITH TALIBAN IN NORTHERN JOWZJAN PROVINCE (AUG 11/XIN) XINHUA -- A key Islamic State commander in northern Afghanistan has been killed in fighting with Taliban militants, say local police, as cited by Xinhua, China's state news agency. The commander, named Ansar, was killed on Thursday in a gunbattle in the Qushtipa district of Jowzjan province. Two Taliban fighters were also killed, according to provincial police officials. There was no immediate comment on the incident by either ISIS or the Taliban. The two militant groups occasionally fight over territory.

Item Number:2 Date: 08/11/2017 COLOMBIA - ELN MAY DECLARE UNILATERAL TRUCE FOR POPE'S VISIT, SAYS REBEL LEADER (AUG 11/VOA) VOICE OF AMERICA NEWS -- A top guerrilla leader says Colombia's Marxist National Liberation Army (ELN) could announce a unilateral cease-fire during a papal visit next month, reports the Voice of America News. Pope Francis is scheduled to visit Colombia in September. The ELN and the Colombian government have been holding peace talks in Ecuador since February. A temporary bilateral cease-fire is possible for the visit, said an ELN leader late Wednesday, as cited by Reuters. "We're going to make all the necessary effort so that the cease-fire is bilateral, but if it's not achievable we will consider the possibility of making it unilateral," he said. The ELN was founded in 1964 by Marxist rebels. It was long supported by radical Catholic priests.

Item Number:3 Date: 08/11/2017 CUBA - U.S., CANADIAN DIPLOMATS SUFFER HEARING LOSS IN HAVANA PROBE UNDERWAY ABOUT SONIC ATTACK (AUG 11/CNN) CABLE NEWS NETWORK -- The U.S. government believes State Dept. employees in Cuba have been attacked by a sonic device, reports CNN. The mysterious hearing loss of diplomats posted to Havana has prompted an investigation, say Canadian and U.S. officials, as reported by Agence France-Presse. Multiple U.S. diplomats in Havana began suffering unexplained loss of hearing beginning in fall 2016, State Dept. officials told CNN. At least two had to return to the U.S. for treatment. The Canadian government said on Thursday that at least one of its diplomats has been treated for hearing loss. The cause may have been a sonic device capable of operating outside the range of audible sound, say officials. Two Cuban diplomats were expelled from Washington in May. The explusion order was a response to Cuba's failure to keep foreign diplomats safe, a State Dept. official said, as reported by the Washington Post.

Item Number:4 Date: 08/11/2017 DENMARK - PRIVATE SUBMARINE SINKS NAVY RESCUES OWNER ONBOARD (AUG 11/LOCAL) THE LOCAL -- The Danish navy has rescued an inventor whose submarine sank south of Copehagen on Friday, reports the Local (Denmark). The 17-meter (55-foot) Nautilus is considered the world's largest private submarine. It was built by Peter Madsen in 2008. The sub sank Friday in Koge Bay, south of the Danish capital. The boat had lost contact because of bad radio connection, said Madsen, who was aboard with a Swedish journalist. (The journalist apparently left the day before.) Danish naval forces were alerted after the sub failed to arrive at its scheduled time. The military deployed three ships and two helicopters, locating the sub about eight hours later

Item Number:5 Date: 08/11/2017 ESTONIA - U.S. AIRBORNE TROOPS TO AUGMENT AMERICAN PRESENCE IN ESTONIA DURING RUSSIAN DRILLS (AUG 11/BNS) BALTIC NEWS SERVICE -- The U.S. military has decided to strengthen its presence in Estonia during the upcoming Belarusian-Russian Zapad military exercises, reports the Baltic News Service. A company from the 173rd Airborne Brigade, based in Vicenza, Italy, is scheduled to arrive in Estonia at the end of August, according to an Estonian military spokesman. The unit will consist of about 150 soldiers, the spokesman said. Zapad, an annual bilateral drill held by Belarus and Russia, is scheduled for Sept. 14-20. Previous exercises have included simulated invasions of the Baltic states and Poland. The size of the drills is uncertain. Some Russian officials have indicated perhaps 13,000 will take part, though Western accounts have suggested up to 100,000 Russians might be involved, noted the National Interest

Item Number:6 Date: 08/11/2017 INDONESIA - POLICE DETAIN RECRUITER FOR ISIS EFFORTS IN SYRIA, PHILIPPINES (AUG 11/ANADOLU) ANADOLU NEWS AGENCY -- Indonesian anti-terrorism police have arrested an alleged recruiter for the Islamic State, reports the Anadolu Agency (Turkey). The suspect, a furniture seller identified only as S.P., was picked up on Friday in Tangerang City in Banten province, said a spokesman for the national police. The man raised funds for ISIS and sent Indonesian citizens to the southern Philippines and Syria, charged police. The suspect is believed to be a member of Jemaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD), a group that has pledged allegiance to ISIS, said police cited by Reuters. He reportedly "found people to send to Marawi and Syria," said police. At least 500 Indonesians have joined ISIS in Syria and more than 40 are in Marawi in the Philippines. Militants have been clashing with government forces in that city for months. Separately, 17 Indonesians who joined ISIS in the northern Syrian city of Raqqa were returned and handed over to Indonesian officials, said Indonesia's Foreign Ministry on Thursday.

Item Number:7 Date: 08/11/2017 JAPAN - WITH CONCERNS ADDRESSED BY U.S., TOKYO OKS RESUMPTION OF MARINE OSPREY FLIGHTS (AUG 11/JAP) JAPAN TODAY -- Having been assured by the U.S. that the Osprey is safe, the Japanese government has approved continued flights of U.S. Marine MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, reports Japan Today. Concerns about the aircraft had again rose after an Osprey went down on Aug. 5 during exercises with Australia off its northern coast. Japanese Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera asked the U.S. to temporarily ground all MV-22 flights. On Friday, Japan's Defense Ministry said that the U.S. military was "taking reasonable measures" and that its "explanation that it can conduct safe flights of MV-22 Ospreys is understandable." The statement was made after the Marine Corps concluded that the Osprey was safe to fly and resumed operations. Though the tiltrotor aircraft did have problems during its development, the Osprey is one of the safest in the Marine air fleet, the service maintains.

Item Number:8 Date: 08/11/2017 LEBANON - ARMY STRIKES ISIS ENCLAVE NEAR SYRIAN BORDER WITH ARTILLERY, MISSILES (AUG 11/AL-MASDAR) AL-MASDAR NEWS -- The Lebanese army is still hitting Islamic State targets along the border region with Syria, reports Al-Masdar News. Army units began shelling ISIS positions in the Ras Baalbek region of the Beqaa province early Thursday, destroying several positions, said the army. Attack helicopters were also deployed, the army said. The actions were briefly put on hold for negotiations. However, the terror group refused an offer to discuss their surrender, said a Lebanese intelligence official. Lebanon been gearing up in recent days for an assault to dislodge ISIS militants in the region, noted China's Xinhua

Item Number:9 Date: 08/11/2017 PAKISTAN - ISLAMABAD CONSIDERS BUYING 100 OPLOT TANKS FROM UKRAINE (AUG 11/DN) DEFENSE NEWS -- The Ukrainian government is negotiating the sale of 100 Oplot main battle tanks to Pakistan, reports Defense News. Should the deal be completed, Kiev plans to use the funds to modernize its defense industry facilities and invest in research and development, according to the Gazeta Wyborcza daily (Warsaw, Poland). In the 1990s, Ukraine delivered 320 T-84UD tanks to Pakistan in a US$600 million deal. If concluded, would be the second export sale of the Oplot. A contract for 49 of the tanks was reached with Thailand in 2011.

Item Number:10 Date: 08/11/2017 PAKISTAN - REMOTE-CONTROLLED ROADSIDE EXPLOSION KILLS CIVILIANS IN NORTHWEST (AUG 11/GEOTV) GEO TV -- A roadside bomb has killed multiple people in Bajaur in Pakistan's northwestern tribal region, reports Geo TV (Pakistan). Friday's remote-controlled blast took place in the Chahrmang area of Nawagai town. The explosion hit a truck with civilians, including many laborer, noted Newsweek Pakistan. Casualties were reported variously. As many as five people were killed and 25 were wounded, according to ARY News. Security forces have begun a search operation. There was no immediate claims of responsibility.

Item Number:11 Date: 08/11/2017 POLAND - PRESIDENT, GOVERNMENT BUMP HEADS OVER MILITARY COMMAND SYSTEM (AUG 11/BLOOMBERG) BLOOMBERG NEWS -- Polish President Andrzej Duda has refused to approve the appointments of dozens of generals, citing what he called a lack of clarity over a proposed new command system, reports Bloomberg News. The development reflects increased tensions between the president and the ruling Law and Justice Party (PiS) that previously supported him. There are currently 46 stalled appointments, according to Polish media. The new generals would replace those removed by Defense Minister Antoni Macierewicz. Since Macierewicz took over the defense portfolio, 90 percent of the General Staff's leadership and more than 80 percent of the army's top brass have left service. Political tensions have been on the rise since July, when Duda partially vetoed reforms that would have given the government complete control over the judiciary. Duda and Macierewicz have been at loggerheads for months over the proposed new command system, analysts said. In June, the defense minister blocked a presidential aide's access to classified information. The proposed changes to the command system are needed for the army to address new challenges and are being made in consultation with the president, said a ministry spokeswoman

Item Number:12 Date: 08/11/2017 RUSSIA - AIR FORCE MAKES IT OFFICIAL: NEW FIGHTER WILL BE CALLED SU-57 (AUG 11/TASS) TASS -- The Russian air force has come up with an official designation for its fifth-generation fighter jet, reports Tass (Russia). The Sukhoi T-50 PAK FA will be named the Su-57, Col. Gen. Viiktor Bondarev, the commander of the air force, announced on Friday. The name had been previously reported by industry sources. The PAK FA flew for the first time in 2010. Design work is expected to be completed in 2019, with deliveries scheduled that year. The first pre-production batch will have 12 aircraft, say industry officials. A PAK FA with an advanced main engine is expected to make its maiden flight in late 2017

Item Number:13 Date: 08/11/2017 RUSSIA - MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT WITH NIGER SEEMS NEAR (AUG 11/TASS) TASS -- The governments of Russia and Niger are preparing a military cooperation accord, reports Moscow's Tass news agency. The draft agreement includes cooperation on counterterrorism and measures to strengthen international security, according to the government's website in Moscow on Thursday. The document also calls for exchanging information on military and political issues and developing joint training and cooperation in the areas of military education, military medicine and others. The parties say they intend to exchange experiences in U.N. peacekeeping operations.

Item Number:14 Date: 08/11/2017 SOUTH KOREA - INCREASED THREAT FROM NORTH DEMANDS MILITARY OVERHAUL, SAYS PRESIDENT (AUG 11/YON) YONHAP -- President Moon Jae In has urged a "complete and thorough" overhaul of the South Korean military, emphasizing the need to strengthen its defenses against North Korea's growing nuclear and missile capabilities, reports the Yonhap news agency (Seoul). "I believe we might need a complete defense reform at the level of a rebirth instead of making some improvements or modifications," Moon said on Wednesday during a meeting with the military's top six commanders. The South's military must be capable of countering Pyongyang's nuclear and missile provocations, he said. This apparently includes building more powerful missiles. Moon asked U.S. President Donald Trump earlier this week to support a proposed revision to the bilateral agreement that currently limits the range and payload of South Korean missiles to 500 miles (800 km) and 1,100 pounds (500 kg), respectively. The military in Seoul wants to increase the size of its missile warheads to 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg), which is believed to be powerful enough to destroy North Korea's deeply buried bunkers


Item Number:15 Date: 08/11/2017 SUDAN - U.N., A.U. APPOINT KENYAN OFFICER TO LEAD MISSION IN DARFUR (AUG 11/EA) EAST AFRICAN -- The heads of the United Nations and African Union have named a Kenyan general officer as the next leader of the hybrid peacekeeping mission in Darfur (UNAMID) in western Sudan, reports the East African (Nairobi). Lt. Gen. Muriuki Ngondi will succeed Rwandan Lt. Gen. Frank Mushyo Kamanzi as the force commander for UNAMID, according to the announcement on Aug. 8. Ngondi is currently the head of Kenya's National Defense College. He took up that post in 2016. He has also served as army chief, commander of the eastern and western commands, respectively, and brigade commander. In 2012, he served as the force commander for the U.N. mission in Liberia.


Item Number:16 Date: 08/11/2017 TURKEY - IN MULTIPLE CITIES, POLICE PICK UP DOZENS OF SUSPECTED PKK, ISIS MILITANTS (AUG 11/REU) REUTERS -- Turkish police have arrested dozens of militants suspected of being linked to the Islamic State or Kurdish groups, say security sources cited by Reuters. Twenty-two alleged ISIS militants were picked up by police on Friday in the eastern province of Elazig, said the sources. Separately, police detained 20 people in Adana province for their suspected links to the banned Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). Ten more were being sought, reported the state-run Anadolu Agency. At least 12 others were arrested for PKK links in Istanbul, said a police source. A total of 18 were wanted for plotting attacks in the city

Item Number:17 Date: 08/11/2017 TURKEY - SUSPECTED JIHADIST, A RUSSIAN NATIONAL, ACCUSED OF DRONE PLOT AGAINST U.S. AIRCRAFT AT INCIRLIK AIR BASE (AUG 11/ANADOLU) ANADOLU NEWS AGENCY -- Police in Turkey have arrested a Russian national for allegedly plotting to crash a drone into a U.S. military aircraft at Turkey's Incrilik air base, reports the Anadolu Agency (Turkey). Police said the suspect was linked to the Islamic State. Renat Bakiev was detained while conducting surveillance outside the base in Adana province, said police. The base is used by U.S.-led coalition aircraft fighting ISIS in Syria. According to authorities, Bakiev had been in contact with ISIS to raise about US$800 to buy an aerial drone. He is also suspected of plotting attacks against a Shi'ite Muslim offshoot community in the area. The arrest apparently took place almost two weeks ago, noted the Middle East Eye on Thursday. Bakiev was previously deported from Turkey after he tried to illegally cross the Syrian border, reported the Daily Telegraph (U.K.), citing Turkish accounts. It was unclear how or when he returned. He was charged with being a member of a terrorist group and making threats

Item Number:18 Date: 08/11/2017 USA - DOD ORDERS 32 SUGV ROBOTS (AUG 11/ENDROB) ENDEAVOR ROBOTICS -- The U.S. military has placed an order with Endeavor Robotics for nearly three dozen Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles (SUGVs), reports the Chelmsford, Mass.-based defense firm. Endeavor Robotics was previously known as iRobot Defense and Security. The deal covers 32 SUGVs equipped with the uPoint Multi-Robot Control System. The value of the sale was not disclosed. The control system significantly reduces on-robot training time by using commercial technology and a familiar tablet-based user interface, said a release from the firm on Wednesday. The SUGV has been in service with the U.S. military since 2009. The 20-pound (9-kg) robot can be carried in a backpack and integrated with multiple sensors and hardware for various missions. It can climb and descend stairs and offers dexterous and robust manipulation and lift/inspection capabilities, according to Endeavor.

Item Number:19 Date: 08/11/2017 USA - NAVY FIGHTER AIRCRAFT GOES DOWN NEAR KEY WEST PILOT EJECTS SAFELY (AUG 11/NNS) NAVY NEWSSTAND -- The U.S. Navy is investigating the crash of a fighter aircraft earlier this week in Florida. A Navy F-5N Tiger II tactical fighter went down mid-day on Wednesday near Naval Air Station Key West, reports the Navy NewsStand. The pilot, assigned to Fighter Squadron Composite 111 (VFC-111), ejected safely and sustained no major injuries, according to a service statement. The F-5N was involved in training operations off the coast of Florida when it went down. VFC-111 is a reserve squadron that operates aircraft in the adversary role for combat training for Navy and Marine Corps fighter and strike squadrons, noted the Navy Times

Item Number:20 Date: 08/11/2017 USA - NEW AIR, MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS ON DRAWING BOARDS, SAYS LOCKHEED OFFICIALS (AUG 11/BREAKDEF) BREAKING DEFENSE -- Lockheed Martin officials say several new air and missile defense systems are being studied internally, reports Breaking Defense. Under study are a new 6-foot (1.8-m) rocket, a ship-launched version of the Patriot missile and an air-launched version of the PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE), officials said at this week's Space and Missile Defense symposium in Huntsville, Ala. The officials acknowledged that few aircraft would be able to carry the 19-foot (5.8-m) PAC-3 MSE missile. Most of the concepts are smaller, with 6 feet seen as being "a sweet spot size for packaging on various platforms," such as ground vehicles, aircraft and naval vessels, said Tim Cahill, the vice president for integrated air and missile defense. At the high end, Lockheed is also pushing its THAAD-ER concept, an extended-range upgrade for the single-stage Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense interceptor. The modernization includes a two-stage rocket booster and improved seeker to hit targets at thrice the range of the baseline missile, said Cahill.


Índice

O Gwin participou do bombardeio da ilha de Iwo Jima na Batalha de Iwo Jima, esteve também em Okinawa. Foi alvo de sucessivos ataques de kamikazes. [ 2 ]

O barco foi condecorado com a Navy Unit Commendation e Battle Stars por relevantes serviços durante a Guerra. [ 2 ]

O navio foi transferido para a Marinha da Turquia em 15 de Agosto de 1971 e renomeado TCG Muavenet (MS-357). O navio foi seriamente danificado por um míssil Sea Sparrow, disparado por acidente pelo porta-aviões USS Saratoga (CV-60) durante exercício da OTAN em outubro de 1992 [ 3 ] . O navio foi sucateado em 1993. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]


Gwin TB-16 - History

USS Gwin , a 46-ton Talbot class torpedo boat, was built at Bristol, Rhode Island. One of four rather small coastal or harbor-defense torpedo boats built during the later 1890s, she was commissioned in April 1898 and arrived in Cuban waters in early August, just as the Spanish-American War came to an end. After returning to the U.S. East Coast, Gwin was employed on training duty at the Naval Academy until mid-1903, when she went into reserve. Five years later, in June 1908, the torpedo boat began experimental service at Newport, Rhode Island, where the Navy's Torpedo Station was located. This assignment lasted until April 1914, when Gwin was decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list.

However, she was reinstated on the list in 1915 and converted to a ferry boat, for continued use in the Newport area. Renamed Cyane in April 1918, she received the hull number YFB-4 in July 1920. The former torpedo boat was again stricken from the Navy list at the end of April 1925 and sold for scrapping in September of that year.

USS Gwin was named in honor of Lieutenant Commander William Gwin (1832-1863), who was mortally wounded while commanding USS Benton in action on the Yazoo River.

This page features the only views we have concerning USS Gwin (Torpedo Boat # 16), which was later the ferry boat Cyane (YFB-4).

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

USS Gwin (Torpedo Boat # 16)

Under construction at the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1897.
USS Talbot (Torpedo Boat # 15) in the right center background, also under construction.

Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

Online Image: 107KB 740 x 610 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Cyane (YFB-4, ex-USS Gwin , Torpedo Boat # 16)

Ship's bow undergoing repairs at about the beginning of January 1922, after having accidently rammed the stone sea wall while coming into the Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island. Cyane was repaired by Navy personnel by early March 1922 and returned to service.
Note that she still wears her torpedo boat bow number ("16"), despite having been converted to a ferry several years previously.

The original print is in National Archives Record Group 19, Entry 105, Box 192, File O-YFB4.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 73KB 740 x 565 pixels

Cyane (YFB-4, ex-USS Gwin , Torpedo Boat # 16)

Ship's bow undergoing repairs at about the beginning of January 1922, after having accidently rammed the stone sea wall while coming into the Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island. Cyane was repaired by Navy personnel by early March 1922 and returned to service.
Note that she still wears her torpedo boat bow number ("16"), despite having been converted to a ferry several years previously. Also note her very light structural framing.

The original print is in National Archives Record Group 19, Entry 105, Box 192, File O-YFB4.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 79KB 740 x 560 pixels

Cyane (YFB-4, ex-USS Gwin , Torpedo Boat # 16)

Forward half of the ship, photographed in March or very early April 1922, following completion of repairs to her bow, damaged in a collision with the stone sea wall at the Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island.
Navy Torpedo Test Barge # 2 (built 1916) is in the right background.

The original print is in National Archives Record Group 19, Entry 105, Box 192, File O-YFB4.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 76KB 740 x 530 pixels

USS Gwin MAY be one of the torpedo boats seen in the middle distance in the following photograph:

Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Virginia

Torpedo boats of the Atlantic Fleet Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at the Norfolk Navy Yard, circa 1907. Most of these craft are partially dismantled.
The two boats in the front right and the one in the front left (listed in no particular order) are: USS Bagley (Torpedo Boat # 24), USS Barney (Torpedo Boat # 25) and USS Biddle (Torpedo Boat # 26).
The two larger boats between them, in the foreground are (left to right): USS DuPont (Torpedo Boat # 7) and USS Porter (Torpedo Boat # 6).
The three boats in the back row are (left to right): One of the three Torpedo Boat # 3 class ( Foote , Rodgers or Winslow ) USS Cushing (Torpedo Boat # 1) and either USS Gwin (Torpedo Boat # 16) or USS Talbot (Torpedo Boat # 15).
The receiving ship USS Franklin (1867-1915) and a two-masted schooner are in the distance.

Courtesy of R.D. Jeska, 1984.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 65KB 740 x 475 pixels

Related image (if only by error): The original source for Photo # NH 99992 erroneously identifies that view as showing USS Gwin . However, the vessel seen is certainly not Gwin , which had only one smokestack, and is probably USS MacKenzie (Torpedo Boat # 17).


TUBERCULIN TEST AND MALNUTRITION

In advanced malnutrition, false negative tuberculin reactions are very frequent. 5 In a study, within a month of starting routine radiographic examination of cases of malnutrition, it was observed that 11 cases of advanced malnutrition were showing evidence of tuberculosis, but with negative Montoux reaction. False negative tuberculin reaction is because of immunosuppression in protein malnutrition states. Nutritional rehabilitation of such children renders the tuberculin test positive in these children. 4


Gwin TB-16 - History

To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and tuberculosis disease progression, we studied vitamin D levels in a cohort of tuberculosis patients and their contacts (N = 129) in Pakistan. Most (79%) persons showed deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a 5-fold increased risk for progression to tuberculosis.

Deficiency of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) has long been implicated in activation of tuberculosis (TB) (1). Serum levels of vitamin D in TB patients are lower than in healthy controls (2,3). Paradoxically, prolonged treatment of TB also causes a decline in serum vitamin D levels (2). Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator of innate immune responses (4,5) by acting as a cofactor for induction of antimycobacterial activity (6). Of the 22 countries that have the highest TB incidence, Pakistan ranks eighth. In a previous study in Karachi, we observed that active disease developed in 7 (6.4%) of 109 TB case-contacts within 2 years (7). In the present study, we explored the role of vitamin D deficiency in TB disease progression within this cohort.

The Study

Household contacts (n = 109) of 20 patients with recently diagnosed sputum-positive pulmonary TB (index case-patients) were enrolled at Masoomeen General Hospital, in Karachi during 2001–2004 for a TB household cohort study (7). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months follow-up. Visiting health workers reviewed clinical charts every 3 months for the first 24 months and at a final home study visit during November 2007–January 2008 (45–74 months from baseline). Persons with secondary cases were referred to a consultant at Masoomeen General Hospital for additional investigation, including assessment of physical signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, chest radiographs, and sputum smear microscopy (7). For the present study, 129 de-identified, plasma samples preserved at –70°C from the baseline visit were shipped to Stanford University (Stanford, CA, USA) for analysis of vitamin D levels. Total circulating serum 25[OH] vitamin D was measured with ELISA by using the Immuno Diagnostic System Ltd (IDS, Fountain Hill, AZ, USA). All protocols were followed according to manufacturer’s instructions. Each test was run in duplicate, with mean absorbance computed from the average for 2 wells normalized to a zero calibrator well. Levels of vitamin D in test samples were derived by fitting a 2-parameter logistic curve to 6 standard levels and expressed as ng/mL (1 nmol/L × 0.4 = 1 ng/mL). All R 2 values were >95%. The assay detection range was 6–360 nmol/L (2.4–144 ng/mL). Levels in 1 person were below the detection limit and were excluded from analysis. The ethical review committees of Aga Khan and Stanford universities approved the study protocol.

We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with outcome of TB disease in 100 household contacts completing > 1 follow-up visit. Vitamin D levels in the cohort were classified in population-based tertiles (low, middle, high). We used SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) for statistical analyses.

Figure 1. Levels of vitamin D in plasma in the Karachi, Pakistan, tuberculosis (TB) household cohort (7) by TB status at baseline (disease-free, index TB case-patient, coprevalent TB case-patient, and past.

Median vitamin D level for the 128 cohort participants was 9.1 ng/mL (interquatrile range [IQR] 5.3–14.7) levels were 9.6 ng/mL (IQR 5.8–19.1) for 100 disease-free contacts, 7.9 ng/mL (IQR 4.7–10.3) for 20 TB index case-patients, 4.6 ng/mL (IQR 4.0–5.2) for 2 co-prevalent TB case-patients who were receiving antituberculous treatment at recruitment, and 5.1 ng/mL (IQR 3.4–14.3) in 6 household contacts with a history of TB treatment (2–10 years) (Figure 1, panel A). In the 100 disease-free household contacts, vitamin D levels were significantly higher than in the 28 participants with a history of TB diagnosis at baseline (p = 0.02 Mann-Whitney U test) (Figure 1, panel B). Median vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the 74 female patients than in the 54 male patients (7.8 vs. 11.9, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.0004) (Figure 1, panel C). When we stratified the cohort by vitamin D level, 79% had deficient (<20 ng/mL), 14% had insufficient (20–30 ng/mL), and 7% had sufficient (>30 ng/mL) levels of vitamin D (Table).

Figure 2. Risk for tuberculosis (TB) progression, by baseline plasma vitamin D level. Risk for progression in 100 household contacts of TB patients are indicated in cohort-based tertiles of vitamin D levels in.

We next analyzed risk for progression to active TB in relation to plasma vitamin D levels. Of the 100 disease-free household contacts, 8 (8%) progressed to active disease during 4 years of follow-up. TB progression was significantly associated with relatively lower plasma vitamin D levels (Figure 2). Disease progressed in 7 (23%) of 30 patients with plasma vitamin D levels in the lowest tertile (<7 ng/mL), 1 (3%) of 32 with vitamin D levels in the middle tertile (7–13 ng/mL), and none of 30 in the highest tertile (>13 ng/mL) (p = 0.002, log rank). Six (75%) of 8 patients whose TB progressed were female patients with vitamin D levels in the lowest tertile. Further adjustment for age and sex yielded a relative risk for progression of 5.1 (1.2–21.3, p = 0.03) for a relative 1-log decrement in vitamin D levels, which suggests that vitamin D deficiency might be a strong risk factor for TB disease.

Conclusion

In this cohort follow-up study from Pakistan, low vitamin D levels were associated with progression to active TB disease in healthy household contacts. No deaths occurred during the follow-up period from either TB or unrelated causes. Our findings also suggest that vitamin D deficiency may explain the higher susceptibility of women to disease progression in our cohort. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in female patients also was reported in ambulatory patients at Aga Khan University (8). Factors such as low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, traditional/cultural traits, and little exposure to sunlight may further explain vitamin D deficiency in female patients in this cohort. Despite several limitations to our study, such as information about diet, body mass index, exposure to sunlight and the relatively small number of study participants, our results are supported by a meta-analysis of 7 case-control studies in different ethnic populations (including an Indian population) that showed 70% of healthy controls had higher vitamin D levels than did untreated TB patients (3). Previously in African immigrants in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (9), lower mean vitamin D levels were associated with high probability of latent, current, or past TB infection. Cross-sectional studies are needed in Pakistan to appreciate this association with sex and susceptibility to TB with larger sample size. Most of the South Asian population, including Pakistani immigrants to European countries and South Indians, had <10 ng/mL of serum vitamin D level (10) and is consistent with reports from Aga Khan Hospital (8,11). Vitamin D plays an important role in activation of 1 α-hydroxylase to convert 25(OH) D to its active form [1, 25 (OH) 2D] that leads to expression of cathelicidin, a microbicidal peptide for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5,12). Serum levels >30 ng/mL provide an adequate substrate for the enzyme. Serum levels <20 ng/mL may therefore impair the macrophage-initiated innate immune response to M. tuberculosis and offer a possible explanation for geographic and ethnic (13) variations in susceptibility to TB.

Vitamin D supplementation during TB treatment remains controversial a few studies have reported clinical improvement in pulmonary TB (14) and 1 study reported no effect (15). However, our findings indicate that further studies should be conducted regarding use of vitamin D as a supplement for persons undergoing treatment for TB and those with latent TB infection.

Ms Talat is a PhD student at Aga Khan University. Her research interests include identification of immune biomarkers in TB.

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Farida Talat and Farzana Sohan for their excellent support with follow up and documentation of families. We also thank Ayesha Habib and Romaina Iqbal for their constructive comments, Maqboola Dojki and Firdaus Shahid for administrative and logistic support and shipment of samples to Stanford University, Regina Dsouza for secretarial help, and Mohammed Anwar for excellent technical support in collection of samples.

Funding for recruitment of the cohort and plasma collection was provided by the National Commission on Biotechnology (PCST/NCB-AC3/2003) and the Higher Education Commission (HEC#20/796/ R&D/06). The International Research Support Initiative Program of the Higher Education Commission Government of Pakistan provided funding for travel and lodging. Vitamin D studies conducted at Stanford University were supported by funds from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


یواس‌اس گوین (تی‌بی-۱۶)

یواس‌اس گوین (تی‌بی-۱۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Gwin (TB-16) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۰۰ فوت (۳۰٫۴۸۰۰۰۰ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۸۹۷ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس گوین (تی‌بی-۱۶)
پیشینه
مالک
آب‌اندازی: ۱۴ آوریل ۱۸۹۷
آغاز کار: ۱۵ نوامبر ۱۸۹۷
اعزام: ۴ آوریل ۱۸۹۸
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: 46 tons
درازا: ۱۰۰ فوت (۳۰٫۴۸۰۰۰۰ متر)
پهنا: ۱۲ فوت ۶ اینچ (۳٫۸۱ متر)
آبخور: ۳ فوت ۳ اینچ (۰٫۹۹ متر)
سرعت: 20 kn

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


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Gwin TB-16 - History

Carroll County lies on the dividing ridge between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. It is bounded north by Weakley and Henry Counties, east by Benton and Decatur, south by Henderson and Madison, west by Gibson, and has an area of about 650 square miles. The. eastern portion is drained by the Big Sandy River and its numerous tributaries. This river flows through the county in a northerly direction, and thence to its junction with the Tennessee. The central and western portions are drained by the Obion River (which flows to the Mississippi) and its tributaries, Beaver Creek, Crooked Creek and Rutherford Fork. In the western and northwestern portions of the county the surface of the country is gently undulating, while in the eastern and southeastern portions it is somewhat broken and hilly. The soil is generally a clay loam mixed with sand, and the subsoil is a reddish clay. With proper cultivation the land produces well. The timbers are the oak in its varieties, hickory, poplar, gum, beech etc. There are numerous springs, but for family use the people generally depend upon wells and cisterns.

The first settlements in the county were made at McLemoresville and Buena Vista about the year 1820. R. E. C. Dougherty, at whose house the county was organized, held the land office for West Tennessee at McLemoresville as early as 1820. The first entry of land at this office, was made December 6, 1820, by David Gillespie. Other early settlers in the western part of the county were Dr. S. Y. Bigham, Rev. William Bigham, David Marshall, Robert Gilbert who cleared the site of McLemoresville, Rev. Abner Cooper, Rev. Reuben Burrow, Revs. James and Robert Hurt, Reddick Hillsman, William Harris, Lewis Demoss and Nathan Fox. James Hampton, Wm. Horton, Moses Roberts, W. A. Crider and son R. H. Crider (who is still living), and Nathan Nesbit and son Wilson (the latter still living), and Samuel Rogers were among the first settlers in the vicinity of Buena Vista, and elsewhere in the eastern part of the county. The first settlers in the vicinity of Huntingdon were Samuel Ingram, John Crockett (father of W. G. Crockett now of Huntingdon), James H. Gee, Wm. A. Thompson, Thomas Ross, John Gwin, Robert Murray and others. Among the early settlers in the vicinity of McKenzie were J. M. Gilbert (the present mayor of that town, who is now over eighty-six years of age), Ambrose Dudley, Thomas and Wm. Hamilton, Elam Cashon, Green Bethel, Wm. Rogers and John Green. Later came James and Richard Cole, Stephen Pate, John McKenzie and others.

As the organization of the county took place almost immediately after the first settlements were made, it should be borne in mind that every person hereinafter named in connection with the organization of the county and of the courts were early settlers. Large tracts of the most valuable lands of the county were entered by the location of North Carolina military land warrants, and owned by non-residents. Mimucan Hunt & Co. held such warrants for twenty tracts of land, each containing 5,000 acres. In September, 1794, Mr. Hunt conveyed to Isaac Roberts five of said tracts. 25,000 acres, all lying on Beaver Creek in Carroll County, for Mr. Roberts’ share for locating the land warrants, and obtaining the grants from the State for the aforesaid twenty 5,000-acre tracts.

These lands were all located west of the Tennessee River and largely in Carroll County. In January, 1821, Dr. Thomas Hunt, executor of the will of Mimucan Hunt, then deceased, conveyed to Thomas H., Jesse, Samuel and Nathan Benton, the interest in said lands belonging to their father, Jesse Benton of North Carolina, all of which appears of record in the register’s office at Huntingdon. The Indians left the county about the time the settlers appeared. But the unbroken forest was then infested with bears, wolves, panthers, deer, wildcats, the smaller wild animals, and snakes. It is said that the reputation this country then had in North Carolina, was "fifty bushels of frogs to the acre, and snakes enough to fence the land." The wild animals destroyed many of the domestic animals of the early settlers, but they were hunted and subdued until all of the more destructive ones have become extinct. The first bridge built in the county was McKee’s bridge on the Big Sandy. In 1822, and prior thereto, there were no mills in the county, and the first settlers had to go to Humphreys County to get their milling done, and family supplies, such as salt, coffee, etc, were then brought from Reynoldsburg on the Tennessee River. The first gristmill in West Tennessee, was built in Carroll County by Isaac Blount on Blount Creek, on the site of the mill since owned by Joshua Butler. In March, 1824, Wm. Harris and Reddick Hillsman obtained leave of the county court to build a mill on Reedy Creek, and John Stockard was granted leave to build one on the same creek. Prior to this the same privilege had been granted to one Green, on Hollow Rock Creek. About the same time R. E. C. Dougherty built a mill on Clear Creek. James Shields erected the first cotton-gin in the county, on a place near Buena Vista. The first will probated in the county was that of David Clark, deceased, probated in June, 1824. Andrew Neely was the first infant ward and John S. Neely the first guardian. Wm. Roberts, called Bit Nose Bill, was the first man married in the county. About 1831 the Huntingdon turnpike leading to Jackson was constructed. For the years 1821 and 1822 the counties of Gibson and Dyer were territorially attached to Carroll, and for 1823 Gibson alone.

The raising of cotton was begun by the early settlers, and it has always been the staple production of the farmers. Grains and vegetables have been raised for home consumption, while cotton has been raised for the market. Tobacco to some extent has always been, and continues to be raised, in the northern part of the county. The people are industrious and generous, primitive in their habits, and manufacture and wear a great deal of home-made clothing. The United States census report for 1880 gives the agricultural products of the county as follows: Indian corn, 1,018,415 bushels oats, 37,694 bushels wheat, 88,396 bushels hay, 1,131 tons cotton, 10,505 bales Irish potatoes, 9,377 bushels sweet potatoes, 25,099 bushels tobacco, 69,167 pounds. And the live stock was enumerated as follows: horses and mules, 7,428 cattle, 10,754 sheep, 7,166 hogs, 35,398. In 1860 the population of Carroll County was white, 13,339 colored, 43098. In 1880 the population was white, 16,524 colored, 5,579, the increase of the white population for the twenty years being 3,185, and of the colored 1,481, the per centum of increase of the former being nearly twenty-four, and of the latter a little over thirty-six.

The county of Carroll was organized by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, passed November 7, 1821, which provided that a new county, to be called Carroll, should be established within the following bounds, to-wit: "Beginning on the west boundary of Humphreys County [noe the west line of Benton County] at the southeast corner of Henry running thence west with the south boundary of said county to the southwest corner of Henry County thence south parallel with the range line to a point two and a half miles south of the line dividing the Ninth and Twelfth Districts thence east parallel with the sectional line in the Ninth Disfrist thence north to the northeast corner of Range 2, Section 11, in said Ninth District thence east with the district line to the west boundary of Perry County [now west line of Decatur County], thence northwardly with the west boundary of Perry and Humphreys Counties, to the beginning." The act also provided that the court of pleas and quarter sessions should be held on the second Mondays of March. June, September and December of each year, at the house of R. E. C. Dougherty at McLemoresville until otherwise provided by law. By a subsequent act passed November 21, 1821, Sterling Brewer of Dickson County, James Fentress of Montgomery County, and Abram Maury of Williamson County, were appointed commissioners to fix on a place as near the center of the county as an eligible site could be procured, within three miles of the center thereof, for the seat of justice.

In accordance with said act the first bench of justices of the peace consisting: of John Gwin, Edward Gwin, Senator Mark R. Roberts, Samuel Ingram, John Stockard, Thomas Hamilton, Samuel A. McClary, Banks W. Burrow, Daniel Barecroft (Barcroft), and John Bone, commissioned as such by Gov. Carroll, met on the 11th of March, 1822, at the house of R. E. C. Dougherty at McLemoresville, and organized the first county court, then known as the court of pleas and quarter sessions, by electing John Gwin as chairman. The first entry on the minutes of the court following the caption, read as follows: "Ordered that the county tax be equal to the State tax, except on white and black polls. That each white poll be taxed equal to one hundred acres of land, and black polls equal to two hundred acres of land. And that James A. McClary take a list of the taxable property south of Rutherford Fork of the Obion River, and Thomas Hamilton a list of all north of the South Fork of the said river John Stockard a list of all west of the dividing ridge dividing the waters of Sandy and Obion Rivers and between the South Fork and Rutherford Fork of the Obion John Brown a list of all east of said ridge and north of Sandy Bridge, and Samuel Ingram a list of the property south of said bridge and east of said ridge." On the second day of the term the following county officers were elected: Sion Rogers, sheriff Littleton W. White, register Wm. Adams, ranger Banks W. Burrow, trustee. John S. Neely, coroner, and John McKee, George Sevier and Wm. Barecroft (Barcroft), constables. And thus the organization of the county was completed.

At the June term, 1822, Banks W. Burrow, Thomas A. Thompson John Stockard, Samuel Ingram and Mark B. Roberts were appointed commissioners to lay out the county seat and superintend the sale of the lots and the erection of the public buildings. Nathan Nesbit was subsequently added to said committee. Then came Sterling Brewer and James Fentress, two of the commissioners appointed by the General Assembly, and reported that they had chosen for the site of the seat of justice, a tract of land belonging to the heirs of Mimucan Hunt, and lying on the north bank of Beaver Creek The title of this tract, consisting of fifty acres, was not obtained until July 21, 1823, when it was obtained by said commissioners from Thomas Hunt, executor of the will of Mimucan Hunt, of North Carolina. The first courthouse, built in 1822, was a small log cabin, without a floor, erected where the present one now stands, and Nathan Nesbit, chairman of the court of pleas and quarter sessions, blazed his way through the forest from his residence, five miles east of Huntingdon, to the county seat, carrying with him his cross-cut saw, with which he sawed the door out of the new court house, and entered therein and opened the first court held at Huntingdon, December 9, 1822. At this term the jurors of the court brought their provisions with them and camped out. The town of Huntingdon was surveyed and platted by James H. Gee, under the supervision of the commissioners appointed to lay out the town.

And at the March term, 1824, of the court the following allowances were made to the surveyor and commissioners, to-wit: "James H. Gee, for 5 days' services, at four dollars per day, $20 two chain-carriers, for five days' services, $1.50 per day, $15 for making 480 posts for the lots, $12 for whiskey and paper at the sale of lots, $10 Nathan Nesbit, 24 days as commissioner, $72 John Stockard, 18 days as commissioner, $54 Samuel Ingram, 24 days as commissioner, $72 Thomas A. Thompson, 20 days as commissioner, $60 Banks W. Burrow, 4 days as commissioner, $12." At the December term, 1823, the name of the county seat, which up to that time had been called Huntsville, was changed to Huntingdon. They were anxious to retain the first syllable, and thereupon James H. Gee, who was a musician as well as a surveyor, and who was fond of the old tune Huntingdon, suggested that name and it was adopted. The sale of the lots, the date of which the records do not show, must have taken place prior to March 10, 1823, as evidenced by the record of a deed of that date from the commissioners of Huntingdon to John Crockett for Lot 16. There were 117 lots and the public square in the original plat of the town. At the March term, 1824, of the court of pleas and quarter sessions commissioners were appointed to let the job of clearing the public square, and Jack Aspy was awarded the contract.

The first courthouse, heretofore described, was sold in 1824 to John Crockett who moved it away and used it for a kitchen. It was replaced that year by a frame house 20x24 feet, This stood until about 1830, when the third court house, 30x50 feet, was built of brick. John Parker and Jacob Bledsoe built the foundation, and George and John Simmons were the brick masons, and Joel H. Smith the carpenter. The fourth and present courthouse was completed in 1844. Joel B. Smith and Thomas Banks were the contractors. The rock for the foundation was hauled from Benton County. The brick work was sub-contracted to Wm. S. New for one cent per brick actual count. Mr. New in fulfilling his part of the contract lost heavily. The house cost about $12,000. It is a two story brick structure, with two offices and a court room on each floor.

The second courthouse was sold to Robert Murray and moved to his lot east of the public square and used as a warehouse. The first jail, erected in 1824, stood nearly opposite from the present one. It was a small hewed-log cabin, from which the prisoners frequently escaped. The second jail was built by Samuel Ingram, in the west part of town. It is now used for a residence. The present jail and jailer’s residence combined was erected in 1875, under the supervision of J. P. Wilson, W. B. Grizzard, G. W. Humble, A. R. Hall, W. E. Mebane, Alfred Bryant and L. A. Williams. It is a commodious two-story brick building, containing five cells for prisoners, and altogether cost $11,000. The poor farm, consisting of 134 acres, was purchased in 1852 from Thomas Butler. The buildings were improved in 1877 and later, by removing, the old log cabins and erecting in their stead neat frame cottages. The farm was enlarged in 1886, by the purchase from W. O. Davis of 104 acres of timber land adjoining it. The inmates of the poor asylum average about thirty in number, and appropriations are made by the county court for the support of about forty poor persons who reside with their friends throughout the county. The poor of Carroll County are well cared for.

The Nashville, Chattanooga, & St., Louis Railroad was completed through the county soon after the close of the civil war. It has stations within the county at Hollow Rock, Huntingdon and McKenzie. The Memphis & Louisville Railroad was completed through the county in 1860. It has stations within the county at McKenzie, Trezevant and Atwood.

The following is a list of county officers with dates of service: County court clerks: Edward Gwin, 1822-36 George Hem, 1836-40 Young W. Allen, 1840-52 Wm. H. Graves, 1852-68 Cyrus Wilson, 1868-70 W. H. Eason, 1870-78 Elijah Falkuer, 1878-86 J. C. R. McCall, 1886. Sheriffs: Sion Rodgers, 1822-24 Thomas A. Thompson, 1824-25 (died before close of his term) Sion Rodgers, 1825-30 James Latimer, 1830-32 Thomas Banks, 1832-36 Andrew Neely, 1836-38 John Norman, 1838-44 Jeremiah T. Rust, 1844-48 John H. Boyd, 1848-52 Geo. W. Holaday, 1852-58 Alfred Bryant, 1858-62 John Norman, 1862-64 Joseph A. Johnson, 1864-66 James M. Neely, 1866- 70 Alfred Bryant, 1870-74 E. W. Williams, 1874-78 J. F. Leach, 1878-82 E. E. Pate, 1882-84 F. C. Sanders, 1884-86 and re-elected. Registers: Littleberry W. White, 1822-27 H. H. Brown, 1827-32 Thomas A. Hawkins, 1832-40 John R. Clark, 1840-44 Martin Dill, 1844-48 Nathan Williams, 1848-52 Benj. F. Harrison, 1852-56 George L. Harris, 1856-63 J. H. Noell, 1863-68 Joseph McCracken, 1868-74 J. W. Walters, 1874-78 E. G. Ridgeley, 1878-82 J. W. Walters, 1882-86 S. A. Brown, 1886. Trustees Banks W. Burrow, 1822-28, and perhaps to 1836 Mathews Bigham, 1836-42 China Wilder, 1842-52 Thomas Gray, 1852-54 Pleasant G. Wright, 1854-58 James N. Gardner, 1858-62, Wm. Harrison, 1862-70 James S. Ramsey, 1870- 78 J. F. Rogers, 1878-86 A. E. Hastings, 1886. Circuit court clerks: Benjamin B. McCampbell, 1822-40 James M. Henderson, January to August, 1840 Joel R. Smith, 1840-44 John Norman, 1844- 56 B. F. Harrison, 1856-70 W. R. Grizzard, 1870-82 C. P. Priestley, 1882-84 A. E. Hastings, 1884-86 A. W. Hawkins, 1886. State senators: Henry H. Brown, 1823 James R. McMeans, 1820 John D. Love, 1829 Robert Murray, 1831 James L. Totton, 1835 Robert E. C. Dougherty, 1837 Valentine Sevier, 1839 Isaac J. Roach, 1847 Beverly S. Allen, 1849 M. R. Hill, 1851 A. Benton, 1853 Isaac J. Roach, 1857 V. S. Allen, 1859 John Norman, 1865 Wm. H. Hall, 1869 J. M. Coulter, 1873 M. D. L. Jordan, 1875 A. G. Hawkins, 1877 L. M. Beckerdite, 1879 S. F. Rankin, 1881 James P. Wilson, 1883 John H. Farmer, 1885.

Representatives in lower house of the Legislature: David Crockett, 1823 Duncan Molver, 1826 Joel R. Smith, 1833 A. M. Cardwell, 1837 Yancey Bledsoe, 1839 A. P. Hall, 1845 Beverly S. Allen, 1847 Granville C. Hurt, 1851 J. W. Wilson, 1855 J. B. Algee, 1857 J. D. Porter, Jr., 1859 J. M. Martin, 1867 B. A. Enloe, 1869 T. B. Brooks, 1873 L. L. Hawkins, 1877 J. R. McKinney, 1885.

The aggregate amount of county taxes charged upon the duplicate of Carroll County for the year 1825, three years after the organization, was as follows: "196,932 acres of land, at 64-3/4 cents per each hundred acres, $1,353.87 60 town lots, at 62-1/2 cents each, $37.50 421 free polls, at 12-1/2 cents each, $52.62 245 black polls, at 25 cents each, $61.25 9 stud horses, $21.50. Total, $1,526.75." The State taxes charged in 1824 amounted to $266.07. Presuming that a like sum for State purposes was charged on the duplicate of 1825, and added to the $1,526.75 of county taxes for that year, the amount for both State and county would be $1,792.82. It will be interesting to compare the foregoing with the recapitulation of the duplicate of the county for the year 1886, which is as follows:

Number of town lots, 610 - $346,064
Number of acres of land ____ $2,172,067
Personal property $91,716
Other property $4,935
Total $2,614.782

The taxes charged on the total value of taxable property and on 3,456 polls are as follows, to wit: State tax, $7, 844.34 county tax, $9,992.95 school tax, $13,448.95 road tax, $1,876.08. Total tax, $33,162.32.

At the second term of the court of pleas and quarter sessions, held in June, 1822, William Arnold, Robert Hughes, Will Stoddart, Archibald C. Hall and Thomas Taylor were admitted and sworn as attorneys to practice in said court. At the same time William Arnold produced his commission from the governor and was sworn as solicitor general of the Thirteenth Solicitorial District. At the next term of said court, September, 1822, John C. Bowen, John McBride, Peter Honnell, David Crockett, the famous hunter, and Hezekiah McVale appeared, and each made oath to the killing of a certain number of wolves, and were allowed the usual bounty for destroying those destructive animals.

Then came Nathan Nesbit, John Stockard, Samuel Ingram, Robert Jainison and Enoch Enochs, commissioners previously appointed to divide an estate of 5,000 acres belonging to the heirs of Isaac Roberts, deceased, and submitted their report in full, which was confirmed, and each was allowed $4 per day for nine days’ services, and James H. Gee, the surveyor, was allowed $6.50 per day for ten days’ services, all to be paid by said heirs in proportion to their respective interests. The names of the men composing the first grand jury in this court were Samuel Woods, Robert Algee, Joseph Dixon, John Kelough, Lewis Demoss, Stephen Warren, William Patton, Thomas Finley, John Martin, Abram White, Henry Rogers and Peter Honnell. They were sworn and charged at the September term, 1822, and after deliberation they returned into court a "bill of indictment against William Robinson and Hawkins Wormack for an affray," and a presentment against Edward Owin, the clerk of the court, for an assault and battery "on the body of a woman slave, the property of Samuel McCorkle." At the June term, 1823, David Crockett was indicted for an assault, and upon being tried he made his own defense and the verdict of the jury was "not guilty." At the same term the fare at taverns was established as follows: "Breakfast, 25 cents dinner, 37½ cents supper, 25 cents lodging, 12½ cents whiskey, per half pint, 12½ cents per pint, 25 cents per quart, 37½ cents feeding horse, 25 cents keeping horse per night, 50 cents night and day, 75 cents man and horse per day, $1.50."

William Anderson, James H. Russell, James R. McMeans, James K. Chalmers, John L. Allen and M. A. Q. McKenzie were all admitted in 1823 as attorneys to practice law. The last term of the court of pleas and quarter sessions was held in March, 1836, and the first term of the county court under the constitution of 1834, was held in May, 1836. This court was composed of thirty-four justices of the peace, elected by the people, and was organized by appointing Samuel Ingram as chairman. From that year the county court continued to hold its regular sessions until December, 1863, when it suspended business, on account of the war, until July 3, 1865, when it was reorganized under Gov. Brownlow’s administration. It now consists of fifty-three justices of the peace, with Judge G. W. Humble, who has been the presiding officer as judge ever since 1872, and prior to that date he presided over the court for many years as chairman thereof.

The first term of the circuit court was held at the house of R. E. C. Dougherty, at McLeinoresville, beginning on Monday, April 1, 1822, with Hon. Joshua Haskell, judge, presiding. Benjamin B. McCampbell was appointed clerk, and Edward Gwin, Samuel Woods, John Gwin, Samuel McCorkle, Enoch Enochs, David Moore, Jonathan Dawson, Lewis Demoss, Edward Busey, John Stockard, Levi Woods, James H. Gee and John Komez were sworn and charged as grand jurors. This was the first grand jury empaneled in the county. Then came John W. Cook, Robert Hughes and Alex B. Bradford and were admitted and sworn as attorneys to practice in said court. At the September term, 1823, John Montgomery was prosecuted by the State for an "affray," whereupon Howell Ward, Julius Webb, Walter Connell, Wilson Lightfoot, Mathis Brigham, David Robison, Edward Busey, Theophilus Morgan, Jesse Walker, Nathan Nesbit, and Elijah Wheelis were einpaneled and sworn to try the prisoner, which they did upon the law and the evidence, and returned a verdict of "not guilty." This was the first petit jury em-paneled in the county, and the trial was the first criminal prosecution in the circuit court. During the war period this court suspended business from April 1862, until August, 1865, when it was reorganized, with Hon. L. L. Hawkins as judge thereof.

Only two persons have been hanged for the crime of murder in Carroll County. The first was Frank Oliver, colored, for the murder of a widow lady by the name of Rumley. After trial and conviction he was executed on the gallows in May, 1847, in the presence of 10,000 spectators. The other was Charley Phillips, colored, for the murder of Frank Prince, colored. After trial and conviction he was executed on the gallows in July, 1884. This execution was private, as provided by late statute.

The chancery court was established at Huntingdon about the year 1835, for all of West Tennessee. The records thereof having been destroyed during the civil war, the exact date is not given. As fast as chancery courts were established in other counties, the territory over which this court held jurisdiction grew less until finally it was limited to that of Carroll County. Pleasant M. Miller, of Jackson, Tenn., is said to have been the first chancellor. He was succeeded by George W. Gibbs, Milton Brown of Jackson, Andrew McCampbell of Paris, Calvin Jones of Somerville, and Stephen C. Pavatt of Camden, Tenn., the latter being chancellor at the beginning of the civil war. This court suspended business from 1862 until February, 1866, when it was reorganized, with Robert H. Rose as chancellor, and S. W. Hawkins, clerk and master. Chancellor Rose was succeeded by James W. Dougherty, and he by John Somers, who was succeeded in 1886 by A. G. Hawkins, the present chancellor. Joel R. Smith was the first clerk and master, and the following gentlemen have been his successors in that office, in the order here named: Henry Strange, Napoleon Priest, who died during his term J. P. Priestley, who held the office when the war began S. W. Hawkins and J. P. Priestley, the present incumbent, who has held the office ever since 1870. Among the distinguished early resident attorneys of Carroll County were Chancellor Milton Brown, Thomas Jennings and Berry Gillespie. Later came John McKernan, Benjamin C. Totton, Chancellor Stephen C. Pavatt, William and J. W. Dougherty, Josiah Hubbard, N. B. Burrow, V. S. and B. S. Allen, none of whom now remain. Then came the Hawkinses, all of whom still remain except Col. Isaac R. Hawkins, who has since died. The present resident attorneys are ex-Gov. Alvin Hawkins and his son Alonzo, Capt. A. W. Hawkins, the present clerk of the circuit court, who is also a physician and minister, and a survivor of the Mexican and civil wars Joseph R. Hawkins, L. L. Hawkins, S. W. Hawkins and Albert G. Hawkins, the present chancellor L. W. Beckerdite, H. C. Townes, the present State Senator elect W. W. Murray, H. C. Brewer, the present postmaster G. W. McCall and J. P. Wilson also Commillis Hawkins, B. P. Gilbert and George H. Ralstone, the latter three being residents of McKenzie, and also I. M. L. Barker, who resides in the Nineteenth Civil District

Source: Goodspeeds History of TN
Barecroft mentioned in this article is probably meant to be Barcroft per Jack Barcroft.


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