Religion Timeline

Religion Timeline

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  • c. 4000 BCE

    Earliest Egyptian Myths Recorded.

  • c. 3500 BCE

    First written evidence of religion in the world recorded on Sumerian tablets.

  • c. 3500 BCE

    First written evidence of religion in Sumerian cuneiform.

  • c. 3000 BCE

    Hathor, known as Mistress of Dendera, cult center flourishes in the city of Dendera.

  • c. 2500 BCE

    Osiris as Dying and Reviving God and God of the Dead appears in Pyramid Texts.

  • 2100 BCE

    First ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur.

  • c. 1500 BCE - c. 500 BCE

    Indian scholars of the so-called Vedic Period commit the Vedas to written form; basic tenets of Hinduism are established.

  • c. 500 BCE

    The Vedic Period in India after a greater migration of the Indo-Aryans from Central Asia

  • c. 1500 BCE - 1100 BCE

    The Rig Veda written, mentioning the god Rudra (Shiva) for the first time.

  • c. 1120 BCE

    Extant copy of the Sumerian Enuma Elish (creation story) is made from much older text.

  • c. 1000 BCE

    Emergence of Yahwism.

  • c. 700 BCE

    Greek poet Hesiod writes his Theogony and Works and Days.

  • c. 600 BCE

    Development of the Charvaka school of philosophy in India.

  • c. 599 BCE - c. 527 BCE

    Traditional dating of the life of Vardhamana, according to Jain tradition.

  • 566 BCE - 486 BCE

    The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to the Corrected long chronology.

  • c. 563 BCE - c. 483 BCE

    The life of Siddhartha Gautama according to modern scholarly consensus.

  • 563 BCE

    Siddhartha Gautama is born in Lumbini (present day Nepal).

  • c. 515 BCE - 70 CE

    The Second Temple Period; Judaism is revised, scriptures canonized, Yahweh becomes sole deity, monotheism established.

  • c. 6 BCE - c. 30 CE

  • 1 CE - 100 CE

    Mithraism spreads in the Roman empire.

  • c. 1 CE - c. 100 CE

    The Mahayana movement begins in India with its belief in bodhisattva - saintly souls who helped the living.

  • 42 CE - 62 CE

    Paul the Apostle goes on missionary journeys across Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome.

  • 64 CE

    Unofficial persecution of Christians in Rome.

  • c. 65 CE - c. 100 CE

    The tales of the life and work of Jesus (gospels) composed.

  • 132 CE

    Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible) composed at Alexandria.

  • 224 CE

    Zoroastrianism becomes Persian state religion under the Sassanian Empire.

  • 312 CE

    Roman emperor Constantine I tolerates Christianity.

  • c. 314 CE

    Armenia adopts Christianity as the state religion.

  • c. 500 CE - c. 600 CE

    In India the Tantric expands the number of deities to include helpful demons, contactable through ritual.

  • 503 CE

    Clovis converts to Christianity.

  • 570 CE

    Muhammad is born in Mecca.

  • c. 600 CE

    Babylonian Talmud is compiled.

  • 610 CE

    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.

  • 622 CE

    Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.

  • 624 CE

    Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.

  • 625 CE

    Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.

  • 627 CE

    Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.

  • 627 CE

    Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.

  • 628 CE

    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.

  • 628 CE

    Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.

  • 629 CE

    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.

  • 629 CE

    Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.

  • 630 CE

    Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.

  • 630 CE

    Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.

  • 630 CE

    Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.

  • 632 CE

    "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.

  • 632 CE

    Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.

  • 632 CE - 634 CE

    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 634 CE - 644 CE

    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 644 CE - 656 CE

    Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 656 CE - 661 CE

    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 712 CE

    The Kojiki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.

  • 720 CE

    The Nihon Shoki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.

  • c. 807 CE

    Imibe-no-Hironari writes the Kogoshui, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.

  • 1122 CE

    Construction begins of the Hindu temple at Angkor Wat.

American Experience

In the Beginning
According to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), the Garden of Eden in which God placed Adam and Eve is located in Jackson County, Missouri, near the town of Independence.

Circa 600 B.C.
According to Mormon belief, an Israelite named Lehi journeys with his family from the Middle East to the Americas. Lehi's descendants divide into two tribes, the Nephites and the Lamanites, named after two of Lehi's sons. The Nephites, initially more prosperous and religious, become corrupt over time and are locked into centuries of warfare with the nomadic Lamanites, whom Mormons consider the ancestors of Native Americans.

Jesus Christ visits the Americans. Courtesy: Intellectual Reserve Inc.

33 A.D.
After his crucifixion and resurrection, Jesus Christ appears in the Americas and preaches to the Nephites. Christ's appearance inaugurates a period of harmony with the Lamanites that lasts 200 years, but eventually the tribes fall into conflict again.

385 A.D.
A Nephite prophet named Mormon has been writing the story of his people. On the eve of a climatic battle with the Lamanites, Mormon turns over the core of what will become known as the Book of Mormon, transcribed on gold plates, to his son Moroni. Mormon is mortally wounded in the battle at a place called Cumorah, and the Nephites are nearly obliterated, but Moroni survives another 36 years and adds material to the Book of Mormon before sealing up the plates in 421.

June 1: Brigham Young is born in the town of Whitingham to a family of Vermont farmers.

December 23: Joseph Smith, Junior is born in Sharon, Vermont, fifth child of Lucy and Joseph Smith, a hard-luck farmer whose family moves frequently as his business ventures fail. Joseph, Sr. and his sons spend part of the warm weather months treasure hunting using various divination tools, including seer stones that, when viewed at the bottom of a hat, are said to convey special sight.

The Smith family moves to Lebanon, New Hampshire, where their financial situation improves and the children are able to begin school.

A local typhoid epidemic kills 6,000 and infects the Smith children. Although none die, young Joseph develops a leg infection that doctors initially think will require amputation. A novel type of surgery saves the boy's limb, but he must use crutches for the next three years and will walk with a limp thereafter.

Following a third straight year of crop failure, the Smith family moves to Palmyra, New York, a town of 4,000 situated near the planned route of the Erie Canal. Palmyra lies within an area known as the "Burned-over District" for the evangelical fervor of its residents.

Young leaves his family, who have settled in New York, and sets out on his own as a carpenter and handyman.

Joseph Smith, now 14, has become increasingly troubled by denominational differences among local Christians, but remains unsure which church is the right one to follow. One spring morning, he goes into the woods and witnesses a pillar of light descending from heaven, followed by an image of God and Jesus Christ (who are perceived by Joseph as separate "personages") forgiving his sins and warning Smith that all denominations have strayed from the truth and he should not join any of them. This event, known to Mormons as the First Vision, does not dramatically change Smith's life. He continues to work the farm and treasure hunt with his father, and when he mentions the vision to a local minister, he is scorned. Smith will not give his followers a detailed description of this vision until 1839.

September 21: Fearing that he has fallen off the right path, Smith prays forgiveness for all his "sins and follies" and receives a vision of the angel named Moroni, who speaks of a book written on gold plates and buried in a nearby hillside. According to Moroni, the book describes the people who used to inhabit America and contains "the fullness of the everlasting Gospel."

September 22: Guided by his vision, Smith locates the book in a box in the Hill Cumorah, just three miles from the Smith farm, but is told by Moroni that he cannot take the gold plates yet instead he must return on September 22 for each of the next four years and be instructed on the mission God has in store for him. When Smith attempts to touch the box anyway, he receives a shock and is thrown to the ground.

November 19: Joseph Smith's eldest brother Alvin dies, putting greater financial strain on the family.

October: Smith and his father join a treasure hunting expedition 135 miles away in Harmony, Pennsylvania. No treasure is found, but Smith meets and falls in love with 21-year-old Emma Hale while boarding at her father's house.

March: A criminal complaint is sworn out against Smith for fraudulent use of seer stones. He admits to using them in the past but says he has now given up the practice.

January 18: Joseph Smith and Emma Hale marry against her father's wishes.

September 22: Now that four years have passed, Smith successfully digs up the gold plates. Warned by Moroni not to let anyone else see them, he does show his mother an unusual pair of spectacles with precious stones where the eyepieces would normally be. These stones are to help Smith translate the book from the "reformed Egyptian" in which it is written. But rumors of a golden Bible have begun to circulate in the neighborhood, so Joseph and Emma Smith must flee potential thieves. Financially assisted by a local farmer named Martin Harris, the couple sets out for Harmony, hiding the gold plates in a barrel of beans.

December: Emma's father allows the couple to stay in a small house on his property, and Joseph begins the task of translating the writing of the gold book, using his interpretation device and dictating the results to Emma.

April: Harris, who has followed Joseph Smith to Harmony, takes up work on the book, writing down Smith's dictation. Over the next two months, they produce 116 pages of text, but then Harris takes it back to Palmyra to show his doubting wife and loses the only copy.

June 15: Emma gives birth to a child, Alvin, who dies that same day (only five of the couple's 11 children will live beyond infancy). When weeks pass with no word from Harris, Joseph heads back to Palmyra and discovers the loss. Begging for forgiveness, he is visited by an angel who takes the gold plates for a time as punishment for Smith's indiscretion.

September 22: Smith gets the gold plates and interpretation device back.

April 5: Young schoolteacher Oliver Cowdery arrives in Harmony and becomes a scribe for Smith as he resumes the translation of the gold plates. The two men finish work in June.

May 15: In the midst of their translation, Cowdery and Smith take to the woods to pray and are visited by John the Baptist, who confers the Aaronic priesthood upon them. This is a critically important event in the history of the church since it precedes the restoration of the church. John the Baptist also tells the two young men that the Melchizedek Priesthood will also be restored and that when it is restored, it will give them power to "lay on hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost." Then, in anticipation of the organization of the "Church of Christ," John the Baptist announces that Smith will be "the first Elder of the Church" and Cowdery the second. The two men then baptize each other in the Susquehanna River.

June: Smith, who has completed the translation at Peter Whitmer's farm in Fayette, New York, receives a copyright for The Book of Mormon. Eleven witnesses will later sign statements that they have seen the gold plates from which The Book of Mormon was translated three of them, including Harris and Cowdery, further assert that they saw an angel bearing the plates.

August: Smith locates a publisher for the Book of Mormon in Palmyra and typesetting begins. The 5,000 copy initial print run is financed by a $3,000 mortgage on Harris' farm.

March 26: The Book of Mormon is published, each copy selling for $1.25. Young, a practicing Methodist who has moved to the area near Palmyra with his wife, reads the Book shortly after publication and will be baptized as a Mormon two years later.

April 6: The first organization meeting of the LDS is held at the Whitmer farm with about 50 people in attendance. Smith and Cowdery are ordained "elders," and Smith will also become known as "prophet." The first four Mormon missionaries (including Cowdery) head west that October.

June: Smith is arrested and charged with "being a disorderly person" for his preaching, but is acquitted.

October: The missionaries taking The Book of Mormon's message to the Indians in Ohio and Missouri have stopped in Kirtland, Ohio. A Baptist minister named Sidney Rigdon decides to join the LDS and bring his 100-member congregation with him. Soon afterward, a vision instructs Smith to move the nascent Mormon community west to Kirtland. Other missionaries proceed to Missouri and settle in Independence.

February: Joseph and Emma Smith reach Kirtland other church members will join them in the spring. For the next six years, Smith will be based there and will announce some 65 revelations, most pertaining to church structure and organization.

The concept of the gathering is put in place during this year.

June: After missionaries reach Missouri and settle in Independence, Smith leads a group of Mormons from Kirtland west to Independence, which, according to the story, God has revealed will be the gathering place for Mormons and the site of a "New Jerusalem." In August they lay the cornerstone for a temple within a year, more than 800 more church members have moved to the area. Yet Smith decides to keep his headquarters in Kirtland.

Joseph Smith begins work on an inspired translation of the Bible.

Smith and two counselors form the First Presidency of the Latter-day Saints, with authority over all church matters.

March 24: A mob resentful of growing Mormon influence tars and feathers Smith in front of his Kirtland house.

Work begins on a grand Mormon Temple in Kirtland. It will take three years to complete and measure 55 by 65 feet, soaring 110 feet high.

The first collection of Smith's revelations is prepared for publication as The Book of Commandments.

Summer: The Missouri Mormons begin to suffer violence at the hands of other locals their printing press (on which The Book of Commandments is being printed) is destroyed in July. Mob violence will drive the Mormons out of Jackson County and across the Missouri River to Clay County in November. The pages of The Book of Commandments are rescued from the muddy streets and bound, creating the first published collection of Smith's revelations.

September: Brigham Young, now a widower, arrives with his two young children in Kirtland.

One hundred thirty eight of Smith's revelations are published in a book called Doctrine and Covenants. Included among these are the sixty-five revelations published in The Book of Commandments, plus seven "Lectures on Faith" prepared by Joseph Smith, which are not described as revelations.

The Missouri Mormons are forced to leave Clay County for the more remote Caldwell and Daviess Counties in the northern part of the state.

March 27: One thousand worshippers begin a week of temple dedication ceremonies in Kirtland. Witnesses report rushing winds, a pillar of fire, and the presence of angels. During the dedication, a critical visionary experience occurs in which the prophet and Oliver Cowdery, who have retired behind a veil that separates an elevated pulpit from the rest of the temple, see a personage they believe is Jesus, accepting the temple as a place where he will manifest himself to his people. In addition, they see the Old Testament prophets Moses, Elijah, and Elias, who commit into LDS hands the keys of the gathering of Israel and the new dispensation of the fullness of times.

November: Smith forms the Kirtland Safety Society Bank, but a national economic panic begins in March 1837 and soon leads to his bank's collapse. Accusations of both financial and sexual impropriety arise.

Mormons begin evangelizing in England.

C.C.A Christensen's Depiction of Missouri Militia raid on the Mormon settlement of Haun's Mill, ca. 1865. Courtesy: Brigham Young University Museum of Art.

January 12: Smith escapes Kirtland and heads for Missouri, arriving there with his family in March. Many of the Ohio Mormons follow, and soon there are thousands of church members in the settlement of Far West in Caldwell County. Smith makes plans for a new temple and excommunicates old friends and current adversaries including Cowdery, who has turned against him, accusing him of adultery. But peace with neighboring non-Mormons proves elusive.

July 4: While giving a patriotic oration, Rigdon promises that Mormons will defend themselves and warns of a "war of extermination" with hostile neighbors.

August 6: Non-Mormons attempt to prevent church members from voting, leading to a bloody melee. In the charged aftermath of the violence, Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs orders all Mormons to either be driven from the state or wiped out.

October 30: Stirred up by the governor's decree, an anti-Mormon mob massacres church members at Haun's Mill, killing 17, including unarmed children. Opposition to the Mormons rages. Smith is arrested, charged with treason, and sentenced to death, his life only spared when the officer ordered to carry out the execution refuses. Smith instead will spend the next five months in jail.

Led by Brigham Young, the Missouri Mormons reach safety in Illinois, where they are welcomed by a sympathetic populace.

April: While being moved from one trial location to another, Smith is permitted to escape and makes his way to Illinois. There he buys land for a new settlement named Nauvoo on the banks of the Mississippi River, about 200 miles from St. Louis.

November 29: Smith travels to Washington to meet President Martin Van Buren. He demands compensation for the Mormon losses in Missouri. Van Buren expresses sympathy but says he "can do nothing."

December: The Mormons receive a city charter establishing expansive home rule and a local militia. After the first mayor is excommunicated, Smith becomes both mayor and military leader. Nauvoo quickly grows and within four years is nearly the size of Chicago, the population bolstered by an influx of Mormon converts from Europe.

July 12: Smith announces revelations about two new practices. First, the dead can be baptized. [This practice is disclosed as a part of three different revelations.] Second, polygamy, or plural marriage, is not only permissible but in certain cases required. The second pronouncement, in particular, causes great division among Mormons, with Brigham Young stating he would rather die and Joseph Smith's wife Emma expressing opposition even though the revelation (now Section 132 in the LDS Doctrine and Covenants) expressly directs Emma Smith to accept plural marriage.) And although the doctrine will not be publicly announced for nearly a decade, rumors quickly spread, increasing anti-Mormon feeling. Joseph Smith will eventually have more than 25 wives, while Young will come to embrace the doctrine, take 20 wives, and father 57 children.

Smith declares that he will run for president of the United States, announces in a sermon that those who obey God's commands can become gods themselves, and orders the destruction of an opposition newspaper, the Nauvoo Expositor. The ensuing outcry leads to criminal charges, and after starting to flee, Smith changes his mind and surrenders to state authorities.

June 27: While in jail, Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum are shot and killed by members of a mob. No one will ever be convicted of the crime.

A struggle for the leadership of the Mormon movement follows, in which the Saints are divided over whether to follow (a) the Council of the Twelve (b) the surviving members of the Smith family (c) the remaining members of the First Presidency or (d) a variety of other potential leaders such as James J. Strang or Lyman Wight. During these two years many of the Mormons who had settled in Nauvoo leave the area, but most remain.

February 4: Facing further harassment, thousands of the Mormons, but not all, leave Nauvoo on a great march west. Some of them follow James J. Strang and settle in Michigan others follow Rigdon to the east, while others settle in other parts of the Midwest. Brigham Young, who is head of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, a church leadership body, directs the exodus. Their winter departure causes great hardship, but in four months the Mormons will travel more than 300 miles to temporary quarters along the Missouri River where it divides Iowa and Nebraska. There they will wait out the winter of 1846-47 before beginning their westward trek again.

April 25: Mexican troops fire on American soldiers who have been provocatively placed by President James Polk in a disputed part of Texas. The U.S. declares war on Mexico in May, and a Mormon Battalion of some 500 soldiers enlists, although they see no action.

April 30: The Nauvoo Temple is completed and dedicated. During the days and nights of the following ten months, great numbers of Latter-day Saints go through the temple to receive their "Endowments" and a substantial number of polygamous marriages are solemnized in its sealing rooms.

Main Street, Salt Lake City, looking south from First North. Courtesy: Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

April: The Mormon pioneer company led by Young leave their winter quarters in western Iowa and head west. Young has been plagued by self-doubt, but a February vision of Smith renews his confidence.

July 24: A Mormon advance party including Young reaches the valley of the Great Salt Lake, and Brigham, who will be made church president later in the year, confirms that this is where the Mormons will settle, beyond the boundaries of the United States. His followers promptly mark off an acre that will be reserved for a temple and then begin laying out city streets and setting up irrigation systems.

September: American soldiers led by General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City and end the war.

February: In California, Mormons working for John Sutter, whose sawmill on the American River is the site of the start of the Gold Rush, make a large gold find at what becomes known as Mormon Island.

March 10: Congress approves the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which cedes much of Mexico's western territory, including Utah, to the United States.

Beginning in 1848, thousands of Mormons make the trek from Winter Quarters to the Great Salt Lake Valley. In the first months they suffer terribly, but they begin to create a "kingdom in the tops of the mountains." Young sends groups of Mormons to settle in various parts of the intermountain west.

A provisional State of Deseret is organized, but it is not approved by the U.S. Congress. Instead, as a part of the Compromise of 1850, Deseret is renamed Utah and made a U.S. territory.

Brigham Young is appointed governor of the Utah territory.

The doctrine of polygamy is made public outside the church, leading to widespread condemnation. Some 20,000 Mormons now live in the Salt Lake area.

April 6: The Mormons who rejected the leadership of Brigham Young and never accepted the idea that polygamy was revealed doctrine hold a conference in Wisconsin to found the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This organization brings together many of the Saints who believe that the church should be led by members of the Smith family.

Mormon missionaries establish a settlement in what will become Las Vegas. Settlements are also established in San Bernardino, California and in the Wind River area of Wyoming.

President James Buchanan, reacting to reports that Young is ruling Utah as a personal theocracy, declares the territory in rebellion and sends 2,500 soldiers west from Kansas. While offering no armed resistance, the Mormons harass the military's supply trains.

September: Mormon militia led by John Lee and acting in tandem with a group of Native Americans attack a wagon train of settlers from Arkansas, slaughtering 120 men, women, and children in what becomes known as the Mountain Meadows massacre. Only 17 children under the age of eight are spared. Young's possible role in authorizing the atrocity will be hotly debated over the years, but the evidence suggests that at the very least, he covered up the truth of the crimes committed.

After a new governor is allowed to take control in Utah and federal troops march unopposed through Salt Lake City, Buchanan declares the "Mormon War" over and issues a blanket amnesty. But the continuing practice of plural marriage will prevent Utah's admission to the Union as a state for the next four decades.

Joseph Smith III, the Mormon prophet's eldest son, becomes the president of the Reorganized Church. Its headquarters are established in Independence, Missouri.

The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act criminalizes plural marriage in U.S. territories, but President Abraham Lincoln declines to enforce it.

The LDS Church (headquartered in Salt Lake City) has almost 60,000 members.

Mormon laborers assist with the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad.

Anti-polygamy activity increases, and Young is charged, though not convicted, with that offense.

John D. Lee becomes the only individual brought to trial for the Mountain Meadows massacre, but the proceeding ends with a hung jury.

Lee is re-tried and convicted of murder.

March 23: Lee is executed at Mountain Meadows.

August 29: Brigham Young dies. Fifty thousand people attend the viewing.

The Church of the Latter-day Saints has 109,894 members.

The Supreme Court upholds the Morrill Act.

The Edmunds Act declares polygamy a felony and disenfranchises all who practice it. By 1893 more than a thousand Mormons have been convicted of "unlawful cohabitation."

The Edmunds-Tucker Act disincorporates the Mormon Church and gives the federal government all church property above $50,000. The Supreme Court will subsequently uphold this law.

In the Manifesto, church president Wilford Woodruff renounces polygamy on behalf of the LDS, although this act is never described as a revelation.

The Church of the Latter-day Saints has 201,047 members.

January 4: Utah is granted statehood.

The church threatens polygamists with excommunication and subsequently cooperates with federal authorities in prosecuting them.

The LDS Church has more than a million members.

A federal raid on the Short Creek polygamist community creates mass sympathy for the practitioners of plural marriage, and the LDS Church stops cooperating with these prosecutions.

The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints changes its name to the Community of Christ.

Mormon missionary baptizing line of converts.

Today there are nearly 13 million members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worldwide, with more church members living outside than inside the United States. The Community of Christ has more than 150,000 members and there are several schismatic groups who continue to call themselves Reorganized Latter Day Saints who probably have another 100,000 members. In addition, a variety of Mormon Fundamentalist groups continue to practice polygamy. The estimated number of fundamentalists is somewhere between 30,000 and 60,000.

Historical Timeline of Religion in the 19th Century

I am especially interested in the development of new religions in the 19th century, including the Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses. I taught a course on this for Tyndale University College.

As a part of the background, I put together a bit of timeline of the major religious figures from the 19th century (and early 20th century). Some of these are sectarian leaders, some orthodox Christians and some critical scholars. I include also some philosophers who were influential on religious thought. I found it helpful for understanding how everything fit together.

I would suggest that the three most influential figures on the new religious movements were Charles Finney, Alexander Campbell and William Miller.

  • 1782-1849 – William Miller
  • 1788-1866 – Alexander Campbell
  • 1790-1840 – Second Great Awakening
  • 1792-1875 – Charles Finney
  • 1800-1882 – John Nelson Darby
  • 1801-1877 – Brigham Young
  • 1802-1866 – Phineas Quimby
  • 1805-1844 – Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • 1805–1871 – John Thomas
  • 1808–1874 – David Strauss
  • 1809–1882 – Bruno Bauer
  • 1809-1882 – Charles Darwin
  • 1818-1883 – Karl Marx
  • 1821-1910 – Mary Baker Eddy
  • 1825 – American Unitarian Association
  • 1827-1915 – Ellen G. White
  • 1830 – Book of Mormon
  • 1830 – Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  • 1831-1891 – Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
  • 1832 – Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
  • 1832-1914 – Joseph Smith, III
  • 1834- 1892 – Charles Haddon Spurgeon
  • 1835 – Doctrine and Covenants
  • 1837-1899 – Dwight Moody
  • 1843-1921 – C. I. Scofield
  • 1844 – Great Disappointment
  • 1844-1900 – Friedrich Nietzsche
  • 1845–1931 – Myrtle Fillmore
  • 1848 – Christadelphians
  • 1851 – Pearl of Great Price
  • 1852-1916 – Charles Taze Russell
  • 1854–1948 – Charles Fillmore
  • 1856-1939 – Sigmund Freud
  • 1859 – On the Origin of Species
  • 1863 – Seventh-day Adventist Church
  • 1865-1935 – Arthur Drews
  • 1868 – First Vatican Council
  • 1869-1942 – Joseph Franklin Rutherford
  • 1870-1922 – William J. Seymour
  • 1872 – Church of Christ, Scientist
  • 1873-1929 – Charles Fox Parham
  • 1875 – Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures
  • 1875 – Theosophical Society
  • 1881 – Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society
  • 1889 – Unity School of Christianity
  • 1892-1966 – Hebert W. Armstrong
  • 1906-1915 – Azusa Street Revival
  • 1914 – Oneness Pentecostalism
  • 1934 – Worldwide Church of God

If you are interested in the Jehovah’s Witnesses, you might like my books:

The 19th Century (1800 to 1899)

John Brown, American abolitionist, was born.

The earliest known Methodist camp meeting in America was held in Logan County, Kentucky.

The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion Church officially separated from its parent, the Methodist Episcopal Church.

One of the most famous Camp Meetings occurred at Cane Ridge, Kentucky. This lead to the 'Great Religious Revival of the American West'.

Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, founder of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew Union College, was born.

The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion Church was founded in New York City.

Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, was born.

Liberal members of Congregational churches in New England founded the American Unitarian Association.

The first The American Temperance Society was founded in Boston. It would later be renamed the American Temperance Union and would become a national cause. Within a decade there were over 8,000 like-minded groups with more than 1.5 million members.

At the age of 24, Joseph Smith first published his famous book "The Book of Mormon."

James Augustine Healy, first Black Roman Catholic bishop in America, was born on a plantation near Macon, Georgia. He was the son of an Irish planter and a slave.

Richard Allen, the first Black ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and founder of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, died.

Mormon leader Joseph Smith was beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio.

Henry McNeal Turner, bishop for the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, was born in Newberry Courthouse, South Carolina.

The first Mormon temple was dedicated in Kirtland, Ohio.

William White, the first American Anglican bishop, died at the age of 88. White was the person who coined the term "Protestant Episcopal" for the new Anglican denomination.

American evangelist Dwight L. Moody was born.

Mormon missionaries set off to proselytize in England.

A group of Mormons formed an organization that would obey Joseph Smith "in all things" and in "whatever he requires. Originally called the Daughters of Zion, they later adopted the name Sons of Dan. As a formal group, it only lasted a few weeks.

Mormons beat non-Mormons with clubs during elections in the small Missouri town of Gallatin. Several non-Mormons were seriously injured.

As tensions between Mormons and non-Mormons increased, the first battle of the "Mormon War" in Missouri occurred at Crooked River when LDS forces raided a camp of the state militia and captured a number of horses.

Outraged over Mormon attacks on the state militia, members of the militia attacked Haun's Mill, a community of Mormon refugees. Eighteen men and boys were shot dead.

Joseph Smith surrendered to Missouri officials and was charged with high treason. He escaped after five months in jail, however, and fled to Illinois.

Joseph Smith, having escaped from jail in Missouri, joined other Mormons in the town of Quincy, Illinois. Smith renamed the town to "Nauvoo," which he claimed was Hebrew for "beautiful location".

Mormons in Illinois founded the Nauvoo Legion, an independent local militia tasked with defending Mormon interests. Joseph Smith was named its lieutenant general, the first American to claim that rank since George Washington.

Preacher William Miller of Massachusetts predicted the world would end on this date. Obviously, the world did not end, but Miller's ideas led to the creation of the Adventist churches in America.

Mormon leader Joseph Smith said that God approved of polygamy.

Senator (later President) James Buchanan introduced a resolution in the United States Senate that the United States be declared a Christian Nation and acknowledge Jesus Christ as America's Savior. The resolution was rejected, but man similar resolutions would be introduced during the following years, including at least one that would have amended the Constitution.

Joseph Smith, accused of instigating a riot when Mormons smashed the presses of a newspaper critical of his secret doctrines on polygamy, fled from arrest.

Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were arrested by Illinois authorities. Smith had previously attempted to use the Nauvoo militia to suppress church dissidents and to protect the city.

Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were lynched by a mob in Carthage, Illinois. Smith was the founder of the Mormon Church and the mob was outraged, in part, over Smith's recent authorization of polygamous marriages.

Brigham Young was chosen to lead the Mormons.

The "Great Disappointment" occurred when the return of Christ, predicted by William Miller, failed to happen once again. At least 100,000 disillusioned followers returned to their former churches or abandoned Christianity completely - but many went on establish what would become known as the Adventist Churches.

In Louisville, Kentucky, disaffected members of the Methodist Episcopal Church organized the Methodist Episcopal Church, South as a new denomination.

Mormon settlers leave Nauvoo, Missouri, to begin the settlement of the West.

Mormons founded the first English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod was officially organized.

The first group of Mormon immigrants entered the Salt Lake Valley, still Mexican territory at that time. Not long thereafter, Mormon leader Brigham Young founded Salt Lake City, Utah.

Brigham Young announced to the Council of Fifty that the local Indians could not be converted and that it didn't matter "whether they kill one another off or Some body else" did it.

David C. Cook was born. Cook was a developer of the original The Sunday School curriculum in the United States.

President James Buchanan selected Alfred Cumming to replace Brigham Young as governor for the territory of Utah.

Mormon fanatic John D. Lee, angered over President Buchanan's order to remove Brigham Young from governorship of the Utah Territory, led a band of Mormons in a massacre of a California-bound wagon train of 135 (mostly Methodists) in Mountain Meadows, Utah.

Brigham Young declared martial law and forbade U.S. troops from entering Utah in order to avoid being replaced by Alfred Cumming, a non-Mormon, as governor of Utah.

Alfred Cumming, selected by President James Buchanan to replace Brigham Young as governor for the territory of Utah, took office. He immediately ordered armed Mormon groups in the territory to disband, but he was generally ignored.

The United States army entered Salt Lake City in order to restore peace and install Alfred Cumming (a non-Mormon) as governor. Mormon residents had opposed the replacement of Brigham Young, who had declared martial law and forbade U.S. troops from entering Utah. There were sporadic raids made by the Mormon militia against the winter encampment of the army, but that was the extent of the Utah War.

Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was first published. All 1,250 copies of the first printing were sold out on the very first day.

American politician and fundamentalist religious leader William Jennings Bryan was born.

Rabbi Jacob Frankel became the first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.

The famous American evangelist Billy Sunday was born.

The motto "In God We Trust" first appeared on U.S. coins - specifically, the a bronze two-cent piece issued during the American Civil War.

Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, allegedly cures her injuries by opening a Bible.

Mormon leader Brigham Young married his 27th and final wife.

Under the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant, Congress officially declared Christmas to be a national holiday.

Brigham Young, Mormon leader, was arrested for bigamy.

Charles F. Parham was born. Parham was an early leader among charismatic Christians in America and, in 1898, he founded the Bible training school in Topeka, Kansas, where the American Pentecostal movement started in 1901.

Hebrew Union College was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio under the auspices of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. It was the first Jewish college in America to train men to become rabbis.

John Doyle Lee, a Mormon fanatic, was executed by a firing squad, Lee had masterminded a massacre of Arkansas Methodist emigrants in 1857. In the "Mountain Meadows Massacre," a wagon train of 127 died at Mountain Meadows (near Cedar City), Utah.

Frank N. Buchman is born. Buchman was an early leader of the social gospel movement.

Polygamy was outlawed by Congress, specifically targeting the practices of the Mormon church.

The Salvation Army split one group renounced allegiance to founder William Booth while another, lead by Booth's son Ballington and his wife Maud, incorporated itself as a separate organization in America in 1896.

The famous American evangelist Billy Sunday held his first public crusade in Chicago. Over the course of his career as a popular religious speaker, at least 100 million Americans are estimated to have attended his sermons.

The Mormon Church officially renounced polygamy.

Mormon President Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto in which the practice of polygamy was renounced.

Polygamy was outlawed by the Mormon Church.

Aimee Semple McPherson, founder of the Four Square Gospel Church, was born.

The first Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.

Pope Leo XIII appointed Archbishop Francesco Satolli to be the first Apostolic Delegate to the USA.

William Jennings Bryan delivered his famous Cross of Gold speech.

Elijah Mohammed, Black Muslim leader. was born.

In the apostolic letter Testem benevolentiae, Pope Leo XIII condemned the "heresy" of "Americanism," a doctrine which he regarded as an attempt by American Catholic clergy to reconcile Catholic teachings with modern thought and liberties.

Carry Nation, a leader of the American Christian temperance movement, raided and wrecked her first saloon in Medicine Lodge, Kansas.

Timeline: Important Dates in A.D. Christian History

29 c. John the Baptist began his ministry in the "15th year of Tiberius" (Luke 3:1-2)
Jesus began his ministry after his baptism by John
Last Supper, arrest of Jesus, his trial, and crucifixion on Good Friday
Resurrection of Jesus three days after crucifixion

30 c. - 100 Apostolic Age
Defined: Some of Christ's original apostles were still alive and helping to spread the gospel. This period ended with the death of last apostle.

47-57 c. Missionary travels of Paul

67 Paul Martyred

70 The Romans under Titus destroy Jerusalem, after a long siege 1.5 million Jews die.

Additional Resources:
First Persecutions written by John Foxe

100 - 590 Post Aposolic Age

190 Date of Easter determined

200-300 Appearance of Earliest Bible Translations

313-337 Constantine

325 Council of Nicaea - Called by the Roman Emperor Constantine, it was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the church.

399 The last showing of the ancient Olympic Games - After Emperor Theodosius the Great bans it and there are no games again until 1896.

400 Vulgate

431 - 451 Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon

590 - early 1300s The Medieval Church

625 Mohammad begins the Koran

1095 - 13th century The Crusades
A series of several military campaigns. Originally, they were Roman Catholic endeavors to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans.

1163 Notre Dame de Paris - beginning of construction

1215 King John of England and his nobles sign the Magna Carta.

Early 1300s - 1517 The Renaissance

1378-1410 The Great Schism - a time of division in the Roman Catholic Church due to disagreements concerning papal succession.

1382 John Wycliffe translates First English Bible John Wycliffe was an English theologian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century

1431 Joan of Arc Martyred - Inspired and directed by religious visions, Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), organized the French resistance that forced the English to end their siege of Orléans (1429). Her claims of visions led to a trial for heresy which resulted in execution by burning at the stake.

1450s Gutenberg Bible - first printed Bible

1453 The Christian kingdom of Constantinople finally falls to the Muslims.

1478 Spanish Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV

1517 - 1648 The Reformation - European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.

1517 Martin Luther's 95 Theses - a document written by Martin Luther that challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church on penance, the authority of the pope, and indulgences. It sparked a theological debate that fueled the Reformation.

1525 Bible translated into English from Greek by William Tyndale

1530 Augsburg Confession - Primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the Reformation. It was presented by a number of German rulers and free-cities at the Diet of Augsburg.

1536 John Calvin writes The Institutes of the Christian Religion.

1536 -1541 Michelangelo paints "The Last Judgment"

1560 Geneva Bible

1563 Foxe's Book of Martyrs first published

1582-1609 Douay-Rheims Bible

1611 King James Version

1648 - 1789 The Enlightenment
Defined: When man began to look beyond superstition and began to use his reason to discover the world. The effort to discover the naturals which governed the universe led to scientific, political and social advances.

1633 Galileo is forced by the Catholic Church to renounce his teachings that the Earth revolves around the sun.

1678 John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress published

1730s - 1740s The Great Awakening -- A religious movement among American colonial Protestants. Key figures: Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield.

1741 George Frideric Handel writes his most famous work, Messiah.

1764 John Newton writes hymn "Amazing Grace"

1776 British colonies in America declare independence from England,

1780 The Sunday School movement is pioneered in England by Robert Raikes

1789 - 1799 The French Revolution

1789 -1970 The Modern Church

1794 London Missionary Society founded in England - a non-denominational missionary society with missions in the islands of the South Pacific and Africa.

1800-1840s Second Great Awakening

1807 British Parliament votes to abolish the slave trade.

1844 Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) founded in London, England by Sir George Williams.

1837-1901 Victoria Queen of England

1854 Charles H. Spurgeon, only 19-years-old, called to the pastorate of London's famed New Park Street Chapel.

1855 D.L. Moody Converted to Christianity

1859 Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species

1861 - 1865 American Civil War

1863 - 1885 Fanny Crosby writes more than 8,000 hymns including "Blessed Assurance"

1865 - Rev. William Booth founded Open Christian Mission in East London (in 1878 its name is changed to Salvation Army)

1880 First Northfield Conference led by D.L. Moody

1870/81 Revised Standard

1885 English Revised Version

1896 First Modern Olympics

1899 Gideons International founded - ministry dedicated to distributing copies of the Bible in over 80 languages and more than 180 countries of the world to those who might not otherwise encounter it.

1901 American Standard Version

1906 Azusa Street Revival - Revival that took place in Los Angeles, California and was led by preacher William J. Seymour. It launched Pentecostalism as a world wide movement.

1909 Scofield Bible

1912 Titanic Sinks

1914 - 1918 World War I

1929 Great Depression begins in the U.S.

1933 - 1944 Rise of Nazism in Germany

1935 Oswald Chamber's book My Utmost for His Highest published post-mortem

1939 - 1945 World War II

1942 Wycliffe Bible Translators founded by William Cameron Townsend with the goal of making a translation of the Bible in every living language in the world.

1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer pastor and leader of the underground church of Germany martyred

1947 Dead Sea Scrolls found

1949 First Billy Graham Crusade, held in Los Angeles, CA

1949 - 1954 C.S. Lewis writes The Chronicles of Narnia

1950 All missionaries are forced to leave China

1952 U.S. Congress designates a National Day of Prayer

1952 Revised Standard Version

1965 Amplified Bible

1963 Martin Luther King Jr. leads a civil rights march in Washington, D.C.

1966 Jerusalem Bible

1967 Israel recaptures Jerusalem

1970 New American Bible

1970 Hal Lindsey writes the book Late Great Planet Earth.

1970's Jesus Movement

The Postmodern Church

1971 New American Standard Bible

1971 The Living Bible

1973 Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case rules in favor of legalizing abortion

1976 The Good News Bible

1977 Focus on the Family founded by James Dobson

1978 New International Version

1979 Mother Teresa wins the Nobel Peace Prize for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress in the world

1982 New King James Version

1989 New Revised Standard Version

1990 - 1991 Gulf War

1995 Updated New American Standard Bible

1999 Columbine Shooting

2001 English Standard Version

2001 On September 11 - terrorist suicide bombers attack the United States in New York, Northern Virginia, and Pennsylvania

2002 The Message

2003 Dan Brown writes The Da Vinci Code, made into a film in 2006 both the book and the film are criticized because of historical inaccuracy of the life of Jesus and history of the early Church.

2004 Holman Christian Standard Version

2004 Updated New Living Translation

2004 The film Passion of the Christ is released

2005 Death of Pope John Paul II, election of Pope Benedict XVI

2006 Together for the Gospel inaugural conference

2008 ESV Study Bible published

2009 The Gospel Coalition inaugural conference

2010 The Lausanne Movement will hold the Third Congress on World Evangelisation in Cape Town, South Africa, 16-25 October 2010

Christian History Timeline: Everyday Faith in the Middle Ages

1414–1418 The Council of Constance restores church unity burns Jan Hus for heresy.


c. 1000 Christian laity seek a more active religious role

c. 1050 Growing popularity of pilgrimages to Rome, Santiago de Compostela (in Spain), and the Holy Land

1096 Peter the Hermit leads the “People’s Crusade” to disaster

Mid–1100s Cathar and Waldensian movements spread

Bernard of Clairvaux inspires reform in the Cistercian order

c. 1200 The doctrine of purgatory takes shape

Early 1200s Francis of Assisi and Dominic of Calaruega found religious orders dedicated to apostolic poverty and preaching

Growing devotion to Communion leads to creation of Feast of Corpus Christi

Mid–1200s Flagellant processions spread and inspire lay religious societies (confraternities)

Late 1200s Thousands of masses endowed for the dead in purgatory

1347–1350 Black Death kills one-third of Europe, sparking flagellant processions and attacks on Jews

Late 1300s The Lollard movement, inspired by John Wycliffe, spreads

Female visionaries flourish: Catherine of Siena, Bridget of Sweden, and Julian of Norwich

Early 1400s Reform movements sweep through religious orders


1098 Anselm writes Why Did God Become Man?

c. 1100 Romanesque art represents Christ in majesty and the Virgin enthroned

1121 Abelard publishes Yes and No

1141 Hildegard of Bingen first writes of her visions

Late 1100s Gothic architecture celebrates God’s glory in soaring vaults and stained glass

1260 Chartres Cathedral finished

1273 Thomas Aquinas leaves Summa Theologica unfinished

Late 1200s Artists depict Jesus as one who suffers

1305 Dante begins Divine Comedy

1386 Chaucer begins Canterbury Tales

1418 First appearance of Thomas Kempis’s The Imitation of Christ

1455 First printed Bible by Gutenberg

By Daniel Bornstein

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #49 in 1996]

Daniel Bornstein is associate professor of history at Texas A&M University. He is author of The Bianchi of 1399: Popular Devotion in Late Medieval Italy (Cornell, 1993).

Next articles

Christian History Timeline: History of Russian Christianity

1961 The “Reform Baptists” separate frm the AUCECB to form the “underground” Council of Evangelical Baptist Churches (curches unregistered with the government and thus illegal) many of them are imprisoned and martyred

1965–75 The Vietnam War

1973–75 The Watergate break-ins, indictments, and convictions

1978 U.S. and the People’s Republic of China establish full diplomatic relations

USSR History

c. 50–60 St. Andrew allegedly does mission work in Ukraine and, standing on the future site of Kiev, predicts that a great Christian city will one day exist there

860–65 With Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Christian missions to the Slavic nations begin in earnest Cyril establishes Cyrillic alphabet that is still used by Eastern Slavs today

c. 864 Under the auspices of Rus’ Prince Askold and Patriarch Photius, the first baptism in Rus’-Ukraine

869 Eighth Ecumenical Council (in Constantinople)

955 Princess Olga, the queen of Kievan Rus’, is baptized at Constantinople

988–991 Mass baptism takes places at Kiev, Grand Prince Vladimir makes Orthodox Christianity the national religion of Rus’—which it remained until 1917

1019 Yaroslav receives a metropolitan appointed by the Patriarch of Constantinople this Rus’-Byzantium link continues for nearly 400 years

1025 The beautiful St. Sophia Cathedral is constructed in Kiev

1037 The Russian Orthodox Church comes under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople

1113 The Church of St. Nicholas, one of the first “onion-domed churches,” is built at Novgorod

1204 Eastern Christendom’s center, Constantinople, falls to Western Christendom’s Crusaders

1206–26 Temujin is proclaimed Gengis Khan, rules the Mongols

1220—21 Mongols invade India

1237–40 Mongols invade and destroy Kiev

1250 Hats come into fashion, and goose quills are used for writing

1261 Easterners retake Constantinople

1325 The metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church is transferred to Moscow

1326 Moscow becomes capital of Russia, and official center of Russian Orthodox Church

1363 Timur the Lame (Tamerlaine) begins his conquest of Asia

1392 Sergius of Radonezh, the patron saint of Russia, dies

1396 Stephen, a Russian Orthodox bishop and famous missionary, dies

1431–49 The Mongols’ domination of Russia comes to an end

1448 See of Moscow is raised to independent status

1450 Moscow emerges as “The Third Rome,” claiming to have succeeded Rome and Constantinople as the center of the Orthodox Church Russian Orthodoxy remains virtually untouched by the Renaissance and Reformation

1551 The historic Council of Moscow indicates the declining influence of the patriarchate of Constantinople and the rising influence of Moscow

1589–1605 In Moscow, Iov serves as the first patriarch of the new Russian Orthodox Patriarchate

1596 The Orthodox in Poland unite with Rome, forming what is known as the Uniate Church

1629 Cyril Lucano, the patriarch of Constantinople, makes a Calvinist confession of faith

1642–58 Patriarch Nikon tries to reform the Russian Orthodox Church a schism results

1685 Moscow Theological Academy is founded

1690–1700 Patriarch Adrian is Russian Orthodoxy’s last patriarch until 20th century

1721 Peter the Great abolishes the Moscow Patriarchate, establishes the Holy Synod as a state institution to carry out church reforms

1783 Potemkin captures Crimea for Russia

1794 Russian Orthodox missionaries begin work in Alaska with fur traders and Indians

1809 St. Petersburg Theological Academy is founded

1848 Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto

1856–1876 Translation of the entire Bible into vernacular Russian

1867 A German Baptist from Lithuania administers the first Baptist baptism in Russia

1867 Russia sells Alaska to the U.S.

1869 The first Russian Baptist Church is established

1870 Bishop Innocent, former missionary to Alaska, founds the Orthodox Missionary Society

1880 Russian Orthodox leaders begin a persecution of all non-Orthodox sects and churches

1884 First Congress of Russian Baptists

1891 Russian Orthodox leaders intensify their persecution of the non-Orthodox, making it difficult for them to find employment or living quarters, and taking their children to indoctrinate them in the Orthodox faith non-Orthodox are tried in Orthodox courts, not civil ones

1894 The Russian Orthodox Church forbids Baptists to assemble

1904–07 Russo-Japanese War

1917 The Russian Revolution Moscow Patriarchate is re-established

1918–28 Lenin separates church and state and proclaims religious freedom the Baptists begin a pastoral school in Moscow, and a publishing house Russian Baptists increase to about two million

1919 The American Ukrainian Orthodox Church is organized

1922 USSR is formed

1929–1939 Stalin’s “Age of Terror” most Russian Christians suffer greatly under this state-sponsored tyranny the worst years are ’34–38

1943 Desiring to rally the Russian people in the face of Hitler [Hitler ] ’s armies, Stalin re-establishes the Russian Orthodox Church

1944 Soviet government orgainzes the all-Union Council of Evangelical Christians—Baptists but Soviet control of the AUCECB makes numerous Christians oppose it

1959–64 Khruschev oversees a great persecution of Christians, though not so murderous as Stalin’s

1960 The USSR makes its restrictive statutes upon the AUCECB ever more stringent

1961 Churches in the USSR join World Council of Churches

1974–75 For his writings against Soviet repression, Alexander Solzhenitsyn is exiled, writes The Gulag Archipelago, Vols. One and Two

1986 Gorbachev initiates policy of glasnost, or “openness,” and Soviets’ freedom of religions increases somewhat

1988 Millenial anniversary of Christianity in the USSR

Kievan Rulers

978–1015 Vladimir I rules Keivan Rus’

1019–54 Yaroslav “the Wise” rules Rus’

1113–1125 Vladimir Monomach rules in Rus’

1125–1140 Other members of Vladimir’s dynasty continue to rule a constantly sub-dividing Rus’

1325–1341 Ivan I rules in Moscow

1359–1389 Dmitri Donskoy rules in Moscow

1425–1462 Vasili II rules in Moscow

1462–1505 Ivan III “the Great” rules Russia

1547–1584 Ivan IV “the Terrible” rules Russia

1645–1676 Alexei rules Russia

1721–1725 Peter “the Great” is emperor of Russia

1762–96 Catherine II is empress of Russia

1801–25 Alexander I is tsar of Russia

1894–1917 Nicholas II rules Russia

1920–24 Lenin rules USSR

1924–53 Josef Stalin

1953–64 Nikita Khruschev

1964–80 Leonid Brezhnev

1980–85 Kosygin and Andropov

1985—?? Mikhail Gorbachev

By the Editors

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #18 in 1988]

Next articles

1550 and Beyond: The Peace of Augsburg


The Peace of Augsburg (1555) temporarily eased the tensions arising from the Reformation, by allowing the legal co-existence of Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V abdicated the Spanish throne in 1556, and Philip II took over. England's Golden Age began when Elizabeth I was crowned queen in 1558. Religious wars continued: the Battle of Lepanto, part of the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars, was fought in 1571, and the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Protestants took place in France in 1572.

In 1556, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia wrote "A General Treatise on Numbers and Measurement" and Georgius Agricola wrote "De Re Metallica," a catalog of ore mining and smelting processes. Michelangelo died in 1564. Isabella Whitney, the first English woman ever to have written non-religious verses, published "The Copy of a Letter" in 1567. The Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator published his "World Map" in 1569. Architect Andrea Palladio wrote "Four Books on Architecture" in 1570. That same year, Abraham Ortelius published the first modern atlas, "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum."

In 1572, Luís Vaz de Camões published his epic poem "The Lusiads," Michel de Montaigne published his "Essays" in 1580, popularizing the literary form. Edmund Spenser published "The Faerie Queen" in 1590, in 1603, William Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet," and Miguel Cervantes' "Don Quixote" was published in 1605.

TRANSGENDER: History Timeline and Studies

This article offers a detailed Transgender History Timeline, as well as significant cases, law, and studies involving the LGBT movement with primarily focus on the transgendered. It also explains transgender reassignment surgery and studies that followed many of these individuals.


Tenth Amendment 1791: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States…”

Fourteenth Amendment 1868: “No state shall …deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” (Rights are not extended to that which is criminal…)

In 1885 the Criminal Law Act was passed in the UK, which made homosexual behavior illegal although sodomy or buggery has been illegal in various countries for centuries. And it was by the Jews more than 3,000 years ago according to the Hebrew bible.

Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, German physician, sexologist and advocate for homosexual and transgender rights coined the term ‘transsexual’ in 1923. He had coined the term ‘transvestite’ is 1910.

Dr. Harry Benjamin, German-born, American endocrinologist, sexologist and advocate for homosexual and transgender rights was influenced by Hirschfeld, and knew him personality. Moreover, Benjamin was asked in 1948, to take a case of a boy desiring to be a girl, by Alfred Kinsey (bisexual sexologist, professor and bestselling author, who with biased and false data significantly influenced changes in the law that led to same-sex marriage laws in the UK and USA). Benjamin, the first doctor to do so, treated the child with Premarin (estrogen) which began production in 1941. He went on to treat hundreds of patients likewise. At that time sexual ‘reassignment ‘ surgery was illegal in the US and Denmark (where Benjamin had referred many ‘patients’ to doctors Cauldwell and Stoller.)

In 1952, ONE Inc. of Los Angeles was founded.

In 1952, George William – ‘Christine’ Jorgensen became the first American to have a ‘sex change’ surgery and hormone treatment (in Denmark). In 1959, transwoman Jorgensen was denied a marriage license in New York.

After World War II, the subject of sexual orientation began to be addressed. In 1947, Alfred Kinsey, an atheist scientist and bisexual, founded the Institute for Sex Research. His 1948 book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male was at the top of the best-sellers list. In 1953, he released Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. By 1955, the American Law Institute published a new edition of their Model Penal Code. Several pages of the Code cited Kinsey’s research and the new code drafted by the notable organization of lawyers and judges was a significant move for sexual orientation laws.

The 1955 Model Penal Code moved for states to repeal their sodomy laws and ‘criminal penalties for consensual sexual relations conducted in private.’ At that time homosexual conduct was a felony in all 50 states. In 1957, the ACLU stood with homosexuals pleading for due process. That year the Wolfenden Report came out in England influenced by Kinsey, it recommended eliminating criminal penalties for private consensual acts. Also, in September, Eisenhower signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The Act established a Commission on Civil Rights, criminal punishments, and issued ‘equal protection’ especially for African American rights to vote.

May 1959, police and individuals from the ‘LGBT community’ have several clashes in Los Angeles, primarily at a drag queen favorite spot called Cooper’s Donuts.

Before 1963, the practice of homosexuality (sodomy or buggery) and in most places many things associated with it – such as cross dressing – was illegal in every US state and could bring about penalties from fines to imprisonment from 1 to 20 years (except GA were a second offense could be 10 to 30). By the 1960s, the majority of Americans did not want to imprison individuals for abortions or homosexuality.

In 1963, Rita (Reed) Erickson became a patient of Dr. Benjamin. In 1964, the lesbian/transman Industrialist founded the Erickson Educational Foundation (EEF) which contributed millions toward influencing the LGBTQ movement over the next two decades. She/he was the first female graduate of LSU’s school of mechanical engineering. Rita was a student at a Philadelphia H.S. where she was involved with other ‘lesbians.’

In 1965, Johns Hopkins Medicine became the first academic medical center to perform gender-affirming surgeries for transgender people.

August 1966, LGBT riots took place in San Francisco at Compton’s Cafeteria. That year Dr. Benjamin published ‘the Transsexual Phenomenon.’

June 1969, transwoman Sylvia Rivera led the Stonewall riots in Manhattan’s West Village at the Stonewall Inn, were police raids led to hundreds chanting ‘gay power’ as many were arrested and they led to a much more public gay rights movement. The next year Rivera and M. Johnson started STAR (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries).

In 1972 William Johnson became the first openly homosexual ordained minister.

By the 1970’s, gay and lesbian characters, such as Billy Crystal in SOAP (1977), began appearing on TV shows.

In 1975, Minneapolis passed a law prohibiting discrimination against transgender people although assault and battery was and is against the law in the US.

In 1975, Richard Raskind underwent male-to-female sex ‘reassignment’ surgery. In 1977, the New York Supreme Court ruled that ‘Renee’ Richards could play professional tennis as a woman. He took the name ‘Renee’ because it was French for ‘reborn.’

In 1976, the Superior Court of NJ ruled that transsexuals could marry based on ‘gender identity.’ In 1999, the Fourth Court of Appeals in Texas ruled marriage licenses could be refused based on ‘gender identity’ where the parties are not opposite-sex.

In 1979, the Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association was founded. In 2007 it changed its name to the World Professional Association for Transgender Health ( The institute promotes a self-regulated ‘standard of care’ for the treatment of gender identity disorder. Their first three ‘International Symposia’ meetings were sponsored by the EEF and took place before the Association came forth: in London (1969), Denmark (1971) and Yugoslavia (1973). The fourth meeting was sponsored by Stanford University and took place in Palo Alto, CA 1975 and the 5 th at Eastern Virginia Med. School (1977), etc. until the 24 th in the Netherlands – 2016.

According to WRATH’s website (2017), “The EEF sponsored, or contributed to, innumerable public addresses, educational films, radio and television appearances, newspaper articles, a newsletter, educational pamphlets, an extensive referral list of service providers, and many early research efforts including Money & Green’s (1969) Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment and Money & Ehrhardt’s (1972) Man, Woman, Boy, Girl. During the late 1960s and early 1970s the EEF donated approximately US$250,000 to the support of projects about transsexualism. In particular, the Harry Benjamin Foundation received over US$60,000 (1964-1968) and the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic received approximately US$72,000 (1967-1973).”

In 1984, the United Methodist Church’s Judicial Council, after a debate from about 1,000 elders and delegates, overturned its ban against ‘practicing homosexual ministers.’

In 1987, the American Psychiatric Association added ‘gender identity disorder’ to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders.

In 1991, the Episcopal Church approved lesbian ‘pastor’ Jane Spahr.

In 1992, Interfaith Task Force became Interfaith Advocates for LGBT People.

August 1992, the first International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy took place in Houston. It was sponsored by the Gulf Coast Transgender Community (GCTC). The conference noted, “Transgendered persons include transsexuals, transgenderists, and other crossdressers of both sexes, transitioning in either direction (male to female or female to male), of any sexual orientation, and of all races, creeds, religions, ages, and degrees of physical impediment.”

In 1993, the Presbyterian Church (USA) reversed its position on gay minister which was held since 1861. In 1993, the first homosexual marriage was performed in a Presbyterian Church, though 72% of their churches voted to ban such acts.

In 1993, Minnesota became the first state to establish a law specifically against discrimination to transgender people. That Christmas eve in Nebraska, transman Teena Ranae Brandon (anatomically female) was kidnapped, beaten and raped and escaped after being told not to tell the police are Teena would be ‘silenced permanently.’ After doing a rape kit at an emergency room and informing the police that Nissen and Lotter were to blame the two on New Year’s eve broke into Teena Brandon’s rental house and murdered DeVine, Lambert and Brandon in front of Lambert’s two year old. Nissen testify against Lotter for a life-sentence plea deal and John Lotter (on Death Row) last appeal was ‘shot down’ February 2017. Ironically, Marvin Nissen later admitted that it was he who fired the shots.

In 1994, AOL started the ‘the Gazebo’ Chat Room for transgender conversions.

In 1995, Frye and Wilchins began lobbying in Washington for the movement. Phillip ‘Phyllis’ Randolph Frye is has been called the ‘grandmother of transgender law.’ In 2010, Frye began the first openly transgendered judge (Houston, TX). ‘Riki Anne’ Wilchins founded GenderPAC for LGBT rights in 1995.

In 1998, 34 year old transgendered/transvestite ‘Rita’ Hester was stabbed 20 times in ‘her’ own apartment in Massachusetts, dying on arrived at the Boston hospital. (The next year G. Smith founded the Transgender Day of Remembrance). Rita’s death reignited the ‘hate crime’ discussion. Over the next 15 years about 200 ‘transgendered’ individuals were murdered at least in part due to their identification.

June 1998, African-American James Byrd Jr. was murdered by white supremacists. Byrd was dragged behind a truck for about 3 miles on an asphalt road and was killed when his head was severed after hitting a culvert. One of his murders was killed by lethal injection in 2011. October 1998, homosexual Matthew Shepard was beaten with a pistol, tortured and left to die and did so about a week later due to injuries. Their deaths would be remembered in 2009 Hate Crime legislation.

In 2001, Rhode Island became the second state to enact a nondiscrimination law against transgender people.

In 2001, the Kansas Supreme Court refused to allow a transwoman to inherit their partner’s property based solely on ‘gender identity’ and that the marriage between to men was invalid.

In 2002, the Transgender Law Center opened in San Francisco.

In 2003, a California school district paid $ 1.1 million to six students who alleged their classmates repeatedly harassed them because of their sexual orientation and the school administration did not adequately address the harassment… Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students, like all other students, are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment and statutory requirements of equal treatment under the law…”

May 2003, George W. Bush became the first president to welcome a transgendered person (‘Petra Leilani Akwai’) to the White House indirectly during a Yale class of 68’ reunion. Although in 2004 Bush stated he supported a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage.

In 2003, the National Center for Transgender Equality was founded.

In 2004, the British Parliament passed the Civil Partnership Act allowing homosexual partners the same ‘rights and responsibilities’ as married couples. In December 2005, throughout the UK over 1,200 ‘ceremonies’ of homosexuals took place within the first three days that the Act became law.

In 2004, Massachusetts became the first US state to legalize same-sex marriage.

In 2005, California became the first state to enact the Insurance Gender Nondiscrimination Act which would not allow Insurance companies to restrict LGBTs and their ‘partners’ and children from health insurance.

“The information in this booklet has been developed by a coalition of education, health, mental health, and religious organizations that share a concern for the health and education of all students in schools, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual students. We know you also share this concern – that all students have an opportunity to learn and develop in a safe and supportive environment. The reason for publishing this booklet now is to provide you, as principals, educators, and school personnel, with accurate information that will help you respond to a recent upsurge in promotion of efforts to change sexual orientation through therapy and religious ministries. …Sexual orientation conversion therapy refers to counseling and psychotherapy to attempt to eliminate individual’s sexual desires for members of their own sex. Ex-gay ministry refers to the religious groups that use religion to attempt to eliminate those desires… such as Focus on the Family.

This booklet provides information from physicians, counselors, social workers, psychologists, legal experts, and educators who are knowledgeable about the development of sexual orientation in youths… All teenagers face certain developmental challenges, such as developing social skills, thinking about career choices, and fitting into a peer group… However, lesbian, gay and bisexual youths must also cope with the prejudice, discrimination, and violence in society, and, in some cases, in their own families, schools, and communities… It is important that… school environments be open and accepting so these young people will feel comfortable… The idea that homosexuality is a mental disorder or that the emergence of same-sex attraction and orientation among some adolescents is in any way abnormal or mentally unhealthy has no support among any mainstream health and mental health professional organizations… The American Academy Of Pediatrics advises youth that counseling may be helpful for you if you feel confused about your sexual identity. Avoid any treatments that claim to be able to change a person’s sexual orientation

The American Counseling Association …adopted a position opposing the promotion of ‘reparative therapy’ as a ‘cure’ for individuals who are homosexual. The American Psychiatric Association… 1997 Resolution, which is endorsed by the National Association of School Psychologists, states: ‘That the APA opposes portrayals of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth and adults as mentally ill due to their sexual orientation and supports the dissemination of accurate information about sexual orientation.’ The American School Counselor Association, in its position …states: ‘Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and questioning (LGBTQ) youth often begin to experience self-identification during their pre-adolescent or adolescent years, as do heterosexual youth. These developmental processes are essential cognitive, emotional and social activities… they are not signs of illness, mental disorder or emotional problems… It is not the role of the professional school counselor to attempt to change a student’s sexual orientation/gender identity but instead to provide support to LGBTQ students to promote student achievement and personal well-being…”

June 2009, Sonny and Cher’s Chastity Bono came out as ‘Chaz.’ About that time, President Obama nominated the first transgender federal appointees, ‘Dylan Orr.’

In 2009, President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act establishing a multiplier to criminal penalties where the crime was committed in part because of the victim’s ‘gender identity’ or ‘sexual orientation.’

In 2010, Parliament passed the Equality Act to ‘protect rights of individuals… against direct and indirect discrimination …extending protection in private clubs to sex, religion… and gender reassignment’ and to all ‘civil partnerships on religious premises.’ By 2010, 21 of the 51 countries in Europe recognized ‘same-sex’ unions.

May 2011, Obama’s Office of Personnel Management issued a memo to federal agencies on how to support transgender employees. In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 also applied to all LGBTs.

In 2012, K. Broadus, founder of the Trans People of Color Coalition testified before the Senate in support of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act.

In 2012, the Girl Scouts amended its policy, and allowed children in based on ‘gender identification.’

In 2013, after centuries of agreement in the medical profession otherwise, the American Psychiatric Association changed its The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from saying ‘gender identity disorder’ to ‘gender dysphoria.’ Thus, saying in essence it was not a MENTAL DISORDER, but only a state of dissatisfaction and stress.

April 2013, New Zealand legalized gay marriage. In May: Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 11 th – 13 th states to allow same-sex marriage the Boy Scouts voted to accept gays President Francois Hollande of France signed a law authorizing marriage and adoptions for same-sex couples Brazil’s Justice National Council legalized same-same marriage and Britain’s House of Commons passed a Gay Marriage bill. In June, the Supreme Court struck down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act, companies such as AIG, Intel & Facebook were pro same-sex marriage. By December, New Jersey, Hawaii, Illinois, New Mexico and Utah passed same-sex marriage bills.

March 2013: the Supreme Court in Windsor v. US, said the Defense of Marriage Act was unconstitutional.

In February 2014, a U. S. District judge in Texas ruled the state ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, making it the twentieth state. A year later, in 2015, 37 U.S. states allowed same-sex marriages, civil unions, or respected out-of-state marriages. Due to these laws, states began banning Gay Conversion Therapy. Moreover, in 2014 Family Medical Leave, Veterans Affairs and Social Security laws extended to same-sex couples. However, only 3 states accepted gay marriage by popular vote and 8 by state legislature yet, 26 of 37 states issued their laws based solely on court decisions. Moving with the wave, in 2015, Ireland legalized Gay marriage. More importantly, June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage.

In 2014, Duke University published its first Transgender Studies Quarterly.

May 2014, the DHH amended its 1981 policy to include the option of ‘sex reassignment surgery’ under Medicare.

December 2014, the DOJ stated that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act applied to discrimination based on ‘gender identity.’

January 2015, Obama became the first President to speak of transgender people in a State of the Union address.

June 2015, Bruce Jenner, came out as ‘Caitlyn.’

October 2016: Johns Hopkins Medicine Center issued a letter ‘to the LGBT Community’ stating it ‘will soon begin providing gender-affirming surgery.’

Johns Hopkins Psychiatrist, Dr. Paul McHugh has studied transgendered people for 40 years and was the Distinguished Service Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University and was psychiatrist-in-Chief for 26 years at J. H. Hospital, said, “transgendered men Do Not become women, nor do transgendered women become men.”

In a June 2015 the article, Transgenderism: A Pathogenic Meme, written to the Witherspoon Institute Dr. McHugh in part stated:

Publicity, especially from early examples such as “Christine” Jorgenson, “Jan” Morris, and “Renee” Richards, has promoted the idea that one’s biological sex is a choice, leading to widespread cultural acceptance of the concept. And, that idea, quickly accepted in the 1980s, has since run through the American public like a revelation or “meme” affecting much of our thought about sex…

The champions of this meme, encouraged by their alliance with the broader LGBT movement, claim that whether you are a man or a woman, a boy or a girl, is more of a disposition or feeling about yourself than a fact of nature. And, much like any other feeling, it can change at any time, and for all sorts of reasons…

At Johns Hopkins, after pioneering sex-change surgery, we demonstrated that the practice brought no important benefits. As a result, we stopped offering that form of treatment in the 1970s. Our efforts, though, had little influence on the emergence of this new idea about sex, or upon the expansion of the number of “transgendered” among young and old.

This history may clarify some aspects of the latest high-profile transgender claimant. Bruce Jenner, the 1976 Olympic decathlon champion, is turning away from his titular identity as one of the “world’s greatest male athletes.” Jenner announced recently that he “identifies as a woman” and, with medical and surgical help, is busy reconstructing his physique.

…These men wanted to display themselves in sexy ways, wearing provocative female garb. More often than not, while claiming to be a woman in a man’s body, they declared themselves to be “lesbians” (attracted to other women)…

…But the meme—that your sex is a feeling, not a biological fact, and can change at any time—marches on through our society. …Many onlookers to the contemporary transgender parade, knowing that a disfavored opinion is worse than bad taste today, similarly fear to identify it as a misapprehension. …I am ever trying to be the boy among the bystanders who points to what’s real. I do so not only because truth matters, but also because overlooked amid the hoopla—enhanced now by Bruce Jenner’s celebrity and Annie Leibovitz’s photography—stand many victims.

Think, for example, of the parents whom no one—not doctors, schools, nor even churches—will help to rescue their children from these strange notions of being transgendered and the problematic lives these notions herald. These youngsters now far outnumber the Bruce Jenner type of transgender. Although they may be encouraged by his public reception, these children generally come to their ideas about their sex not through erotic interests but through a variety of youthful psychosocial conflicts and concerns.

First, though, let us address the basic assumption of the contemporary parade: the idea that exchange of one’s sex is possible. …Transgendered men do not become women, nor do transgendered women become men. All (including Bruce Jenner) become feminized men or masculinized women, counterfeits or impersonators of the sex with which they “identify.” In that lies their problematic future.

When “the tumult and shouting dies,” it proves not easy nor wise to live in a counterfeit sexual garb. The most thorough follow-up of sex-reassigned people — extending over thirty years and conducted in Sweden, where the culture is strongly supportive of the transgendered—documents their lifelong mental unrest. Ten to fifteen years after surgical reassignment, the suicide rate of those who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery rose to twenty times that of comparable peers (LGBT’s without the surgery).

How to Treat Gender Dysphoria: So how should we make sense of this matter today? As with any mental phenomenon, what’s crucial is noting its fundamental characteristic and then identifying the many ways in which that characteristic can manifest itself.

The central issue with all transgender subjects is one of assumption—the assumption that one’s sexual nature is misaligned with one’s biological sex. This problematic assumption comes about in several different ways, and these distinctions in its generation determine how to manage and treat it.

Based on the photographic evidence one might guess Bruce Jenner falls into the group of men who come to their disordered assumption through being sexually aroused by the image of themselves as women. He could have been treated for this misaligned arousal with psychotherapy and medication. Instead, he found his way to surgeons who worked him over as he wished. Others have already commented on his stereotypic caricature of women as decorative “babes” …a view that understandably infuriates feminists—and his odd sense that only feelings, not facts, matter here. …Future men with similar feelings and intentions should be treated for those feelings rather than being encouraged to undergo bodily changes. Group therapies are now available for them.

Most young boys and girls who come seeking sex-reassignment are utterly different from Jenner. They have no erotic interest driving their quest. Rather, they come with psychosocial issues—conflicts over the prospects, expectations, and roles that they sense are attached to their given sex—and presume that sex-reassignment will ease or resolve them. The grim fact is that most of these youngsters do not find therapists willing to assess and guide them in ways that permit them to work out their conflicts and correct their assumptions. Rather, they and their families find only “gender counselors” who encourage them in their sexual misassumptions.

Those with Gender Dysphoria Need Evidence-Based Care: There are several reasons for this absence of coherence in our mental health system. Important among them is the fact that both the state and federal governments are actively seeking to block any treatments that can be construed as challenging the assumptions and choices of transgendered youngsters. “As part of our dedication to protecting America’s youth, this administration supports efforts to ban the use of conversion therapy for minors,” said Valerie Jarrett, a senior advisor to President Obama.

In two states, a doctor who would look into the psychological history of a transgendered boy or girl in search of a resolvable conflict could lose his or her license to practice medicine. By contrast, such a physician would not be penalized if he or she started such a patient on hormones that would block puberty and might stunt growth.

What is needed now is public clamor for coherent science—biological and therapeutic science—examining the real effects of these efforts to “support” transgendering. Although much is made of a rare “intersex” individual, no evidence supports the claim that people such as Bruce Jenner have a biological source for their transgender assumptions. Plenty of evidence demonstrates that with him and most others, transgendering is a psychological rather than a biological matter.

In fact, gender dysphoria—the official psychiatric term for feeling oneself to be of the opposite sex—belongs in the family of similarly disordered assumptions about the body, such as anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder. Its treatment should not be directed at the body as with surgery and hormones any more than one treats obesity-fearing anorexic patients with liposuction. The treatment should strive to correct the false, problematic nature of the assumption and to resolve the psychosocial conflicts provoking it. With youngsters, this is best done in family therapy.

The Williams Institute estimates that about .3% of the US population identifies as transgender, and between 100 and 300 have reconstructed surgical procedures in the U.S. and about 2,400 worldwide with Thailand leading. Thailand is renowned for being a ‘sex tourism’ destination and had as much as 100,000 male prostitutes in 2015. A United Nations National Institutes of Health study revealed that transgender prostitution was a significant factor in the country’s HIV rates. The Netherlands has similar problems with their sex workers, many of which are transgendered.

May 2007, Dr. Russell Reid, the UK’s best-known ‘EXPERT’ on transsexualism, was found guilty of gross misconduct for rushing patients into sex-changing surgeries. The General Medical Council forces Reid to turn over his files at that time.

A 2014 study revealed that Amsterdam has more male prostitutes than female prostitutes. “75% of the windows in the red light district are filled with male prostitutes, 5% are transgender and only 20% are female…”

Swedish study published in 2011 on ‘Long-term Follow-Up to Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery’ followed ‘324 sex-reassigned persons’ from 1973 to 2003 and concluded, “Persons with transsexualism, after sex reassignment, have considerably higher risks for mortality, suicidal behaviour, and psychiatric morbidity than the general population. Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism.”

2017: Navin Singh, M.D. on the East Coast advertises ‘Free your inner beauty,’ and explains some surgery procedures. Under ‘MTF’ Male to Female ‘transitioning,’ he offers various plastic surgeries, ‘Trach Shave’ to improve ‘feminine neck angles…’ ‘Laser Hair Removal of a beard and other unwanted facial hair…’ ‘Rhinoplasty… narrow bridge… for a sexier lady like nose…’ ‘liposuction… body fat grafting…’ ‘fillers for the lips…’ ‘Latisse – eyelashes reveal feminine eyes…’ ‘Brow Ridge Filler… for FTM’ ‘Body Contouring with Smart Lipo…’ ‘MTF breast augmentation surgery…’ ‘subcutaneous mastectomy for FTM.’

Transgender surgery typically follows years of hormone therapy to alter secondary sex characteristics to the desired gender. Gender surgery primarily follows WPATH guidelines. Most are cosmetic however, some involve the serious internal and external genitalia surgery. That is surgery to ‘ALTER the body parts.’ First androgens are given to women to enhance male characteristics such as facial and body hair and estrogen and anti-androgens are given to men and alter musculature and skin distribution and to reduce body hair.

In male to female MTF surgery, the testicles and most of the penis are removed and the urethra is cut shorter and skin is used to fashion a ‘functional vagina.’ Sensation can remain due to parts of the remaining and folded penis yet, men retain their prostates – glands that surround urethra (tubular passage through which urine is discharged from the bladder).

In female to male FTM surgery, the breasts, uterus and ovaries are removed during two operations. A ‘neophallus,’ surgically constructed penis, is made from tissue grafts from other parts of the body, such as the forearm. This expensive procedure extends the urethra to allow urination, and is subject to serious complications.

Surgeries cost about $50,000 for MTF and $75,000 FTM (2015) although under President Obama’s Medicare insurance will cover some of the costs.

The American College of Pediatricians in their Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics has published many studies on difficulties of children of same-sex couples. Likewise, the British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Jan. 2015 reported a study of children of 512 same-sex parents which found that “emotional problems were over twice as prevalent for children with same-sex parents than for children with opposite-sex parents. And the risk was elevated in the presence of parent psychological distress, moderated by family instability…”

Note: The Journal of Sexual Medicine (June 2016, Vol. 13, Issue 6) in their article, Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals after Sex Reassignment Surgery reported, “…misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision… from Nov. 2010 through Nov. 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty… prosthesis and penile implants…’ were required.

The Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity, which expanded from NARTH, has been involved in conversion therapy for decades and has had numerous members who have been awarded the highest honors in psychology. ATCSI has many studies showing success of conversion therapy.

Timeline of Religious Tolerance

A look at the history of religious tolerance in both the East and West. Also a look at the famous people who have promoted greater tolerance and acceptance of different philosophies and religious traditions.

C 4000 BC. Vedas and Upanishads give one of the earliest philosophies of ‘unity in diversity.’

Truth is one. Sages call it by different names. — Rig Veda.

Swami Vivekananda said of Hinduism. “we believe not only in universal tolerance, but we accept all religions as true.”

356 –323 BC – Alexander the Great conquers areas in the Middle East and Asia. However, he assimilates the cultures he conquers, showing religious tolerance. After conquering Babylon, he allows the ancient temple to be rebuilt and shows respect for the religion.

260 BCE – After the conquest of Kalinga, Ashoka the Emperor of India, converted to Buddhism and began to rule on the principles of non-violence and tolerance. He encourages dialogue between Buddhist and non-Buddhist theologians displaying even-handedness in his rule over his kingdom.

311 AD – Roman Emperor Galerius issued a general edict of toleration of Christianity. Emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity in 312 AD cemented the acceptance of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

1264 – The Statute of Kalisz was issued in Poland, guaranteeing freedom of religion for the Jewish people.

1273. – Rumi’s funeral attracts followers from all the main religions. Rumi was a noted Sufi poet who preached universal tolerance and advocated the universality of religion.

“Christian, Jew, Muslim, shaman, Zoroastrian, stone, ground, mountain, river, each has a secret way of being with the mystery, unique and not to be judged”

1348 – Pope Clement VI issued a papal bull pleading with Catholics not to murder Jews, for whom they blamed the black death on. Pope Clement VI personally sheltered persecuted Jews in Avignon.

1414 – At the Council of Constance, Pawel Wlodkowic representing Poland, wrote an influential tact Tractatus de potestate papae et imperatoris respectu infidelium – arguing that Christian and Pagan nations should co-exist peacefully and he criticised the Teutonic, Christian wars of conquest. Wlodkowic was an early supporter of conciliarism.

1492 – Bayezid II, the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, invites Jews expelled from Spain to seek refuge in the Ottoman Empire.

1500-1539 – Guru Nanak preaches religious tolerance in India, encouraging Hindus to be better Hindus and Muslims better Muslims. “There is no Hindu, no Mussalman—all are human beings.” – Guru Nanak.

1513 – Johann Reuchlin, a German humanist, defends the right of Jews to keep their religious books. In defiance of theologians and University Professors, he wrote Defensio contra Calumniatores (1513) arguing Religious texts should not be destroyed.

1516 – The work Utopia by Thomas More described a world with complete religious tolerance. He wrote that in Utopia people “can hold various religious beliefs without persecution from the authorities.

1524 – In De libero arbitrio, Desiderius Erasmus sought to defuse the great tensions around religious debates writing that theologians should avoid excess and be more temperate in their language. Erasmus was critical of the Roman Catholic Church but remained in its fold. He laid down some foundations for religious tolerance.

1542 –1605 – Akbar the Great went to great lengths to promote religious tolerance in his Kingdom. He ended taxation on Hindu pilgrims and fostered dialogue amongst different religions, including Jains, Christians, Muslims, Sufis and followers of Guru Nanak.

1553 27 October The execution of Spanish theologian Michael Servetus caused significant unease across Europe. The reaction to his burning at stake caused many to question whether ‘heretics’ should be killed.

1554 – Sebastian Castellio a French Protestant theologian wrote a book – Whether heretics should be persecuted (De haereticis, an sint persequendi) He argued that heresy should be met with reason and argument, but killing a man for his beliefs was wrong. Castellio wrote:

“To kill a man is not to protect a doctrine, but it is to kill a man.”

1568 – King John II Sigismund of Hungary, issued the Edict of Torda decreeing religious toleration.

1598 – April 13 – The Edict of Nantes was issued by Henry IV of France, granting civil freedoms to different Christian sects. The law separated civil law from religious rights.

1644 – Against a backdrop of the English civil war and religious intolerance, John Milton published Areopagitica an influential speech arguing for the right to freedom of speech and religious views.

Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties.

1649 – Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the Act Concerning Religion, a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians but excluding Nontrinitarian faiths.

1701 Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges (28 October 1701) Guaranteed freedom of worship to those who profess belief in God. Written by William Penn, a Quaker.

1763. Voltaire publishes “Treatise on Toleration” Despite attacking religious views, he also makes a case for toleration.

I say that we should regard all men as our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God?”

1786The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson was passed by the Virginia State Assembly after being proposed in 1777. This was considered the forerunner of the First Amendment to US constitution.

1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted by French assembly during the French revolution affirms religious tolerance.

“No-one shall be interfered with for his opinions, even religious ones, provided that their practice doesn’t disturb public order as established by the law.”

1791 – The First Amendment to the United States Constitution, stated:

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…”

‘make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,‘ this separated church and state in the United States.

1859 – J.S. Mill makes a classic defence of liberty in “On Liberty” which included freedom of religious conscience.

1893 – At the inaugural World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. Swami Vivekananda makes a strong case for religious tolerance and the underlying unity of different religions. This Parliament is often considered the beginning of the global interfaith community.

1948 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states:

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

1965 – The Roman Catholic Church Vatican II Council issued the decree Dignitatis Humanae (Religious Freedom) that states that all people must have the right to religious freedom.

1986 – The first World Day of Prayer for Peace was held in Assisi, with representatives from 120 religions coming together to pray.

1988 – Mikhail Gorbachev promises increased religious toleration within the Soviet Union. The Russian Orthodox Church celebrates the millennial of Russian Christianization in 1988, and appoints a new Patriarch without political supervision.

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “ Timeline of religious tolerance ”, Oxford, UK – Last updated 3rd August 2014

World Religions

World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained at Amazon. A refreshing approach to understanding different faiths and insights into the world’s most important religions—offering a deeper appreciation of the beliefs central to each.

Related pages

Spiritual figures – Famous saints, mystics and religious figures. Including Jesus Christ, The Buddha, Lord Krishna, St Teresa of Avila.

Famous saints – Famous saints from the main religious traditions of Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Buddhism. Includes St Francis of Assisi, Mirabai and Guru Nanak.

Famous Religious leaders and founders – Key people who helped to found different religions and spiritual movements.

Watch the video: VideoCD 107. ΠΑΡ ΟΛΙΓΟΝ ΧΡΙΣΤΙΑΝΟΣ - Αλκιβιάδης Τζελέπης


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