Boris Vinogradov was born in Russia in 1909. He became a diplomat and was based in the Soviet embassy in Berlin. He was also a NKVD agent and in March 1934, he was ordered to recruit Martha Dodd, the daughter of William Edward Dodd, the United States ambassador in Germany. The message was sent to the Berlin station chief: "Let Boris Vinogradov know that we want to use him for the realization of an affair we are interested in.... According to our data, the mood of his acquaintance (Martha Dodd) is quite ripe for finally drawing her into our work. Therefore we ask Vinogradov to write her a warm friendly letter and to invite her to a meeting in Paris where... they will carry out necessary measures to draw Martha into our work."
The couple became lovers while in Paris. They also visited Moscow before retuning to Berlin. On 5th June, 1935, Vinogradov wrote to his spymaster: "Currently the case with the American (Martha Dodd) is proceeding in the following way. Now she is in Berlin, and I received a letter from her in which she writes that she still loves me and dreams of marrying me. It is possible to work with her only with help from our good relations."
In October 1935, Vinogradov was recalled to Moscow and another agent, Emir Bukhartsev, took over her case. He reported: "Martha argues that she is a convinced partisan of the Communist Party and the USSR. With the State Department's knowledge, Martha helps her father in his diplomatic work and is aware of all his ambassadorial affairs. The entire Dodd family hates National Socialists. Martha has interesting connections that she uses in getting information for her father. She has intimate relations with some of her acquaintances.... Martha claims that the main interest of her life is to assist secretly the revolutionary cause. She is prepared to use her position for work in this direction, provided that the possibility of failure and of discrediting her father can be eliminated. She claimed that a former official of the Soviet Embassy in Berlin - Boris Vinogradov - has had intimate relations with her."
In January 1936, Emir Bukhartsev reported on the progress he was making with Martha Dodd. "For the last 2-3 weeks, I met with Dodd several times. At the first meeting, she told me about Bullitt's (U.S. Ambassador to France William Bullitt) swinish behavior during his sojourn in Berlin. According to her, Bullitt severely scolded the USSR in the American Embassy, arguing that in the next few months the Japanese would capture Vladivostok and the Russians would do nothing against it.... All of this exasperated the American Ambassador Dodd, who reported the talks in a letter to Washington.... During previous meetings Martha Dodd frankly expressed her willingness to help the Soviet Embassy with her information. Now she is studying hard the theory of communism and Matters of Leninism by Stalin. Her teacher is Arvid Harnack to whom she goes often. According to her, she now has to hide her Communist convictions due to her father's official status."
Bukhartsev also revealed that Martha Dodd was having an affair with Loius Ferdinand, the Prince of Prussia. She claimed that this was for political reasons: "This year her father will retire, and then she will be able to conduct Communist activities more openly. However, this circumstance does not prevent her from maintaining rather intimate relations with Louis-Ferdinand, the Crown Prince's son. According to Dodd, this is a perfect disguise, because those who earlier treated her suspiciously because of her open relations with Vinogradov now consider her previous passion hearty rather than political."
Boris Vinogradov was now working in Bucharest and in October 1936 Martha Dodd wrote to him via the Soviet embassy: "Boris, this week it was a year since I saw you last. On the 8th I gave you a farewell kiss at the railway station, and since then we haven't seen one another. But I never, not for a minute, forgot you and everything you gave me in my life. This week, every night I thought about you - every night, and about that night we had such a stupid and mean quarrel - do you forgive me? I was scared and in a wild condition that night because I knew that I wouldn't see you for so long. I strongly wanted you to stay with me that night and forever, and I knew that I would never be able to have you. What have you been doing all this time? Have you been thinking about me and asking yourself how my personal life has gone? From various sources I know that soon you will go home. Will you go via Berlin? Write me and let me know your plans. I would like to see you once more. On December 8 I will be at home all night. Won't you call me, won't you talk to me from Bucharest - I want so much to hear your voice again - and on the 8th it will be the anniversary of our folly. We should blame our cowardice for this absence. Please, call me that night."
In her letter Dodd admitted that she had been having an affair with French diplomat Armand Berard. "You may have heard about me indirectly. I have lived and thought many things since I saw you last time. You must know about it. Armand is still here - but you must know that he means nothing to me now - as long as you are still alive - nobody can mean anything to me as long as you are alive."
Boris Vinogradov was then posted to Warsaw and asked her to travel to Poland. On 29th January, 1937, he wrote: "You can't imagine, honey, how often you were with me, how I have been constantly thinking about you, worrying about you and craving to see you, how I adjusted to the inevitable when I heard the first news and how I was glad to know the truth. I want to see you so much, honey. Couldn't I come before the end of the month? I would like to come on February 6, I think ... and to stay for about a week. It is extremely important for me to see you and I promise to do it as soon as possible. I would like to stay in a small hotel not far from you, and I want nobody to know I'm there because I don't want to be entertained. I only want to see you as much as possible incognito. Probably, we'll be able to leave from Warsaw to the countryside for one or two days. I will come alone. After all, my parents quite agree that I do what I want. I am 28 and very independent!"
In February 1937 Martha Dodd was told that Emir Bukhartsev had been recalled to Moscow and executed as "a Gestapo agent". Vinogradov became her main controller and in March, 1937, he was able to tell his Soviet intelligence supervisors that she was now working for Earl Browder, the leader of the American Communist Party, and an agent of the Soviet Union: "Today Martha Dodd left for Moscow. Since her father will retire sooner or later, she wants to work in her motherland. She established a connection with Browder who invited her to work for him. She also established a connection (through her brother) with The World Committee of Struggle for Peace in Geneva and became close friends with Comintern workers Otto Katz and Dolliway. An authoritative comrade in Moscow must talk to her and convince her to stay in Europe and work only for us."
On her arrival in Moscow on 14th March she sent a letter to the Soviet Government: "I, Martha Dodd, U.S. citizen, have known Boris Vinogradov for three years in Berlin and other places, and we have agreed to ask official permission to marry." She had a meeting with Abram Slutsky, the head of the Foreign Department (INO) of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). Slutsky reported: "Some time ago, Martha Dodd, daughter of the American Ambassador in Germany, was recruited by us. We used her short-term trip to the USSR for detailed negotiations with her and established that she has very valuable possibilities and may be widely used by us."
Martha Dodd made a statement to Slutsky about her commitment to the Soviet Union: "It goes without saying that my services of any kind and at any time are proposed to the party for use at its discretion. Currently, I have access mainly to the personal, confidential correspondence of my father with the U.S. State Department and the U.S. President. My source of information on military and naval issues, as well as on aviation, is exclusively personal contact with our embassy's staff... I have established very close connections to journalists."
Dodd admitted that she was unable to get much important information from the Germany government: "I lost almost any connection with the Germans except perhaps for casual, high-society meetings which yield almost nothing. I still have a connection to the diplomatic corps but, on the whole, it doesn't yield great results. Germans, foreign diplomats, and our own personnel treat us suspiciously, unfriendly, and (as far as the Germans are concerned) insultingly. Is the information which I get from my father, who is hated in Germany and who occupies an isolated position among foreign diplomats and therefore has no access to any secret information, important enough for me to remain in Germany?"
In this document Dodd suggested that she would be more use working in the United States: "Couldn't I conduct more valuable work in America or in some European organization such as the International Conference for Peace. In America, I am suspected of nothing, except for the Germans, and I have countless valuable connections in all circles. In other words, is my potential work valuable enough to stay in Germany even for the remaining term of my father's sojourn there? I have done everything possible to make my father remain in Germany. I'm still going to do everything I can in this direction. However, I'm afraid he will retire this summer or fall. He was of great benefit to the Roosevelt administration, contributing an anti-Nazi view. In any case, this was with regard to (Secretary of State Cordell) Hull and Roosevelt. Most State Department officials work with the Nazis, for example, Dunn, chief of the European department; Phillips, currently in Rome; Bullitt; and others. My father tried to prevent trade agreements with Germany; he refused to cooperate with bankers, businessmen, etc."
Dodd offered to persuade her father to help the Soviet government: "He personally wants to leave. Shouldn't he arrange his resignation with a provocation once he decides the question of timing? Shouldn't he provoke the Germans to make them demand his recall or create a scandal, after which he could speak openly in America both orally and in the press.... To resign and to publish a protest? He could be convinced to do it if it had significance for the USSR. Roosevelt will be giving diplomatic posts to many capitalists who financed him. Having little experience with respect to European politics, Roosevelt will appoint... people or groups who will be dangerous now and in time of war. Nevertheless, my father has great influence on Hull and Roosevelt, who are inclined to be slightly anti-Fascist... Have you got anybody in mind who would be at least liberal and democratic in this post (Dodd's replacement in Germany)? ... If there is information concerning our candidates, it would be important to know whose candidacy to the post of U.S. Ambassador in Germany the USSR would like to promote. If this man has at least a slight chance, I will persuade my father to promote his candidacy."
A copy of this statement was sent to Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the NKVD. On 29th March, 1937, he sent it to Joseph Stalin with the message: "The 7th department of the... NKVD recruited Martha Dodd, daughter of the American Ambassador in Berlin, who came in March 1937 to Moscow for business negotiations. She described in her report her social status, her father's status, and prospects of her further work for us. Forwarding a copy of the latter, I ask instructions about Martha Dodd's use."
For the rest of the year Martha Dodd provided information from the American embassy. A NKVD report stated: "Martha Dodd... checks Ambassador Dodd's reports to Roosevelt in the archive and communicates to us short summaries of the contents, whose numbers we gave to her. She continues providing us with materials from the American Embassy, trying mainly to get data about Germany, Japan, and Poland." Her controller reported giving her "200 American dollars, 10 rubles, and gifts bought for 500 rubles."
In a memo from Boris Vinogradov he pointed out that it was important for her to believe that she would eventually be allowed to marry him. He wrote that "her dream is to be my wife, at least virtually, and that I will come to work in America and she would help me." In a memo dated 12th November 1937 he mentioned that Louis Fischer had proposed to her. "The meeting with Martha went off well. She was in a good mood. On December 15, she leaves for New York where a meeting with her is fixed (with NKVD operatives in that city). She is still busy with our marriage plans and waits for the fulfillment of our promise despite her parents' warning that nothing would come of it. Not unknown to you, journalist Louis Fischer proposed to her. She did not accept since she hopes to marry me. But if we tell her that I will by no means and never marry her, she will accept Fischer's proposal. I think that she shouldn't be left in ignorance with regard to the real situation, for if we deceive her, she may become embittered and lose faith in us. Now she agrees to work for us even if it turns out that I won't marry her. I proposed giving money to her, but she turned me down."
Martha Dodd married Alfred Stern on 16th June, 1938. She wrote to Boris Vinogradov with the news: "You haven't had time yet to know that I really got married. On June 16, I married an American whom I love very much. I wanted to tell you a lot, but I will wait until our meeting. We are supposed to be in the USSR in late August or early September this year. I hope you'll be there or will let me know where I can meet you. You know, honey, that for me, you meant more in my life than anybody else. You also know that, if I am needed, I will be ready to come when called. Let me know your plan if you get another post. I look into the future and see you in Russia again. Your Martha." Dodd was unaware that Vinogradov had already been arrested and executed as a "traitor to the motherland".
Let Boris Vinogradov know that we want to use him for the realization of an affair we are interested in.... they will carry out necessary measures to draw Martha into our work.
Martha argues that she is a convinced partisan of the Communist Party and the USSR. With the State Department's knowledge, Martha helps her father in his diplomatic work and is aware of all his [ambassadorial] affairs. She claimed that a former official of the Soviet Embassy in Berlin - Boris Vinogradov - has had intimate relations with her.
Boris, this week it was a year since I saw you last. What have you been doing all this time? Have you been thinking about me and asking yourself how my personal life has gone?
From various sources I know that soon you will go home. I would like to see you once more.
On December 8 I will be at home all night. Please, call me that night.
You may have heard about me indirectly. You must know about it.
Armand is still here - but you must know that he means nothing to me now - as long as you are still alive - nobody can mean anything to me as long as you are alive.
For the last 2-3 weeks, I met with Dodd several times. All of this exasperated the American Ambassador Dodd, who reported the talks in a letter to Washington....
During previous meetings Martha Dodd frankly expressed her willingness to help the Soviet Embassy with her information. Now she is studying hard the theory of communism and "Matters of Leninism" by Stalin. According to her, she now has to hide her Communist convictions due to her father's official status. This year her father will retire, and then she will be able to conduct Communist activities more openly.
However, this circumstance does not prevent her from maintaining rather intimate relations with Louis-Ferdinand, the Crown Prince's son. According to Dodd, this is a perfect disguise, because those who earlier treated her suspiciously because of her open relations with Vinogradov now consider her previous passion "hearty" rather than "political."
Honey, I'm so glad to get news from you and to know that you are finally in Warsaw.... You can't imagine, honey, how often you were with me, how I have been constantly thinking about you, worrying about you and craving to see you, how I adjusted to the inevitable when I heard the first news and how I was glad to know the truth. I am 28 and very independent!
Dissatisfied with Vinogradov's progress in preparing Dodd for agent work, the NKVD recalled the diplomat to Moscow shortly thereafter and assigned as Dodd's contact a Berlin correspondent for the newspaper Izvestia, Comrade Bukhartsev. At a diplomatic reception he introduced himself to Martha Dodd, who was given the code name "Liza." According to "Emir" (Bukhartsev's code name), she pledged to cooperate in passing along information. An internal NKVD memorandum in Moscow written during this period described Dodd's commitment to the cause.
The meeting with Martha went off well. On December 15, she leaves for New York where a meeting with her is fixed (with NKVD operatives in that city).
She is still busy with our marriage plans and waits for the fulfillment of our promise despite her parents' warning that nothing would come of it.
Not unknown to you, journalist Louis Fischer proposed to her. But if we tell her that I will by no means and never marry her, she will accept Fischer's proposal.
I think that she shouldn't be left in ignorance with regard to the real situation, for if we deceive her, she may become embittered and lose faith in us. I proposed giving money to her, but she turned me down.
Born Mar. 25 (Apr. 6), 1891, in Vol&rsquosk died July 10, 1958, in Leningrad. Soviet zoologist specialist in the field of morphology, comparative anatomy, paleontology, ecology, and zoogeography of rodents. Doctor of biological sciences (1934) professor (1939).
Vinogradov graduated from the natural sciences division of Khar&rsquokov University in 1918 he studied under P. P. Sushkin. From 1921 to 1958 he worked in the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1934 he became head of the institute&rsquos department of land vertebrates. From 1932 to 1953 he was at Leningrad State University, and in 1945 he became head of the zoology department. Vinogradov was the founder of the Leningrad school of mammalogy, and he and his school are noted for their comprehensive historical approach to the study of animals, involving a synthesis of the animal&rsquos structure, way of life, habitat, and distribution. This synthesis permits the establishment of generic relationships between species and the place of groups of species in the natural order. This principle was especially clearly realized in Vinogradov&rsquos monograph on the jerboa family. Vinogradov was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Order of the Red Star, and medals.
London ON Christ the Saviour Russian Orthodox Church 1950
The first community that was organised in London, Ontario, was named “Holy Transfiguration”. This, the city’s first Orthodox Christian Temple, was founded in 1916. That community was a part of the missionary Diocese of Canada, under the Russian Orthodox Church in the Russian Empire. This diocese, which received its first resident hierarch in 1916 (Bishop Alexander (Nemolovsky), was a part of the North American missionary administration of the Russian Orthodox Church headquartered in New York. This missionary “Diocese of the Aleutians”, a substantial venture by the Russian Orthodox Church, had its roots in 1794 in Alaska with Saint Herman and several other monks.
This first community in London was composed of both Russian- and Greek-speaking immigrants. Events following World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution brought the arrival both of refugees and of hotly contrasting political opinions. These early years were a difficult time for both the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in North America (ROGCCNA) and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) as they struggled to establish their administrations. Sharp disagreements, more than the rise of ethnic congregations and the multiplying of jurisdictions, were the likely cause for the first Temple to close down. There are other possible causes. Nevertheless, this early seed would indirectly produce later fruit in 3 communities in London. These are this parish of Christ the Saviour, the Antiochian Orthodox parish of the Holy Transfiguration, and Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church.
The parish of Christ the Saviour in London, Ontario, is the most direct descendant of the first community. In 1950, it was organised by a small group of Orthodox Christian young people within the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR). As with other communities during this period of time across the country, this community originated from the European immigration at the end of World War II, as people sought safety and peace in many different countries.
The first place of worship was in the Chapel of Saint John, of Huron College. Services continued in this chapel for nearly a year until the parishioners were able to buy a house. As in the case of other new communities, this mission had only one book for the choir for the first 1 or 2 years, so all the services were offered in Tone 6 until other books could be acquired.
The first priest was a certain Father Nikolai. He served the parish for one year only, after which he was sent to Western Canada to develop a parish there. Afterwards, for a short time, the parish was served by priests who came from the Windsor parish, including the Priest Sergei Schukin. Then came the Archpriest Boris Vinogradov, who served in the parish for the rest of his life.
This house was the site of many joyful occasions. It served as a sort of "nest" in which the congregation was nurtured as a spiritual family.
Group and other photos at the house
Father Boris (seated) Father Sergiy Schukin (standing) and others
On 5 May, 1958, the house-church burned down, a catastrophe for the parishioners, yet they saw it as an opportunity and a sign of encouragement from the Lord. Furthermore, the metal hand-Cross used for blessings had not been melted by the heat. It remained undamaged along with a small paper icon which remained intact even though it still retains a small sign of black on one edge from the smoke.
Father Boris surveys the damage
Encouraged, the parishioners took quick action. Banding together, they determined to construct a proper building in which they would be able to worship the Lord and to be a testimony of the Orthodox Christian Faith in London.
Construction of the Temple
Capitalising on their skills and volunteer labour, the members immediately started to build the existing Temple near Wellington Road South and Baseline Road East. The land itself had been donated in memory of a young man who had died in an automobile accident.
In 1959, the corner-stone was blessed, and it was laid in its place.
Bishop Vitaly (Ustinov) blessing the corner-stone
Placing the new main cupola top
In October, 1962, the new Temple was sanctified by the then Archbishop Vitali (Oustinov), who later became the First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR), which has parishes throughout the world. From the beginning in 1950 until now, the life of the parish continued peacefully in the jurisdiction of the ROCOR, in the Diocese of Montréal and Canada.
In 1966, the Archpriest Boris Vinogradov fell asleep in the Lord. He was in his 80s at that time.
Visit of the "Kursk Root" Icon of the Theotokos Archpriests Vladimir and Theodore stand together.
At the present time, the parish consists primarily of descendants of the founders who arrived after World War II. In addition, there are recent immigrants from the countries of the old Soviet Union, and some who have converted to the Orthodox Christian Faith. It is a part of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, which joined with the Moscow Patriarchate in May of 2007 with the signing of the Act of Canonical Union by Patriarch Aleksy II and Metropolitan Laurus (Skurla).
The parish offers a coffee time after the Divine Liturgy on Sundays, and there are several large social events every year.
The parish has a charitable fund in the name of Saints Cyril and Methodius. The fund adjusts its focus from year to year. For instance, one project is providing needed assistance to monasteries abroad. The following would receive special attention :
Holy Ascension Monastery - Jerusalem
Gethsemane Monastery - Jerusalem
The parish follows the Old (Julian) Calendar.
The feast-day of this Temple is that of the icon, "Image Not Made By Hands" on 29/16 August. The main parish celebration, however, is usually on the Sunday following the actual feast-day (most often Labour Day weekend).
In 2018, the pastor of the parish is the Archpriest Vladimir Morin. As of 2018, he has served this parish for 35 years.
Christ the Saviour Russian Orthodox Church
London is 193 km (120 mi) southwest of Toronto, via Highway #401 (or via Highway #403).
London is accessible by VIA Rail between Windsor and Toronto (and beyond to Ottawa, Montréal, Québec, etc.).
Follow the exit from Highway #401 to the exit for Highbury Avenue North. Turn left on Commissioners Road East in London. Turn right on Adelaide Street South to Thompson Road. Turn left. Drive to Whetter Avenue. Turn right. Turn left at Fairview Avenue. The Temple is on the left.
The Temple is located in South London, not far from Wellington Road South, on the corner of Fairview and Whetter, at 140, Fairview Avenue.
From King Street in central London, drive south on Wellington Road South. Turn left on Whetter Avenue. Turn right on Fairview Avenue. The Temple is on the left.
Consult the London Transit Commission. Route #1 runs by the Temple. Route #6 runs along Baseline Road : 5 minutes' walk to the Temple. Route #13 runs on Wellington Road : 5 minutes' walk to the Temple.
What life was like in Soviet Moldova (PHOTOS)
The historical region of Bessarabia in south-eastern Europe became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After the 1917 Revolution, the region declared independence as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, and then promptly became part of neighboring Romania. The new Soviet government was indignant, believing that Romania had illegally occupied the land. To avoid a military conflict, Romania voluntarily surrendered it, and in 1940 the entire territory of historical Bessarabia became part of the USSR as the Moldavian SSR.
Red Army soldiers are greeted by children during a military parade on the accession of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the USSR, Chisinau, July 4, 1940.
Alexander Gribovsky, Dmitry Chernov/TASS
The same accession parade in Chisinau, 1940
Due to its relatively late entry into the USSR, life in Moldova at first differed from the rest of the country: the restaurants, street organ grinders and, of course, architecture barely resembled the typical Soviet landscape.
Bessarabia Nova restaurant in Chisinau, 1940
Parizh (Paris) tearoom, 1940
Organ grinder with parrot at a fair in the city of Chernivtsi, 1940
Bank in the city of Chernivtsi (now part of Ukraine), 1940
Unemployed man on the streets of Chisinau, 1940
Village wedding. Orchestra, 1940
Village wedding. Feast in a hut, 1940
In 1940, Moldova passed from Romania to the USSR. Then in June 1941, when the Great Patriotic War broke out, Romania, an ally of Nazi Germany, occupied Moldova. The Romanian authorities squeezed all the economic and agricultural lifeblood out of Moldova its industry was expropriated for the war effort, and the peasantry was forced to give up almost all grain and livestock. Tens of thousands of Moldovans in Romania were relocated to Germany as free labor. Likewise, people in the occupied territory were compelled to work without payment &mdash repairing roads and infrastructure destroyed during the war. Historically, Bessarabia had been home to many Jews and Roma. The newly arrived Romanians set up concentration camps and ghettos, and carried out mass killings. Soviet troops finally liberated Moldova in 1944.
Romanians round up Jewish partisans and their families
Lunch in the Chisinau ghetto
Raising the Banner of Victory over liberated Chisinau, 1944
After the war, Moldova lay in ruins. Its infrastructure was wrecked, and disease was rampant for lack of medicine, not to mention mass unemployment and famine. The Soviet government allocated considerable resources to renovate its industry and agriculture, importing equipment and raw materials.
Moldava's leading industry was, and remains, winemaking. Moldavian wine was known and loved throughout the entire Soviet Union. Thanks to the warm climate, vast quantities of fruit, veg and berries could be grown and cultivated, as well as sunflowers, sugar beets, tobacco and other industrial crops.
In the 1950s, the powerful Dubasari hydroelectric station was built on the Dniester River the sewing industry was developed, as was the production of refrigerators.
Grape harvest in a Moldavian village, 1982
Tomatoes at the May 1st Tiraspol canning factory, 1953
Beekeeper Anton Lupulchuk in an apiary at the Mayak collective farm in the Dondyushansky district. Moldavian SSR, 1975
“40 Years of the Komsomol” sewing factory, 1964
Chisinau refrigerator plant, 1970
Dubasari hydroelectric station, 1980
Images of Soviet life
Peacetime brought the usual Soviet trappings: May Day celebrations, pioneer processions and domestic feasts.
Victory Day celebration on Victory Square in Chisinau, 1976
Public meeting in Tiraspol, 1964
Moldavian singer Olga Sorokina with friends in her apartment in Chisinau, 1968
Monument to the liberators of Chisinau from Nazi forces, 1974
A.S. Pushkin Moldavian State Music and Drama Theater on Lenin Avenue, Chisinau, 1960s.
Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian SSR in Chisinau, 1966
Railway station and square in Chisinau, 1967.
Moskva movie theater in Chisinau, 1968.
Nikolay Akimov, Efim Dreischner/TASS
Intourist hotel and restaurant under construction on Lenin Avenue in Chisinau, 1974
Central Telegraph building in Chisinau, 1972.
Garment factory workers on a Sunday, 1975
Post Office building in Chisinau, 1972.
Playing at being dentists. Kindergarten, 1985
Faces of Moldova
The bulk of the population consisted of Moldovans, Ukrainians and Russians. But historically the region had a large Gagauz community (a Turkic people), as well as many Jews, Bulgarians and Roma. People from all across the USSR were drawn to Moldova for its warm climate and work opportunities. Many tourists came too.
Grape harvest in the Moldavian SSR, 1972
Moldavian metallurgical plant in the city of Rybnitsa. Galina Frolova, senior controller of the steelmaking section, 1987
Moldavian SSR. “Last Bell” school-leaving ceremony in the village of Berdar, Kotovsky district, 1986
Moldavian SSR. Spinner from the village of Butucheny near the Old Orhei historical-archaeological complex, 1985
Members of the folk-dance ensemble Moldavanesca, 1975
Olya Grigorenko, a worker at the “Testament of Lenin” collective farm, in a sunflower field, 1966
Sofia Rotaru, an ethnic Moldavian singer famous throughout the USSR (and still popular today), 1974
If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.
7 The Homosexual Plot
In 1952, it was illegal to be homosexual in Britain and practically a death sentence in the Soviet Union. That made life particularly difficult for John Vassall when he was assigned to the British embassy in Moscow. Vassall was a low-level employee, nobody who would have been considered a security risk, but he was close enough to classified materials that he could have accessed them if he&rsquod put his mind to it. And that&rsquos exactly what he did for seven years.
It all started with an orgy. After living in Moscow for some time, Vassall went out to dinner with one of the Russian interpreters from the embassy. He drank. A lot. Every time he emptied his glass, it seemed like someone was there to fill it back up. Then, he was led into a back room and given more liquor while several handsome men helped him undress. After engaging in &ldquocompromising sexual actions&rdquo with &ldquotwo or three men,&rdquo the party abruptly ended, and Vassall found himself being led to an apartment. The party, of course, had been arranged by the KGB. Pictures had been taken. Still heartily boozed, Vassall was given two options: play ball with the KGB or risk exposure and criminal prosecution.
It was open-and-shut. Vassall grabbed the former option and immediately found himself sucked into the rigmarole of clerical espionage. If he needed to contact someone, he was instructed to &ldquoleave a circle in pink chalk on a wooden fence directly above the trunk of a [certain] tree.&rdquo He only did that once. The rest of the time, he simply stuffed some papers into his briefcase, walked out of the embassy, and photographed the papers.
Life was good for John Vassall. The KGB was now paying him for his work, and the extra money afforded him a lavish lifestyle. Even after returning to London in 1956 and being assigned to the Admiralty, Vassall continued to pass government secrets to the KGB.
Then, Anatoliy Golitsyn happened. A senior KGB official, Golitsyn defected in 1961 and cautioned that there might be a spy in the Admiralty. Inevitably, suspicion fell on John Vassall, who was clearly living outside his means. Vassall was arrested and given an 18-year sentence. He was released after 11 years and went on to live a quiet life until his passing in 1996.
Boris Vinogradov - History
Boris Berezovsky came to the business world of Russia by an odd route. He was a software engineer. He was born and raised in Moscow and received a high quality education in electronics and computer science at an institution that was involved in the Soviet space program. Berezovsky went on to graduate school at Moscow State University where he earned the equivalent of an American Ph.D. in the 1970's and finally a Russian Ph.D. which is more advanced than an American Ph.D. in 1983 at the age of 37. He worked for twenty five years at the Soviet Academy of Science in the field of decision-making and in the field of computer automation of industry.
He decided to enter the business world. At the Academy of Science he had worked with the Avtovaz, an enterprise the Soviet government had set up to produce automobiles for the mass Soviet market. The Soviet government contracted for the Italian automaker Fiat to build a large scale auto plant 700 miles east of Moscow. The city in which the plant was located was named Togliatti after the head of the Italian Communist Party. The plant was not a technical triumph. It was vastly overstaffed and the quality of the product was low. The labor productivity was approximately one thirtieth of labor productivity in the American and Japanese automobile industries.
Berezovsky proposed to Avtovaz that he provide help to the enterprise for automation and computer control of operations. The structure of the arrangement was that Berezovsky would set up a company in Switzerland that would create a joint venture with Avtovaz. This would gain the benefit of the Soviet government program set up to encourage foriegn investment in the Soviet economy. One special feature of a joint venture is the foreign partner could take some profits of the enterprize out of the country.
Once the legal structure for the foreign partner in Italy, Logovaz, was set up Berezovsky became involved in operating a car dealership to sell the Ladas produced by Avtovaz. Car dealerships extremely profitable and were a favorite target of organized gangs demanding protection money. Berezovsky arranged his own protection from the Chechens and tried to keep out the other gangs demanding a shakedown.
The Russian gangs were not easily discouraged. Gang warfare raged. Berezovsky left the country. When he returned he was the target of more than one assassination attempt. The most serious one involved a car bomb. Berezovsky was riding in his chauffeur-driven Mercedes with his bodyguard. As his vehicle passed a parked car a bomb in that car was detonated. The chauffeur's head was blown off, the bodyguard was severely injured and Berezovsky was seriously burned. There was other assaults on Logovaz' operations, but when the leader of the Russian gangs was killed by a car bomb the assaults stopped.
The car dealerships were extremely profitable, in part, because of a process Berezovsky called the privatization of the profit of a state enterprise. Avtovaz produced Ladas at an average cost of about $4700 but sold them to autodealers at $3500 per car. The dealers then sold the cars for $7000 each. The underpricing of the cars by Avtovaz came as a result of the control of its management. Thus Berezovsky moved the potential profit of the state enterprise out of the enterprise and into the private enterprise of the dealerships. Since such a money-losing enterprise would not have much market value it would be cheap to buy ownership. This is the scenario proposed by Berezovsky.
In 1996 Berezovsky told Paul Klebnikov, the author of Godfather of the Kremlin ,
He left out the essential zeroeth step: gaining control of management. It is this step which allows the privatization of the profits of an enterprise where, as in the case of Avtovaz, the profits can be transferred out of the enterprise by the under pricing of the product. The profits could just as well be transferred out of the enterprise by overpaying for supplies.
Berezovsky did go on to acquire ownership of Avtovaz, but there were bigger prizes available to occupy his attention such as the airline Aeroflot. In Soviet days when people were asked what was the world's largest airline they would be to find that it was not one of the well known lines but instead Aeroflot, the single airline which served the Soviet markets.
In the 1990's Aeroflot was managed by Vladimir Tikhonov. Tikhonov was a competent manager who was improving the operations with equipment purchased or leased from American and European sources. Aeroflot had be converted into a public company in which the Russian State owned 51 percent and management and workers 49 percent of the shares. Berezovsky was not interested in buying up shares, instead he wanted management control in order to privatize the profits. Berezovsky used his influence in the Russian Government to get Vladimir Tikhonov replaced with a Soviet Air Force marshal. The marshal, though knowledgable about aviation, lacked the knowledge and experience required to run a commercial airline. Berezovsky imposed management personel from Logovaz on Aeroflot. The air marshal was no match for the Logovaz people. With the Logovaz people running Aeroflot it was not long before the Aeroflot profits had migrated to Berezovsky-controlled businesses.
In his twenties during the 1970s Vladimir Gusinsky started his business career as a cab driver, one without official sanction and thus called a gypsy-cap. He also engaged in black market trading. But by the 1980's he developed some close ties in the Communist Party. He organized events for the Communist Youth League. Gusinsky also developed a working relationship with Yuri Luzhkov, the mayor of Moscow. The City of Moscow was not just a city government. It owned an controlled an extensive system of economic enterprises. Under Luzhkov these enterprises functioned efficiently and profitably.
In 1989 or shortly thereafter Gusinsky created a bank called Most Bank, from the Russian work for bridge . As result of the connection with Luzhkov, Gusinsky's Most Bank was a very important institution in the Moscow economy and one of the biggest conglomerates in Russia. To protect his interest Gusinsky created a security division employing about 1000 people, many of them formerly employed by the KBG.
Once Gusinsky had created the basis for his financial success he began to create a media empire. In 1994 he had a newspaper, a weekly news magazine, a television guide magazine, a radio news station and the crown jewel of an independent television network.
As a child Mikhail Khodorkovsky wanted to be a factory director when he grew up. Factory directors were probably the most powerful figures in the lives of ordinary Russians. But being a factory director was not just an idle dream of Mikhail Khodorkovsky. He pursued his career goal rather diligently. He studied engineering in Moscow and simultaneously was active in the Communist Youth League ( Kommosol ) to the point of being deputy head of the Kommosol governing committee for his educational institute. He learned the protocols of dealing with Communist Party functionaries and he developed connections in the Party organizations.
Despite his careful preparation Mikhail Khodorkovsky was denied the opportunity to work toward a directorship in the Soviet defense industry. He felt it was because of the Jewish origins of his family. He then decided to enter the private sector. His enterprise was named the Center for the Scientific-Technical Creativity of Young People, which was soon abbreviated to MENATEP. It first existed as a cooperative, the only officially sanctioned form of private enterprise, but later became a bank. Like many other entrepreneurs Mikhail Khodorkovsky sought the quick, high profits that could be gained by importing and reselling computers. Menatep also engaged in various currency exchange transactions.
Although some in the Communist Party blocked his road to becoming a factory director Mikhail Khodorkovsky was on good terms with many Communist Party officials and went into business with their approval. He was appointed as an economic adviser to the prime minister of the Russian Federation in 1990, in the days before the collapse of the Soviet Union. This was a prestigious position and one that gave him important contacts.
When the old order collapsed many state enterprises needed credits while waiting for the new government to establish financial flows. Menatep provided such credit in return for substantial fees. Regional governments also sought Menatep's services in supplying credit. It was relative easy given Menatep's role as intermediary in the financial flows between the national government and the state enterprises and between the national government and the regional government to handle government bank accounts. This work also gave Menatep a web of relationships with government functionaries who could be called upon when Menatep needed bureaucratic approvals.
When privatization began Menatep acquired companies, many companies. There was not a systematic scheme to Menatep's acquisitions other than to snap up any bargain it found. The conglomeration of companies was characterized as a financial-industrial group. Some in government saw these financial-industrial groups as the appropriate replacement for the socialist industries.
Alexander Smolensky inherited a status as an outsider. His mother's father was an Austrian Jew who fled Vienna for political refuge in Moscow. But Stalinist Russia did not treat such political refugees as true comrades. They feared that they were an alien contamination even if they were devout communists, perhaps especially if they were devout communists because they might be heretics with respect to the currently correct Party-line. So Alexander Smolensky's mother, who had been born in Austria although she was raised in Moscow, was excluded from most jobs and opportunities for training. Life was very hard for the family especially since Alexander Smolensky's father divorced his mother and left her and their children to survive on their own. Alexander Smolensky developed a lifelong resentment and defiance of the system. He seemed constitutionally incapable of cooperating with the system. When he applied for his official identification document, the so-called internal passport, he could have listened his nationality as Russian on the basis of the nationality of his father but he chose instead to designate himself as Austrian on the basis of that of his mother. Such acts of definance shut him out of any career other than as an entrepreneur. But entrepreneurship in the Soviet Union was illegal and Smolensky lived a hard life.
His two year service in the Soviet Army was served in Tiblis, Georgia. He fought the system in the army but while doing so he and a friend used their access to the army newspaper's printing facilities to start an underground business in printing business cards. The business was not much but it enabled them to learn type-setting and the crafts involving in printing.
When Smolensky returned to Moscow after his two-year stint in the army, having had to grab his army release documents from the desk of the officer who was supposed to issue them to him, Smolensky continued in the printing trade. He found a job as a supervisor of the printing department of an industrial ministry. He had to work two jobs to survive and was on the lookout for ways to make money. He realized that in the days of the Soviet suppression of unsanctioned literature having access to a printing press was a potent thing. People were publishing writings by the laborious process of typing documents a few copies at a time, one original and as many carbon copies as the typewriter could produce. In addition to being tedious this was dangerous but people were willing to do it. Access to a printing press relieved the underground writers having to type and retype works. Smolensky printed Bibles among other things. Bibles were not technically subversive material but it was a criminal offense to use State facilities for private enterprises as Smolensky was doing.
During this time Smolensky developed and refined his skills at finding and acquiring materials. In the socialist economies shortages are chronic and there is no problem selling production but gathering the raw materials is the limiting factor. So that while the salesman is the key figure in western businesses it is the raw material acquirer, the procurer, in the socialist economies that is the key figure.
Smolensky's illegal printing operation was reported to the authorities and he was arrested. But instead of being charged with the more serious offense of running an illegal printing operation, which bordered on subversion, he was charged with the ordinary criminal offense of having stolen a substantial quantity of printer's ink. He was sentenced to two years of work in a construction crew outside of Moscow and prohibited for three years of having access to money and valuable materials. His career as a printer was effectively ended, but his introduction to the construction field was a valuable substitute.
After his sentence was served Smolensky continued in construction. His ability to get things done earned him an acceptance as a valuable, effective construction operator. In part, his effectiveness in construction depended upon his skills in acquiring the required materials for construction. Although authorities recognized that Smolensky was a rebel against the system they realized that his organizational skills were valuable for them to have access to. And Smolensky's defiance of the system was not so much ideological as individualistic so he was not looked upon as a subversive, just a roughneck.
As the supervisor of a construction crew Smolensky had to comply with the policy directives that flowed down the state hierarchy. Gorbachev initiated a campaign against alcoholism which required supervisors to report on their punishment of employees for excessive drinking. Smolensky saw the directive to be completely unrealistic but had to give some token compliance. Next, in 1986, there was a campaign against unearned income which was intended to curb corruption but also made a target of the second occupations and little businesses that most Russians had on the side. It was soon recognized that prosecuting people for these side sources of income was a mistake and a law was promulgated that stated that individual labor activity was permissible. This opened the flood gates. It was now officially permitted for people to set up stands on the street to sell goods. It was not a free market revolution but it was a step in the right direction.
The exact phrasing was important. Individual meant that hiring others was still forbidden as contrary to Marxist doctrine. But enterprises that could be carried out by one individual with the help of family member were severely limited. The authorities decided to remedy this limitation within Marxist dogma. It would be alright for a group of people to engage in enterprise if they constituted a cooperative. The drafters of the 1988 Law on Cooperatives did not place as many restrictions on the nature of the permitted cooperative enterprises as might be expected. In particular the Law allowed for the creation of financial services cooperatives.
Following the promulgation of the Law on Cooperatives Smolensky's administrative superiors ordered him to form a cooperative. Smolensky was at first reluctant because it was unclear what the cooperative would do and how it would operate. But Smolensky did register a cooperative named Moscow-3.
Without capital and a clear market the cooperative at first engaged in collecting scrap materials. Because the official sources of building material were bureaucratically allocated it is difficult to find building materials. Smolensky's cooperative would undertake demolition of structure and salvage building materials. From there the cooperative went into the business of building such things as country houses, dachas. Business was good.
After a while the profits had accumulated. Although technically a cooperative the enterprise was effectively Smolensky's business. He was reluctant to keep the profits in the state banks that existed at the time but in order to carry out business he needed the facilities of a bank. The banks were or had recently been state bureaucratic agencies. When the cooperative went to the bank to execute some transaction they would be questioned in detail about the cooperative's business activities. The bank's execution of the required services would be contingent upon the answering of their questions and soon it was necessary to offer gifts and bribes to get the required actions completed.
Smolensky then realized that the Law on Cooperative permitted the creation of banks as cooperatives. Smolensky then created his Stolichny Bank. It was the early 1990's at a time when financial matters were in great turmoil. There was hyperinflation due to the Central Bank of Russia (formerly the Gosbank of the communist central planning system) under the direction of Viktor Gerashchenko creating excessive amounts of money. The laws were uncertain and the future of Russia itself was not settled. Ordinary bank lending could not be carried out. Smolensky's Stolichny Bank had to make up policies and strategies as it went along. Probably much of the early operations were on the margins of legality. But the Stolichny Bank survived and profited. Soon Smolensky made the bank the core of his business. And as the financial market of Russia settled down the Stolichny Bank's operations also became more conventional. But he needed something with more opportunities. He decided to run a construction operation.
Vlaminr Potanin came from a family high in the Soviet Communist hierarchy. His father belonged to the Communist Party Central Committee and served in the Ministry of Foreign Trade. Vladimir Potanin after his university training also joined the Ministry of Foreign Trade. About 1989 he and associates in the Ministry of Foreign Trade established a trading company and with support from the Ministry of Foreign Trade and elsewhere in the Communist hierarchy the trading firm succeeded. His story seems related to the channeling of Communist Party funds into businesses.
After the success of the trading company Vladimir Potanin started two banks, the Onexim Bank and the MFK. Many of the state enterprises transferred their account to these two banks which became the third and fourth largest banks in Russia. The unavoidable suggestion is that Potanin's enterprises are Communist Party offsprings representing the the old organization shorn of ideological pretenses.
In 1995 Potanin with support from other oligarchs proposed his loans for shares plan to the Council of Ministers of the Russian Government. Under this plan the Russian Government traded ownership interest in unprivatized state industries for loans. The Russian Government was extremely short of funds at the time and welcomed the plan. The loans for shares program was administered in the form of auctions. Only a select set of bidders were invited to these auctions and the daughter of Boris Yeltsin, Tanya, had a strong influence in determining who would be invited.
In the uncertain times of the end of the Soviet era Vladimir Vinogradov, then an employee of a state bank, established in 1988 a commercial bank, Inkombank. Vinogradov and his friends create the facade of a bank operating on a shoe string until they secured a number of reputable investors. Among these investors were Sokol (the association of aircraft manufacturers), Transneft (a gas pipeline operator) and the Plekhanov Institute. These investors gave Inkombank enough credibility to apply for credit from the Central Bank of the Soviet Union. Against all odds, Inkombank did obtain 10 million rubles in credit.
Over a ten-year period Inkombank grew in deposits and acquisitions. By the time of the financial debacle of Russian in August of 1998 Inkombank had become the second largest private bank in Russia in terms of private deposits and third largest in terms of assets. It played a significant role in financing Russia's foreign trade. Under Vinogradov's direction Inkombank engaged in some high flying financial transactions. Inkombank acquired financial control of some of the businesses that made investments in it, including Sokol in aircraft manufacturing, Transneft, the gas pipeline operator, and Magnitagorsk Steel. In 1996 the Central Bank of Russia cited Inkombank for having inadequate reserves for a bank. This resulted in some loss of deposits but Inkombank survived and Vladimir Vinogradov was made vice president of the Association of Russian Bankers.
Inkombank along with many other Russian banks was severely hurt by the financial turmoil of August 1998 when Russia defaulted on its bonds. Inkombank was insolvent, its assets falling far short of its liabilities. Despite an antagonism between Vinogradov and officials of the Central Bank Inkombank was granted $100 million in credit to allow it to survive, but it only survived temporarily. Ultimately Inkombank was declared insolvent and there were accusations that the management illegally transferred funds from the bank to subsidiaries outside of Russia.
Mikhail Friedman came from the western Ukranian city of Lvov, a formerly Polish city acquired by Soviet troops in the partition of Poland by Stalin and Hitler in 1939. Mikhail Friedman came from a Jewish family, as did four of the six other oligarchs. Mikhail Friedman enter a Moscow institution of higher learning in Moscow. In the 1980's, the declining years of the Communist system, the necessities of life were available without much effort. The living standard was low but, and perhaps because of this, people did not have to exert much effort. This was the era characterized by an anonymous Soviet citizen who said,
This period of a low level of responsibility combined with the assurance of the necessities for survival is one that some look back on nostalgically. While the luxuries of life were unavailable there was the leisure to read and discuss literature and the arts. In the Soviet system there was support for theatre, dance and so forth, but the tickets were distributed on a political basis rather than through the market. People who wanted tickets had to have contact with someone who could obtain them or who could wait in line to acquire them from the official sources. Some students were making money by acquiring tickets and reselling them or waiting in line for other people. The students engaged in this black market ticket business were known as the Theatre Mafia . Mikhail Friedman saw the opportunity to systematize these processes. He made the black market ticket operations into a real business.
He not only acquired valuable business experience but he made business partners that joined with him in forming the Alpha Group, a conglomerate dealing in oil, finance, and industrial goods trading. He also learned to payoff the political establishment to get the things he wanted.
The Alfa (Alpha) Group was not formed immediately. Instead Mikhail Friedman was involved in small business ventures in the form of cooperatives . Cooperatives were permitted under Gorbachev's perestroika policy. One of the first major successes was in providing window washing services for state companies. No one had thought to create such a business before. From this success Friedman and his associates moved into importing and exporting. It was very profitable to export oil since the purchase price of oil in the Soviet Union was far below the international price. It was also very lucrative to import computers. Friedman and his associates engaged in both of these activities. But to do that they had to share their profits by paying bribes to the bureaucrats who controlled the system.
Evidence of Johnson's views towards women can be found throughout his career.
In 1996, while a journalist for the Telegraph, Johnson went to the Labour conference and wrote a piece reviewing the quality of "the hot totty" who were present.
"The unanimous opinion is that what has been called the 'Tottymeter' reading is higher than at any Labour Party conference in living memory," he wrote.
He added that: "Time and again the 'Tottymeter' has gone off as a young woman delegate mounts the rostrum."
In an attempt to explain the trend of women shifting their allegiances to the Labour party, Johnson suggests that it is either due to the party's "planned erosion of male liberty — such as ending the right to drink in public places," or because of "Labour's most bizarre promise, that women will be more promiscuous if Mr Blair comes to power."
However, he concluded that the real reason women are turning to Labour is because of their natural "fickleness."
"The real reason why Blackpool is buzzing with glamorous women is surely that they scent victory. It is not the great smell of Brut that makes John Prescott attractive. It is the whiff of power. With the fickleness of their sex, they are following the polls."
The history of Boris "death" and his actual death.
His first "death" happened when going in his journey to become the High Priest of Ursun.
"He was not seen or heard of for eighteen days, and many feared he had met a gruesome fate in the depths of the icy forests. Preparations began for the coronation of his infant daughter Katarin (who was only four years old at the time) when the search parties came across his unconscious form on the nineteenth day."
His actual death, was against a bunch of Kurgan, not going into the Chaos Wastes in some mission.
"Tzar Boris met his end in battle in 2517 IC whilst leading a pulk north of the Lynsk into the Troll Country. At an unnamed river crossing, the Tzar charged deep into the Kurgan army of Hetzar Feydaj but was soon surrounded and cut off from the rest of his army. He and Urskin fought with all the might and fury of the Bear God, but even Red Boris could not triumph against such odds. Urskin was able to fight his way clear of the Kurgans and carry the Tzar back to the rest of the army, but it was already too late the Tzar had taken a score of wounds, each enough to be mortal. Only when the battle was won did the Tzar slide from the back of Urskin and die. His faithful mount roared in mourning for a full night before vanishing into the bleak northlands, and legend has it that to this day Urskin continues to hunt down the creatures of Chaos that slew his master"
So, this tell us some things.
The kislevites don't really need to see the body of the previous Tzar to crown a new one, they were ready to crown Katarin at age 4, and Boris had only gone into the wild, not charging into the Chaos Wastes.
He has been believed to be dead, only not be the case.
His actual dead, they had the body and all, but we know that he went into the Chaos Wastes in some mission, you can't really get a body back from there even if you wanted, so they can't really be sure that he is dead, they simply assume he is.
They assumed he was dead by being away 2 weeks into the wild, why wouldn't they assume the same if he went into the Chaos Wastes, a far more dangerous place.
I'm not trying to say that he is 100% percent coming, but we can't say he isn't 100% not coming either, only time will tell, let's just keep in mind that he has been believed to be dead before, in a far less dangerous place.
RFE/RL’s Russian Service Marks 60th Birthday
WASHINGTON -- Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty has marked 60 years of Russian-language broadcasting on March 1, with events in Washington and Moscow to commemorate the anniversary.
On March 1, 1953, at the height of the Cold War, the U.S.-funded radio beamed its first broadcast to the Soviet Union.
Presenter Boris Vinogradov went on air to solemnly announce the launch of Radio Liberation, later renamed Radio Liberty.
"Listen! Listen! Today, a new radio station, Liberation, begins its broadcasts,” Vinogradov said.
IN PICTURES: Radio Liberty Marks 60 Years
The goal of the new radio station was to counter communist propaganda by providing Soviet citizens with uncensored news.
In its maiden broadcast, Vinogradov said the radio would advocate “complete freedom of conscience and the right to religious preaching,” as well as “the elimination of exploitation of man by a party or the state.”
The original jingle was based on Aleksandr Grechaninov's "Anthem Of A Free Russia," which was proposed as Russia's national anthem after the overthrow of tsarist rule in 1917 but rejected by the Provisional Government.
It is unclear whether these early broadcasts reached Russian cities due to the low-powered transmitters initially used. But the radio was able to quickly upgrade its equipment and soon gained a strong following.
WATCH: RFE/RL acting President Kevin Klose dedicates a video message to mark the anniversary:
RFE/RL Acting President Kevin Klose Marks 60 Years Of Radio Liberty
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Its coverage of Josef Stalin’s death on March 5, 1953, just four days after its first broadcast, was instrumental in establishing its reputation as an alternative to the Soviet Union’s heavily censored news.
Despite significant effort by Soviet authorities to jam its signals -- the jamming continued uninterrupted until 1988 – growing numbers of listeners regularly tuned in.
On March 1, 60 years after its inception, RFE/RL acting President Kevin Klose said the Russian Service remains an important source of accurate, independent news.
“We honor the broadcasters of that day -- and the dedicated professionals of today – of the Russian Service of Radio Liberty," Klose said.
"We honor the millions upon millions of listeners who, through six decades, have sought and heard the voices of liberty reporting accurate, independent news of the never-ending search for truth, and rights, and cultural freedoms in Russia itself and throughout the world.”
Klose hosted an event to mark the anniversary at the company's Washington offices that featured veteran Russian rights campaigner Lyudmila Alekseyeva and U.S. journalist and author David Satter.
Alekseyeva, who became a freelance contributor to the radio after her emigration to the United States in 1977, described its broadcasts into the Soviet Union as "an enormous school of instruction in democracy."
That instruction, she added, is still needed today.
"Democracy still has a long way to go in Russia, so we very much need the help of foreign radio stations so they can explain to Russians what [democracy] is and what it is we need to achieve," Alekseyeva said.
READ: RFE/RL's interview with Lyudmila Alekseyeva
A parallel event was held in Moscow by a group of former Russian Service journalists who were laid off last year as part of a restructuring plan.
More than 100 people attended that event, including rights activists and journalists, with speakers praising Svoboda's legacy but criticizing the service's restructuring.
In the days and weeks following the launch of Russian broadcasts, the radio added programming in other languages of the Soviet Union, including Georgian, Armenian, Azeri, and the languages of Central Asia.
In 1955, the radio set up transmitters in Taiwan to make its Russian-language programs available to residents in eastern parts of Siberia and along the Soviet Union’s Pacific coast.
Radio Liberty and its sister station, Radio Free Europe, which broadcast to Eastern Europe, merged in 1976 under the name RFE/RL.
The company continues to broadcast to 21 countries in 28 languages.
RFE/RL will mark its Russian Service’s birthday on March 1 with a roundtable discussion at its Washington office featuring veteran Russian rights campaigner Lyudmila Alekseyeva and U.S. journalist and author David Satter.
VIDEO: Roundtable discussion in Washington with Alekseyeva, Satter, and RFE/RL acting President Kevin Klose
A parallel event was scheduled to be held in Moscow by a group of former Russian Service journalists laid off last year as part of a restructuring plan.
About 120 people, including prominent opposition politicians and rights activists, are expected to attend the Moscow event. Several longtime supporters of the radio are scheduled to deliver speeches.
PHOTO GALLERY: Radio Liberty turns 60.
OBITUARY: Olga Ivinskaya
Olga Ivinskaya was Pasternak's friend and the lover of his last 13 years, and the original of Lara in his first novel and best-known work Doctor Zhivago, banned in the Soviet Union but published in Italy in 1957. It was translated into English in 1958, the year he was awarded - and had to refuse - the Nobel Prize for Literature.
They met for the first time in October 1946, in Moscow, in the editorial office of the literary magazine Novy Mir ("New World"), where she was in charge of the new authors department. She was 34, and Pasternak 23 years her senior, a twice married man with two sons. They met nearly every day by Pushkin's statue in Pushkin Square, and went for long walks around Moscow. On 4 April 1947 Pasternak declared his love, writing to her: "My life, my angel, I love you truly." (A postscript dated 1953 adds: "This inscription is eternal and valid for ever. And can only grow stronger.") Early in 1948 he asked her to leave Novy Mir, as her position there was getting more difficult because of their relationship. She took up a role as his secretary instead.
Ivinskaya - her mother's name - was partly of German-Polish descent, and born in 1912, some 300 miles south-east of Moscow in the ancient town of Tambov. Her father was a provincial high school teacher. In 1915 the family moved to Moscow. After graduating from the Editorial Workers Institute in Moscow in 1936, she worked as an editor at various literary magazines. She had been an admirer of Pasternak's since her adolescence, attending literary gatherings to listen to his poetry.
The late 1940s and early 1950s were paranoid years in the Soviet Union. Anyone who had relatives abroad was in danger and Pasternak's two sisters lived in Oxford and maintained close contact with him.
Pasternak was personally known to Stalin, who, as a Georgian, took an interest in him as a translator of Georgian poets into Russian. According to Ivinskaya, Stalin met Pasternak in 1924 or 1925, with two other poets, Sergei Yesenin (once married to Isadora Duncan) and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Stalin also rang Pasternak one evening in July 1934 and asked his opinion of another poet, Osip Mandelstam (who was shortly after arrested and perished in the gulag).
The MGB (as the KGB were then known) did not dare to arrest Pasternak, but turned on Ivinskaya. In July 1950 she was arrested as "an accomplice to the spy". She was pregnant by Pasternak and in the horrible conditions of a prison, interrogated day and night, she miscarried. She was sentenced to five years in a labour camp.
Doctor Zhivago was started during the Second World War and finished in the early 1950s. It was not a political novel, and certainly did not threaten the Soviet regime. It described the life of a Russian doctor, whose love was Lara, in the turbulent half-century of Russian history including the revolution and the civil war.
In 1954, at the very beginning of Khrushchev's thaw, 10 poems from Doctor Zhivago were allowed to appear in the literary monthly magazine Znamya. By 1956 all hope of publication of the book in the Soviet Union disappeared but it appeared in Italy the following year published by Feltrinelli, with Ivinskaya conducting all negotia- tions on Pasternak's behalf. Eight years later Doctor Zhivago was filmed by David Lean, with Omar Sharif as Zhivago and Julie Christie as Lara.
In 1958 Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, the Nobel committee citing his "important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition". The Nobel academy's permanent secretary, Anders Oesterling, compared Doctor Zhivago to Tolstoy's War and Peace and referred to the book's "pure and powerful genius". He said that the award was in honour of Pasternak's courage in producing a work of such independence "above all political party frontiers and . . . anti- political in its entirely humane outlook".
Under pressure from the Soviet government Pasternak refused the prize, but the official campaign against him continued, accelerating his death two years later in 1960.
After Pasternak's death Ivinskaya was arrested for the second time, this time with her daughter Lyudmila Yemelianova (by her first husband, Ivan Yemelianov, who hanged himself in 1939). She was accused of being Pasternak's link with Western publishers in dealing in hard currency for Doctor Zhivago. The Soviet press set out to blacken her reputation. In January 1961 Radio Moscow made broadcasts in Italian, German and English accusing Ivinskaya of swindling Pasternak's rightful heirs, and of accepting shipments of roubles and dollars smuggled past customs.
Within a few months Western newspapers stopped protesting about her arrest, and the Soviet government quietly released them, Lyudmila after one year, in 1962, and Olga Ivinskaya in 1964. She returned to her flat in Moscow, in a council block in Potapov Street. All Pasternak's letters to her and other manuscripts and documents had in the meantime been seized by the KGB.
Olga Ivinskaya was rehabilitated only under Gorbachev in 1988, when she was already half-blind and frail. By law the KGB were obliged to return everything they had taken from her. But her efforts to regain Pasternak's letters to her were blocked by Pasternak's daughter- in-law, Natalya, the widow of Leonid Pasternak. Several years of litigation came to nothing as the Russian Supreme Court ruled against her on the ground that "there was no proof of ownership" and "papers should remain in the state archive". Her protest to Boris Yeltsin about violations of her rights as a citizen which made her reha- bilitation "useless" did not help, either.
In her last years she lived in a one-room apartment with her son Dmitry Vinogradov (by her second marriage to Alexander Vinogradov, who was killed in 1943 at the front). In 1978 her memoirs were published in Paris in Russian. They were translated into all the main European languages, and appeared in English under the title A Captive of Time.
Olga Vsevolodovna Ivinskaya, writer, editor: born Tambov 27 June 1912 married 1936 Ivan Yemelianov (died 1939 one daughter), 1941 Alexander Vinogradov (died 1943 one son) died Moscow 8 September 1995.