Barnhouse Settlement Timeline

Barnhouse Settlement Timeline

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  • c. 3300 BCE - 2600 BCE

    Neolithic site of Barnhouse Settlement occupied.

  • c. 3300 BCE - 2600 BCE

    The Barnhouse Settlement constructed and inhabited.

  • c. 3000 BCE - c. 2800 BCE

    The Neolithic chambered cairn known as Maeshowe constructed and in use.

  • 2600 BCE

    Structure Eight (so called) erected at Barnhouse Settlement after village abandoned.

  • 2600 BCE

    Barnhouse Settlement abandoned and partially destroyed by inhabitants.

  • 2600 BCE

    The building now known as Structure Eight raised in Barnhouse Settlement after village is abandoned.

Timeline of prehistoric Scotland

This timeline of prehistoric Scotland is a chronologically ordered list of important archaeological sites in Scotland and of major events affecting Scotland's human inhabitants and culture during the prehistoric period. The period of prehistory prior to occupation by the genus Homo is part of the geology of Scotland. Prehistory in Scotland ends with the arrival of the Romans in southern Scotland in the 1st century AD and the beginning of written records. [1] The archaeological sites and events listed are the earliest examples or among the most notable of their type.

No traces have yet been found of either a Neanderthal presence or of Homo sapiens during the Pleistocene interglacials, the first indications of humans in Scotland occurring only after the ice retreated in the 11th millennium BC. Since that time, the landscape of Scotland has been altered dramatically by both human and natural forces. [2] Initially, sea levels were lower than at present due to the large volume of ice that remained. This meant that the Orkney archipelago and many of the Inner Hebridean islands were attached to the mainland, as was the present-day island of Great Britain to Continental Europe. Much of the present-day North Sea was also dry land until after 4000 BC. Dogger Bank, for example was part of a large peninsula connected to the European continent. This would have made travel to western and northern Scotland relatively easy for early human settlers. The subsequent isostatic rise of land makes estimating post-glacial coastlines a complex task and there are numerous raised beaches around Scotland's coastline. [3] [4]

Many of the sites are located in the Highlands and Islands. This may be because of the relatively sparse modern populations and consequent lack of disturbance. Much of the area also has a thick covering of peat that preserves stone fragments, although the associated acidic conditions tend to dissolve organic materials. [5] There are also numerous important remains in the Orkney archipelago, where sand and arable land predominate. [6] Local tradition hints at both a fear and veneration of these ancient structures that may have helped to preserve their integrity. [7]

Differentiating the various periods of human history involved is a complex task. The Paleolithic lasted until the retreat of the ice, the Mesolithic until the adoption of farming and the Neolithic until metalworking commenced. These events may have begun at different times in different parts of the country. A number of the sites span very long periods of time and in particular, the distinctions between the Neolithic and the later periods are not clear cut. [8]

Barnhouse Settlement

This small village is part of our UNESCO World Heritage Site, but not as well known as its more famous neighbours.

If you're visiting this site during the COVID-19 pandemic, please continue to follow physical distancing and government guidance to help keep everyone safe. Avoid touching surfaces and if a site is likely to be busy and you think that it may be difficult to maintain physical distancing, please consider visiting another nearby location or visiting at another time instead.

The Standing Stones of Stenness are one of the main stops on the Orkney tourist trail, with thousands of visitors taking the walk around the ancient circle every year. But nearby, the Barnhouse Settlement should also be on your islands itinerary.

This Neolithic site was first excavated in 1984 and is often overlooked, but it's only a little more than one hundred metres away from the stone circle. Thousands of years ago it would have been a small group of homes, not dissimilar to Skara Brae. Indeed, these homes also had their own hearths, box beds and stone furniture, just like its cousin on the coast in Sandwick.

Although all that remains at Barnhouse are the lower walls of just a few of the original 15 houses, you can really get a feel for what life would have been like here 5000-years-ago. Two of the structures are larger than any of the others here or at Skara Brae, leading archaeologists to the theory that these buildings housed people of great importance.

Another school of thought is that, with the proximity of the Standing Stones of Stenness, Barnhouse could have been home to the stonemasons who built the circle.

Barnhouse is a place where you have to use your imagination, but as you wander through the remains of these historic homes, that's not too hard to do.

Texas History Timeline

Offers a chronological timeline of important dates, events, and milestones in Texas history.

Corn farmers settle near the Presidio in the area where the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos join around 1500 BCE. It is now believed to be the oldest continuously cultivated farmland in Texas. From 800-1500 BCE, the farmers and hunters build and occupy stone dwellings located southeast of Perryton on the northern edge of the Panhandle. Today this area is called the Buried City. By 1400 CE Texas composed of numerous small tribes, the Caddo Confederacy establishes a agriculture-based civilization in east Texas. Today the Caddo Nation is a federally recognized tribe with its capital in Binger, Oklahoma.

Spanish missionaries were the first European settlers in Texas, founding San Antonio in 1718. Hostile natives and isolation from other Spanish colonies kept Texas sparsely populated until following the Revolutionary War and the War of Mexican Independence, when the newly established Mexican government began to allow settlers from the U.S. to claim land there. Texas negotiated with the U.S. to join the union in 1845.

16th Century Texas History Timeline

Early European Exploration and Settlement

1519 - Mid - Spanish explorer Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps Texas coastline.
1528- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near Galveston begin exploration.
1541 - Francisco Vázquez de Coronado crosses the Texas Panhandle in search of in search of the seven cities of Cibola.

1554 - Coronado dies. He is one of the first white men to explore Texas, and leader of one of 20 Spanish explorations of the area.
1598 - April 30 - Thanksgiving is held near present-day El Paso by Juan de Onate, the members of his expedition and natives of the region.

17th Century Texas History Timeline

1629 - Jumano Indians requested Spanish missionaries from New Mexico to travel to the vicinity of present-day San Angelo and instruct the Jumanos about Christianity.

1682 - First Spanish mission, Corpus Christi de la Isleta, is established a few miles from present-day El Paso.

1685 - February 16 - French explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, looking for the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands in Texas by mistake. He establishes a colony, Fort St. Louis, on Garcitas Creek in present-day Victoria County.

March 19, 1687 - La Salle is killed by several of his own men at an unknown East Texas location.

January 1688 - Colonists at Fort St. Louis not felled by Indians, disease, poisonous snakes and malnutrition are finished off by Karankawa Indians.

1689 - April 2 - Spanish Gen. Alonso de Leon's expedition finds the remains of Fort St. Louis. Fearing French intentions to lay claim to Spanish territory, the Spanish begin establishing missions and settlements in East Texas.
1690 - May - First East Texas mission under construction, San Francisco de los Tejas, near present-day Weches, Houston Co. The mission is closed in 1693.

18th Century Texas History Timeline

1716-1789 - Throughout the 18th Century, Spain established Catholic missions in Texas, and the towns of San Antonio, Goliad and Nacogdoches.

1716 - Spanish build a presidio, Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de los Tejas, to protect the East Texas missions.
1718 -May 1 - San Antonio de Valero mission, known as the Alamo was the chapel, is founded in San Antonio.
1720 -February - San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo mission founded near San Antonio de Valero.
1731 -

  • 3 East Texas missions moved to San Antonio because of economic troubles, and named Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion de Acuna, San Francisco de la Espada and San Juan Capistrano.
  • March 7 - 55 Canary Islanders arrive in San Antonio to establish a civilian settlement, San Fernando de Bexar.
  • Aug. 1 - First election held in Texas, voters choose officials of the municipal government of San Fernando.

1745 - Missions at San Antonio are producing thousands of pounds of cotton annually.

1758 - March 16 - Santa Cruz de San Sabá mission near present-day Menard destroyed and eight residents killed by Comanches and their allies.

1759 - August - Spanish troops on a retaliatory raid are defeated by Indian residents of a large encampment at Spanish Fort in present-day Montague County.

1766 - Sept. 4 - Texas' first recorded hurricane strikes near Galveston.

1779 - Group of settlers led by Antonio Gil Ybarbo (sometimes spelled Ibarvo or Y'barvo) establishes a civilian community near an abandoned mission site the new town is called Nacogdoches.

19th Century Texas History Timeline

1810 - Sept. 16 - Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo and several hundred of his parishioners seize the prison at Dolores, Mexico, beginning Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.

1812 -August 8 - About 130-men strong, the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition crossed the Sabine from Louisiana in a rebel movement against Spanish rule in Texas.

  • Texas' first newspaper, Gaceta de Texas, founded by Jose Alvarez de Toledo in Nacogdoches.
  • Dec. 26 - Spanish government grants Moses Austin permission to establish a colony of Anglo-Americans in the Texas area. When he dies the following June, his son, Stephen F. Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing effort.

1814 - June- Moses Austin dies, his son, Stephen F. Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing effort.

1817-1820 - Jean Laffite occupied Galveston Island and used it as a base for his smuggling and privateering.

1818 - September 12 - A hurricane wrecks the fleet of pirate Jean Lafitte in Galveston.

  • Aug. 24 - Mexico gains independence from Spain.
  • October 13 Jane Long gives birth to the first Anglo child born in Texas, a girl named Mary James.

1823 - Jan. 3 - Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River. Mexican officials approve Austin's plan to bring three hundred families into his colony. This group becomes known as the "Old Three Hundred."

Mid-1824 - Constitution of 1824 gave Mexico a republican form of government. It failed to define the rights of the states within the republic, including Texas

1826 - Dec. 21 - The Declaration of Independence of the republic of Fredonia is signed at Nacogdoches.

1827- January 31 - This so-called Fredonian Rebellion is an attempt by empresario Haden Edwards to separate his colony from Mexico. The rebels flee when approached by Mexican troops.

1829 - October - First of several large groups of Irish immigrants arrive to settle in South Texas.

1830 - April 6 - Mexican government stops legal immigration into Texas from the United States except in special cases. Relations between Anglo settlers and the Mexican government deteriorate.

1831 - Johann Friedrich Ernst, his wife and five children are the first German family to arrive in Texas, settling in present-day Austin County.

Revolution and the Republic of Texas

1832 - June 26 - First bloodshed of the Texas Revolution takes place at Velasco when Texans, transporting a cannon from Brazoria to Anahuac, are challenged by Mexican forces at Velasco. The Mexicans surrender on June 29.

  • Oct. 2 - Mexican troops attempt to retrieve a cannon that had been given to Gonzales colonists for protection from Indian attack. The skirmish that ensues as Gonzales residents dare the Mexicans to "come and take it" is considered the opening battle of the Texas Revolution.
  • Oct. 10 - Gail Borden begins publishing the newspaper "Telegraph and Texas Register" at San Felipe de Austin.
  • Nov. 1 - A "consultation" convenes at San Felipe on Nov. 7 the delegates agree to establish a provisional government.
  • Nov. 24 - The Texas Rangers organization is officially established by Texas' provisional government. Although Stephen F. Austin had hired 10 frontiersmen as "rangers" to help protect his colonists against Indian raids in 1823, not until 1835 was the law-enforcement group formally organized.
  • March 2 - Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  • March 6 - 3-day siege of the Alamo by Mexican troops led by Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ends on this day with a battle in which all remaining defenders are killed.
  • March 10 - Sam Houston abandons Gonzales and retreats eastward to avoid the advancing Mexican army. Panicky settlers in the area flee as well in an exodus called the Runaway Scrape.
  • March 27 - About 350 Texan prisoners, including their commander James Fannin, are executed at Goliad by order of Santa Anna. An estimated 30 Texans escape.
  • April 21 - In a battle lasting 18 minutes, Texan troops led by Sam Houston defeat the Mexican army commanded by Santa Anna at San Jacinto near present-day Houston. Houston reports that 630 Mexican troops were killed and 730 were taken prisoner. Of the Texas troops, nine of a force of 910 were killed or mortally wounded, and 30 were less seriously wounded.
  • May 14 - Santa Anna and Texas' provisional president David Burnet sign two Treaties of Velasco - one public, the other secret - ending the Texas Revolution. The treaties were, however, violated by both sides. Texas' independence was not recognized by Mexico and Texas' boundary was not determined until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War, was signed in 1848.
  • Sept. 5 - Voters of the new republic choose their first elected officials: Sam Houston becomes president and Lorenzo de Zavala, vice president. The voters also overwhelmingly approve a referendum requesting annexation by the United States. US President Martin Van Buren refuses to consider it, however, citing fear of war with Mexico and constitutional scruples.
  • Oct. - The first Congress of the Republic of Texas convenes at Columbia.

1837 - Republic of Texas is officially recognized by the United States, and later by France, England, the Netherlands and Belgium.

1839 - Aug. 1 - First sale of town lots in the new capital of the Republic, which is named for Stephen F. Austin, is held.

  • March 19 - Comanches, led by a dozen chiefs, meet with officials of Texas government to negotiate a peace treaty. Believing the Comanches to have reneged on a promise to release all white prisoners, the Texans take the chiefs prisoner. During the Council House fight that follows, 35 Comanches are killed, as are seven Texans.
  • Aug. 5 - Near Hallettsville, Comanches, in retaliation for the Council House Fight, begin killing and looting their way across Central Texas. Texas Rangers and a volunteer army defeat the Comanches on Aug. 11 at Plum Creek near Lockhart.

1841 - June 20 - The Santa Fe Expedition, launched without Texas Congressional authorization by Pres. Mirabeau B. Lamar, leaves Central Texas on its way west to establish trade with and solidify Texas' claims to territory around Santa Fe. Members of group are taken prisoner by Mexican troops, marched to Mexico City and imprisoned. They are finally released in 1842.

1842 - The first seeds of large-scale German immigration to Texas are sown when a German society, the Adelsverein, purchases land for settlements in Central Texas.

Annexation and Statehood

  • February 1 - Baylor University is founded.
  • March 1 - US Congress passes a "Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States."
  • mid-March - The first of many large groups of Germans arrive in Central Texas, settling at New Braunfels.
  • July 4 - The Texas Constitutional Convention votes to accept the United States annexation proposal it drafts an Annexation Ordinance and State Constitution to submit to the voters of Texas.
  • Oct. 13 - Texas voters overwhelmingly approve annexation, the new state constitution and the annexation ordinance.
  • Dec. 29 - The US Congress approves, and President James K. Polk signs, the "Joint Resolution for the Admission of the State of Texas into the Union." Texas becomes the 28th state.
  • Feb. 19 - Formal transfer of government take place until this date.
  • May 8 - Battle of Palo Alto near Brownsville is first major battle of the two-year Mexican War.

1848 - Feb. 2 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the War with Mexico and specifying the location of the international boundary.

  • Feb. 11 - The first railroad to actually begin operation in Texas is chartered by the state government. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado begins operation in 1853.
  • Nov. 25 - Texas' governor signs the Compromise of 1850, in which Texas gives up its claim to land that includes more than half of what is now New Mexico, about a third of Colorado, a corner of Oklahoma and a small portion of Wyoming in exchange for the United States' assumption of $10 million in debt Texas keeps its public lands.

1854 - Two reservations are established for Indians in West-Central Texas: one for Comanches on the Clear Fork of the Brazos in Throckmorton County, the other for more sedentary Indian groups, such as Tawakonis, Wacos and Tonkawas, near Fort Belknap in Young County.

  • March 27 - Col. Robert E. Lee arrives in San Antonio. He serves at Camp Cooper on the Comanche reservation beginning April 9. He returns to Washington for a short time, coming back to San Antonio and Fort Mason in February 1860.
  • April 29 - Fifty-three camels arrive at port of Indianola for a US Army experiment using them for pack animals in the arid areas of the Southwest.

1858 - Sept. 15 - Southern route of the Butterfield Overland Mail crosses Texas on its way between St. Louis, Mo., and the West Coast. Service discontinued in March 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War.

  • July 13 - Violent clashes between Juan "Cheno" Cortina and Anglo lawmen begin in the Brownsville area in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Texas Rangers and federal troops eventually halt the so-called "Cortina War" in 1875.
  • July - Indians on the West-Central Texas reservations are moved by the federal government to reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).

Secession and Civil War

  • Feb. 1 - The Secession Convention approves an ordinance withdrawing Texas from Union the action is ratified by the voters on Feb. 23 in a referendum vote. Secession is official on March 2.
  • Feb. 13 - Robert E. Lee is ordered to return to Washington from regimental headquarters at Fort Mason to assume command of the Union Army. Instead, Lee resigns his commission he assumes command of the Confederate Army by June 1862.
  • March 1 - Texas accepted as a state by the provisional government of the Confederate States of America, even before its secession from the Union is official.
  • March 5 - The Secession Convention approves an ordinance accepting Confederate statehood.
  • March 16 - Sam Houston resigns as governor in protest against secession
  • Aug. 10 - About 68 Union loyalists, mostly German immigrants from the area of Comfort, in Central Texas, start for Mexico in an attempt to reach US troops 19 are killed by Confederates on the Nueces River. Eight others are killed on Oct. 18 at the Rio Grande. Others drown attempting to swim the river. Their deaths are commemorated in Comfort by the Treue der Union (True to the Union) monument.
  • October - Forty-two men thought to be Union sympathizers are hanged at various times during October in Gainesville.

1865 - May 13 - The Battle of Palmito Ranch is fought near Brownsville, after the official end of the Civil War, because word of the war's end at Appomattox on April 9 has not yet reached troops in Texas.

Reconstruction to the 20th Century

  • June 19 - Gen. Gordon Granger arrives at Galveston to announce that slavery has been abolished, an event commemorated today by the festival known as Juneteenth.
  • Sept. - The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau) begins operating in Texas, charged with helping former slaves make the transition to freedom.
  • March 15 - The Constitutional Convention approves an ordinance to nullify the actions of the Secession Convention.
  • Aug. 20 - President Andrew Johnson issues a proclamation of peace between the United States and Texas.
  • Cattle drives, which had been occasional in the 1830s, sporadic during the 1840s and 1850s, and almost nonexistent during the Civil War, begin in earnest, mostly to markets and railheads in Midwest. They are at their peak for only about 20 years, until the proliferation of railroads makes them unnecessary.

1867-1870 - Congressional (or Military) Reconstruction replaces Presidential Reconstruction.

1868 - Large-scale irrigation begins in Texas when canals are built in the vicinity of Del Rio.

1869 - Nov. 30 - Texas voters approve a new state constitution.

  • March 30 - President Grant signs the act readmitting Texas to Congressional representation.
  • Edmund J. Davis becomes the first Republican governor of Texas.

1871 - May - Seven men in a wagon train are massacred at Salt Creek, about 20 miles west of Jacksboro, by Kiowas and Comanches led by chiefs Satanta, Big Tree, Satank and Eagle Heart.
1872 - Oct. - Construction begins on the Texas & Pacific Railway the 125-mile stretch between Longview and Dallas opens for service on July 1, 1873.

  • Black "Buffalo Soldiers" are first posted to Texas, eventually serving at virtually every frontier fort in West Texas from the Rio Grande to the Panhandle, as well as in other states.
  • Houston and Texas Central Railway reaches the Red River, connecting there with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad and creating the first all-rail route from Texas to St. Louis and the East.
  • Jan. 17 - Inauguration of Democrat Richard Coke as governor marks the end of Reconstruction in Texas.
  • Sept. 28 - Col. Ranald Mackenzie leads the 4th US Cavalry in the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, south of present-day Amarillo, an encounter that ends with the confinement of southern Plains Indians in reservations in Indian Territory. This makes possible the wholesale settlement of the western part of the state.
  • Feb. 15 - Present state constitution is adopted.
  • Oct. 4 - The Agricultural and Mechanical College, later Texas A&M University, opens at College Station, becoming the first public institution of higher learning in the state.
  • Charles Goodnight establishes the JA Ranch in Palo Duro Canyon, the first cattle ranch located in the Panhandle.

1877 - Sept. - The El Paso Salt War is the culmination of a long dispute caused by Anglos' attempts to take over salt-mining rights at the foot of Guadalupe Peak, a traditionally Mexican-American salt source.

1881 - Dec. 16 - The Texas & Pacific Railway reaches Sierra Blanca in West Texas, about 90 miles east of El Paso.

1883 - Sept. 15 - The University of Texas classes begin.

1884 - Fence-cutting wars prompt the Texas Legislature to pass a law making fence-cutting a felony.

1886 - Aug. 19-21 - Hurricane destroys or damages every house in the port of Indianola, finishing the job started by another storm 11 years earlier. Indianola is never rebuilt.

1888 - May 16 - Present state capitol is dedicated.

1891 - The Railroad Commission, proposed by Gov. James Hogg, is established by the Texas legislature to regulate freight rates and to establish rules for railroad operations.

1894 - June 9 - Oil is discovered at Corsicana a commercial field opens in 1896, becoming the first small step in Texas' rise as a major oil producer.

1898 - May 16 - Teddy Roosevelt arrives in San Antonio to recruit and train "Rough Riders" for the First Volunteer Cavalry to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba.

1898-1899 - Texas experiences its coldest winter on record.

20th Century Texas History Timeline

1900 - Sept. 8 - The "Great Hurricane," destroys much of Galveston and kills 6,000 people there.

1901 - Jan. 10 - Oil found by mining engineer Capt. A.F. Lucas at Spindletop near Beaumont catapults Texas into the petroleum age.

1902 - Poll tax becomes a requirement for voting.

1906 - Texans votes for US senator in the Democratic primary, although the Texas legislature retains ultimate appointment authority, primary voters can express their preferences.

1910 - March 2 - Lt. Benjamin D. Foulois makes first military air flight in a Wright brothers plane at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio.

1911-1920 - Mexican civil war spills across the border, as refugees seek safety, combatants seek each other, and Texas settlements are raided for supplies by all sides in the fighting. Pancho Villa and his followers are active along the border during some of this time.

1916 - Texas voters able to directly elect US senators.

1917-1918 - World War I.

1917 - Gov. James Ferguson is impeached and convicted he leaves office.

  • - March - Texas women win the right to vote in primary elections.
  • Annie Webb Blanton becomes the first woman elected to a statewide office when she is elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
  • Responding to anti-German sentiment, Gov. William P. Hobby vetoes appropriations for German Dept. of The University of Texas.
  • Texans adopt a prohibition amendment to the state constitution.

1920 - Large-scale agricultural irrigation begins in the High Plains.

  • Miriam "Ma" Ferguson becomes Texas' first woman governor, serving as a figurehead for her husband, former Gov. James E. Ferguson.
  • Sept. 30 - Texas Tech University begins classes in Lubbock as Texas Technological College.

1928 - June 26-29 - The Democratic National Convention is held in Houston, the first nominating convention held in a Southern city since 1860.

1929 - Feb. 17 - The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is founded in Corpus Christi.

1930 - Sept. 5 - The Daisy Bradford #3 well, drilled near Turnertown in Rusk County by wildcatter C.M. (Dad) Joiner, blows in, heralding the discovery of the huge East Texas Oil Field.

1935 - Two years after federal prohibition was repealed, Texas voters ratify the repeal of the state's prohibition law.

1936 - June 6 - Texas Centennial Exposition opens at Dallas' Fair Park it runs until Nov. 29.

1937 - March 18 - A massive explosion, blamed on a natural-gas leak beneath the London Consolidated School building in Rusk County, kills an estimated 296 students and teachers. Subsequent deaths of people injured in the explosion bring the death count to 311. As a result, the Texas legislature requires that a malodorant be added to the odorless gas so that leaks can be more easily detected.

1941-1945 - World War II.

1943 - June - A race riot in Beaumont leads to a declaration of martial law.

1947 - April 16 - The French-owned SS Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate, explodes in the Texas City harbor, followed the next morning by the explosion of the SS High Flyer. The disaster kills almost 600 and injures at least 4,000 more. The concussion is felt 75 miles away in Port Arthur, and the force creates a 15-foot tidal wave.

1948 - Lyndon B. Johnson beats Coke Stevenson in the US Senate race by 87 votes. The winning margin in the disputed primary is registered in Ballot Box No. 13 in Jim Wells County.

1949 - Aug. 24 - The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston admits its first black student.

1950 - The US Supreme Court orders racial integration of The University of Texas law school.

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes the first Texas-born President of the United States.
  • May 11 - A tornado kills 114, injures 597 at Waco 150 homes and 185 other buildings are destroyed.
  • 1953'
  • May 22 - The Tidelands Bill is signed by Pres. Eisenhower, giving Texas the rights to its offshore oil.

1954 - Texas women gain the right to serve on juries.

1958 -Sept. 12 - Integrated circuit, developed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments, Dallas, is successfully tested, ushering in the semiconductor and electronics age.

1961 -John Tower wins special election for US Senate, becoming the first Republican senator from Texas since Reconstruction.

1962 - NASA opens the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. The center moves to a new campus-like building complex in 1964. It is renamed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on Aug. 17, 1973.

1963 - Nov. 22 - President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas vice president Lyndon B. Johnson succeeds to the office, becoming the 36th US president.

1964 - Poll tax is abolished by the 24th Amendment to the US Constitution as a requirement for voting for federal offices. It is retained in Texas, however, for state and local offices.

  • The Texas Legislature is reapportioned on the principle of one person, one vote.
  • June 3 - San Antonio native Ed White becomes the first American to walk in space.
  • The poll tax is repealed as a requirement for voting in all elections by amendment of the Texas Constitution.
  • Barbara Jordan of Houston becomes the first black woman elected to the Texas Senate.
  • Aug. 1 - Charles Whitman kills 17 people, shooting them from the observation deck of the main-building tower on The University of Texas campus in Austin.

1967 - Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) is incorporated in Texas its first national office is in San Antonio.

1969 - July 20 - Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong transmits the first words from the surface of the moon: "Houston, the Eagle has landed."

1971 - Securities and Exchange Commission investigates illegal manipulation of stock transactions involving Frank Sharp and his Sharpstown State Bank of Houston.

1972 - The Sharpstown Scandal results in the conviction of House speaker Gus Mutscher and two associates for conspiracy and bribery

1974 - Jan. 8 - Constitutional Convention meets to attempt to write a new state constitution. However, the delegates, comprising the membership of the 63rd Legislature, become mired in divisive politics, and the convention adjourns on July 30, 1974, without a document.

1978 - William Clements becomes the first Republican governor of Texas since Reconstruction.

1979 -April 10 - Several tornadoes kill 53 in West Texas, including 42 in Wichita Falls, and cause $400 million in damages.

1984 - The no-pass-no-play rule is part of an education-reform package enacted by the Texas Legislature.

1984 - Aug. 20-23 - The National Republican Convention is held in Dallas.

1985 - The Federal Home Loan Bank Board suspends deposit insurance for Texas savings-and-loan companies applying for state charters. Three years later, after uncovering widespread insider abuse at Texas lending institutions, federal regulators announce bail-out plans for many Texas thrifts and begin prosecution of S&L officials.

1988 - Houstonian George Bush is elected president of the United States.

1990 - Democrat Ann Richards becomes the first woman governor of Texas in her own right.

  • April 19 - Siege that began on Feb. 28 ended, federal agents storm the compound called Mount Carmel near Waco, where cult leader David Koresh and his followers, called Branch Davidians, had reportedly been storing a large cache of assault weapons. The assault and ensuing fire kill four agents and 86 Branch Davidians.
  • Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison becomes the first woman to serve as US Senator from Texas.

21st Century Texas History Timeline

2000 - Former Texas Gov. George W. Bush elected President of the United States.

2001 - Enron filed for bankruptcy protection

2003 - Space shuttle Columbia broke apart across southeastern Texas as it descended toward its planned landing, all crew members were lost

  • Republican majority leader in US House of Representatives, Tom DeLay, indicted with criminal conspiracy by grand jury in Texas
  • Hurricane Rita forced over 1 million to evacuate

2006 - Two Enron executives convicted of conspiracy, fraud

2007 - Gunman at Johnson Space Center in Houston killed male hostage, self

2008 - Hurricane Ike struck Texas Gulf Coast, caused major flooding, billions of dollars in damages

2009 - Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan opened fire on fellow soldiers at Fort Hood military base, killed 13, injured 30

  • Texas wildfires destroyed over 1 million acres, burned over 1,000 homes
  • Governor Rick Perry announced candidacy for Republican nominee in 2012 presidential race

2013 - On Thursday, April 18, 2013, a massive explosion at a fertilizer plant on the edge of the small Texas town of West killed at least 35 people, wounded more than 170, leveled dozens and dozens of homes and prompted authorities to evacuate half their community of 2,800. West is a community of about 2,800 people, about 75 miles south of Dallas and 120 miles north of Austin.

Neolithic Timeline

Cave painting flourishes in Spain and France, the most famous being the Cave of Lascaux in France.

End of the most recent glacial episode within the current Quaternary Ice Age.

Beginnings of agriculture in the Middle East.

The Neolithic (or New Stone Age), lasting from the start of agriculture between c. 9000-c. 4000 BCE until the beginning of bronze use c. 3300 BCE.

Cultivation of wild cereals in the Fertile Crescent.

Wild sheep flocks are managed in the Zagros mountains.

Ovens in use in the Near East are applied to pottery production.

First domesticated wheats in the Fertile Crescent.

Long-distance trade in obsidian begins.

Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods on Cyprus.

First copper smelting in Anatolia.

Neolithic Age settlements in Greece, beginning of agriculture.

First fortified settlement at Ugarit.

Megaliths are erected at the Neolithic site of Locmariaquer, north-west France.

Megalithic structures erected at Carnac, north-west France.

Irrigation and agriculture begin in earnest in Mesopotamia.

Earliest Neolithic finds in the Corinth area.

Hierarchical societies emerge in southeast Europe.

Neolithic village of Banpo in China built.

The Neolithic village of Banpo is inhabited.

Neolithic village Banpo in China inhabited.

First megalithic tombs in Europe.

Uruk Period in Mesopotamia. First cities.

Clyde Tombs of Western Scotland and the Carlingford Tombs of Northern Ireland are constructed.

Medway Tombs of Kent, including Chesnuts, Addington and Coldrum, are constructed.

The Sweet Track, a Neolithic wooden pathway, is constructed in Somerset, Britain.

Neolithic farmstead the Knap of Howar inhabited on Papa Westray, Orkney.

Cotswold-Severn Group Long Barrows are constructed, which spanned from the north Wessex Downs, Cotswold Hills, South Wales coast, and the Brecon Beacons.

The Barnhouse Settlement constructed and inhabited.

Neolithic site of Barnhouse Settlement occupied.

Neolithic Village of Skara Brae inhabited, stone walls built.

Neolithic village of Skara Brae inhabited.

Stonehenge Phase I - earthen henge dug on the site.

Stonehenge Phase II - Digging of the Aubrey Holes, which probably contained wooden posts (or perhaps bluestones). Stonehenge functions as a cremation cemetery.

The Neolithic chambered cairn known as Maeshowe constructed and in use.

Aegina inhabited during Neolithic period.

Structure Eight (so called) erected at Barnhouse Settlement after village abandoned.

Phase III at Stonehenge, the refashioning of the simple earth and timber henge into a unique stone monument.

Tennessee History Timeline

9000-3000 BCE, the Native Americans begin cultivating edible plants such as squash and gourds. Populations expand and villages form along the banks of most major rivers. And by 900 CE groups of Native Americans begin to battle for territory and develop tribal identities.

Tennessee became the 16th state of the union in 1796. It is just 112 miles wide, but stretches 432 miles from the Appalachian Mountains boundary with North Carolina in the east to the Mississippi River borders with Missouri and Arkansas in the west.

16th Century Tennessee History Timeline

1540 - Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto is the first white man known to come to the area. The dominant tribes are the Cherokee, Shawnee, and the Chickasaw.

17th Century Tennessee History Timeline

1673 - James Needham and Gabriel Arthur of England explore the Tennessee River Valley.

18th Century Tennessee History Timeline

1714 - Charles Charleville sets up a French trading post at French Lick.

1715 - The last Shawnee had been driven out by Chickasaw and Cherokee attacks.
1730 - Sir Alexander Cuming, an emissary of King George II, confers the title of emperor on Chief Moytoy at Tellico.
1754 - The French and Indian War breaks out between British and French settlers.
1763 - After 9 bloody years of war, the British win out. In the Treaty of Paris, the French surrender to the British all claim to lands east of the Mississippi.
1769 - William Bean, the first permanent white settler, builds a cabin on the Watauga River in northeast Tennessee. New settlers begin to come into the area from Virginia and North Carolina.
1772 - A group of settlers form their own government called the Watauga Association. They draw up one of the first written constitutions in North America.
1775 - The Transylvania Company buys a large piece of land from the Cherokees. Daniel Boone, working for the company, blazes a trail from Virginia across the mountain at Cumberland Gap to open the land to settlement. His trail is called the Wilderness Road and becomes the main route to the new settlements.
1779 - Jonesborough is the first chartered town. 2 groups led by James Robertson and John Donelson settle around the Big Salt Lick on the Cumberland River. They build Fort Nashborough and draw up an agreement called the Cumberland Compact- - it establishes representative government and creates a court system.
1780 -

  • Samuel Doak, a Presbyterian minister, starts the first school in Tennessee.
  • "Over- mountain men" gather at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River on September 25th at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River on September 25th to march over the Great Smokey Mountains. Led by John Sevier, they help to defeat the British as the Battle of King's Mountain on October 7th. The victory proves to be a major turning point in the war. Scots- Irish Covenanters settle in the Tennessee Valley, naming their town Greeneville for Revolutionary War general Nathanael Greene.

1784 - 3 counties in East Tennessee form the State of Franklin, which secedes from North Carolina for 4 years. Greeneville is the capital and John Sevier is their governor.
1789 - North Carolina gives the Tennessee region to the US It is made into a new territory, The Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio. William Blount is its first and only governor.
1791 - George Roulstone establishes the first Tennessee newspaper, the Knoxville Gazette.
1794 - Blount College is founded in Knoxville on September 10th, the first American nondenominational institution of higher learning.
1795 - Martin Academy in Washington changes its name to Washington College, the first college to be named after George Washington.
1796 - Tennessee adopts a constitution on February 6th in preparation for statehood- - Andrew Jackson helps to draw it up. Tennessee becomes a state on June 1st, the 16th state. John Sevier is elected the first governor. The total population of Tennessee is 77,000.

19th Century Tennessee History Timeline

1800 - Congress establishes a post rout along the Natchez Trace, an old trail between Nashville and Natchez, Mississippi.
1807 - Kingston is the capital for one day, September 21st, while the state legislature discusses a treaty with the Cherokee Indians.
1809 - 35- year- old national hero Meriwether Lewis dies of gunshot wounds at Grinder's Stand, a small inn on the Natchez Trace. Maybe a suicide and maybe not, questions abound and are never satisfactorily answered as to how the brilliant but moody explorer died.
1812 - The worst earthquake in US history occurs on February 7th in northwestern Tennessee. A vast land area drops several feet and tidal waves are created on the Mississippi River. The river flows backward into the depression, creating 13,000- acre Reelfoot Lake. Andrew Jackson is a hero of the War of 1812. [See also our Louisiana and New Orleans pages for more information.]
1813 - The state's first public library opens in Nashville.
1817 - Greeneville is incorporated under the laws of Tennessee.
1818 - The Chickasaw have ceded their land, nearly all of West Tennessee, to the federal government. But the Cherokee still hold a large area in Middle Tennessee and another area south of the Little Tennessee and Sequatchie rivers in the east.
1820 - Having moved to Columbia as a child from North Carolina, James K. Polk begins his law practice there.
1821 - Nathan Bedford Forrest is born near Chapel Hill on July 13th.
1824 - Poor North Carolinian Andrew Johnson, only 16, runs away from his employer and ends up in Tennessee with a bounty on his head. The Tennessee adjourns on October 22nd, ending Davy Crockett's state political career. Andrew Jackson runs unsuccessfully for president.
1826 - Frances "Fanny" Wright establishes Nashoba, a colony for free blacks near Memphis. Plagued by administrative problems and widespread disease, the colony will fail and the remaining settlers move to Haiti 4 years later.
1829 - Andrew Jackson is President of the US
1831 - Tailor Andrew Johnson buys a Greeneville shop and has it moved on logs down Greeneville's steep streets.
1834 - The state constitution is amended. Free blacks can no longer vote.
1836 - Davy Crockett, with 130 other men, dies at the Alamo. [See also our page, Texas : The Lone Star State, for more information.]
1837 - Sea captain William Driver settles in Nashville. He has with him the flag we calls Old Glory, a gift from relatives and friends that he flew on his ship during his voyages around the world.
1838 - Tennessee is the first state to pass a temperance law.
1845 - James K. Polk is now President of the US, having been elected on an expansionist platform.
1861 - The Civil War begins. William Drive hides Old Glory inside a quilt for safekeeping. Nathan Bedford Forrest becomes a daring and very successful cavalry commander for the Confederacy. Andrew Johnson, although a slaveholder, refuses to side with his state when it secedes. He is the only Southerner to retain his seat in the US Senate. Lincoln will appoint him military governor of Tennessee.
1862 - Union troops under Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant force the "unconditional surrender" of Confederate Fort Donelson. The February 16th win is the Union's first major victory in the Civil War. On March 15th, General John Hunt Morgan begins 4 days of raids near Gallatin. A 2- day battle is bought at Shiloh- - it's one of the largest engagements in the western theater of the Civil War. Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeats a Union army at Murfreesboro on July 13th.
1863 - Confederate General Joseph Johnston takes command of the Army of Tennessee, replacing Lieutenant General William Hardee.
1864 - 1,500 confederate cavalrymen overwhelm Fort Pillow, garrisoned with 500 troops. After their surrender, scores of the black defenders and some of the white soldiers are murdered. For black soldiers, "Remember Fort Pillow!"becomes a rallying cry, spurring them to fight to the death and to offer no quarter. Confederate General Hood sends Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry and a division of infantry towards Murfreesboro on December 5th. Union and Confederate forces clash outside of Nashville in December. The Union forces under General George H. Thomas win the battle on December 16th.
1865 - The Civil War ends. Former vice president and now president, Andrew Johnson is faced with the almost impossible task of reuniting the North he served and the South he calls home. The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Pulaski.
1866 - Fisk University is founded in Nashville as a school "equal to the best in the country," primarily for the newly freed slaves. Tennessee is the first state readmitted to the Union, on July 24th.
1868 - The House of Representatives votes in March to impeach Andrew Johnson.
1869 - An embittered Johnson leaves office and returns with his wife Eliza to their house in Greeneville. He will completely remodel it, adding upstairs bedrooms and a porch.
1870 - The state constitution is amended.
1871 - Fisk University's Jubilee Singers perform the spiritual Steal Away to Jesus to a thunderous ovation. So they add the beautiful, plaintive spirituals, born in slavery, to their program.
1873 - Vanderbilt University is founded in Nashville, named after Cornelius Vanderbilt, an American businessman who donated $1 million to build and support the school.
1874 - An unhappy Andrew Johnson is able to leave retirement when he is elected to the US Senate, the only ex- president to return to that chamber. But he attends only one session before dying of a stroke at his daughter's house in Carter County during the summer recess. He is buried in Greeneville, wrapped in an American flag and with a copy of the Constitution as his pillow.
1878 - 5,200 of Memphis' 19,600 residents die in a yellow fever epidemic. Memphis will lose its city charter after the disaster and not regain it until 1893.
1879 - Blount College becomes the University of Tennessee.
1880 - Grantland Rice is born in Murfreesboro.
1886 - 2 brothers- - Robert Love Taylor and Alfred Alexander Taylor- - compete in the gubernatorial election on November 2nd. Robert, the Democrat, wins the "War of the Roses."
1887 - Alvin Cullum York is born in Fentress County.
1890 - Columbia's economic base shifts with the exploitation of local phosphate deposits.
1894 - President Grover Cleveland signs legislation on December 27th, creating Shiloh National Military Park. It preserves the field of a 2- day battle in April 1862, one of the largest Civil War engagements in the western theater. [For more information, see our page, The National Parks.]

20th Century Tennessee History Timeline

1900 - Casey Jones' train crashes on April 30th, killing him.
1909 - Liquor production is banned for the next year.
1914 - World War I begins.
1916 - After pulling a wealthy Chattanooga businessman's car out of a shallow creek bed, "horseless carriage"mechanic Ernest Holmes invents the tow truck. The first production model will sell for $680.
1918 - 101 people are killed and 171 injured in the worst train wreck in US history in Nashville on July 9th. Corporal Alvin York kills more than 20 Germans and forces 132 others to surrender on October 8, 1918. He will receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for his deed. World War I ends.
1920s - Grantland Rice gains fame by writing newspaper reports on sports. He writes about Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, Bill Tilden, Helen Wills, and others.
1922 - The Driver family donates Old Glory to the Smithsonian Institution. Tennessee's first radio station, WNAV, begins broadcasting from Knoxville.
1925 - Tom Lee saves 32 people from disaster when an excursion boat capsizes on the Mississippi near Memphis. On June 10th, Tennessee adopts a new biology textbook denying the theory of evolution. High school teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of violating the state law banning the teaching of evolution. The "monkey trial"as it is called, attracts worldwide attention as 2 celebrities, William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow battle it out in court. Scopes is fined $100, but the conviction is later reversed because of a small legal error. The "Grand Ole Opry"begins on radio in Nashville.
1928 - On March 26th, President Calvin Coolidge signs legislation creating Fort Donelson National Battlefield, a national military park at the site of the Union's first major Civil War victory (February 1862). [For more information, see our page, The National Parks.]
1933 - The federal government establishes the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to conserve and develop the resources of the Tennessee River Valley.
1939 - The "Grand Ole Opry" is first heard on network radio.
1941 - Glenn Miller and his Orchestra record Chattanooga Choo Choo in Hollywood on May 6th. It's a big hit.
1942 - The federal government begins to build an atomic energy plant at Oak Ridge. Scientists work on the development of the atomic bomb.
1948 - WMCT- TV in Memphis is the state's first television station. State elections turn against the control of Memphis political boss E.H. Crump.
1949 - The American Museum of Atomic Energy opens in Oak Ridge on March 19th.

1950/53 - 10,500 Tennesseans served in the Korean War.
1952 - Sun Studio in Memphis makes the first rock 'n roll recording.
1953 - Elvis Presley graduates from L.C. Humes High School in Memphis on June 14th. He will have his first #1 record (Heartbreak Hotel) within 3 years. The state constitution is amended.
1954 - Rice's autobiography, The Tumult and the Shouting, is published.
1955 - The "Grand Old Opry" makes it to television.
1956 - Elvis Presley makes his second appearance on Milton Berle's Texaco Star Theatre, singing Heartbreak Hotel. Critics say his performance looks "like the mating dance of an aborigine."National Guardsmen halt rioters protesting the admission of 12 African- American children to schools in Clinton.
1958 - Elvis Presley reports to his local draft board in Memphis on March 24th. US #53310761 is now in the Army and Uncle Sam stands to lose an estimated $500,000 in lost taxes every year that Private Presley is in the service.
1960 - The state constitution is amended.
1966 - The state constitution is amended again.
1967 - The anti- evolution law that tripped up John Scopes is abolished by the state legislature. Columbia State Community College is opened in Columbia.
1968 - After buying a rifle in a Birmingham sporting goods store, sniper James Earl Ray assassinates civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. at a Memphis motel. His April 4th death shocks the nation and precipitates rioting in many cities. Roy Orbison's 2 sons die in a fire in his Hendersonville home while he is performing in England.
1970 - Tennessee has 3,926,018 people. Winfield Dunn is the first Republican governor in 50 years.
1972 - The state constitution is amended.
1974 - A sunshine law allows the public to attend local and state government meetings.
1976 - Alex Haley wins the Pulitzer Prize and international acclaim for Roots. It will be translated into over 30 languages.
1977 - James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of Martin Luther King, Jr., escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison on June 10th with 6 other inmates. He will be recaptured on June 13th. Elvis Presley dies in Memphis. His most popular song on the charts: Don't Be Cruel.
1978 - The state constitution is amended.
1980 - Tennessee has 4,591,120 people, an increase of 17% over the 1970 census figure.
1982 - A world's fair is held in Knoxville. Its theme is "Energy Turns the World." The fair helps promote tourism in the state. Elvis Presley's Graceland mansion is opened to the public on June 7th.
1985 - Spring Hill is selected as the new home of the Saturn automobile assembly plant.

1987 - General Motors opened the new Saturn Corporation auto plant in Spring Hill.
1991 - The National Civil Rights Museum opens in Memphis at the site of the Lorraine Motel where Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968.

1992 - Albert Gore, Jr. was elected Vice-President of the United States
1994 - Tennessee ranks 17th in the nation in population: 5,175,240.
1995 - Tennessee finally honors Andrew Johnson with a statue on the state capitol grounds, long after statues of its other favorite sons, Andrew Jackson and James K. Polk, started watching over things at the capitol.
1996 - Tennessee celebrates the bicentennial of its 1796 entrance into the Union with a year of festivities and projects.

1998 - The University of Tennessee football team became the national champions, going undefeated for the season.

21st Century Tennessee History Timeline

2001 - Passenger attacked bus driver causing accident, six people killed

  • The National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis opens its new $11 million addition that includes Bessie Brewer's boarding house across the street from the Loraine Motel where James Earl Ray used a hunting rifle to shoot Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Former Nashville Mayor, Phil Bredesen, elected Governor

2003 - 14 people killed by tornadoes in northwestern part of state

Irish Immigrant Wave

1815: Peace is re-established between the United States and Britain after the War of 1812. Immigration from Western Europe turns from a trickle into a gush, which causes a shift in the demographics of the United States. This first major wave of immigration lasts until the Civil War.

Between 1820 and 1860, the Irish—many of them Catholic�ount for an estimated one-third of all immigrants to the United States. Some 5 million German immigrants also come to the U.S., many of them making their way to the Midwest to buy farms or settle in cities including Milwaukee, St. Louis and Cincinnati.

1819: Many of newcomers arrive sick or dying from their long journey across the Atlantic in cramped conditions. The immigrants overwhelm major port cities, including New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston. In response, the United States passes the Steerage Act of 1819 requiring better conditions on ships arriving to the country. The Act also calls for ship captains to submit demographic information on passengers, creating the first federal records on the ethnic composition of immigrants to the United States.

1849: America’s first anti-immigrant political party, the Know-Nothing Party forms, as a backlash to the increasing number of German and Irish immigrants settling in the United States.

1875: Following the Civil War, some states passed their own immigration laws. In 1875 the Supreme Court declares that it’s the responsibility of the federal government to make and enforce immigration laws.

History of Jacksonville – A Historical Timeline Of Jacksonville’s Settlements

Jacksonville is an area of stunning natural beauty, fantastic weather, river and ocean access, and a host of incredible natural resources. With all of these advantages, it’s no wonder that settlers have been drawn to the area for hundreds of years. In fact, to this very day, more and more people continue to visit Jacksonville each year to learn about the captivating history of Jacksonville and to enjoy everything that this great city has to offer.

The early history of Jacksonville was a time of exploration with French Huguenot explorers building the first settlement, Fort Caroline, in an area that was previously occupied by the native Timucuan Indians. The Spanish arrived just three years after the French Huguenot explorers, destroying their fort and establishing a presence in the region that would last almost two hundred years before handing over to the British and returning to the Florida colony again in 1763.

Since 1564, the region melting pot of people, cultures, and races, which have all played a part in the alluring history of Jacksonville. Below, we explore the timeline of Jacksonville’s early settlements from the natives to the Huguenot explorers and beyond.

Original Native Settlements

Archaeologists have traced the original native Indian settlements in the region as far back as 500 B.C. This is the time when they expect that the Timucuan Indians are thought to have developed their own unique culture. Long before the first Europeans made their first visit to Jacksonville, as it is now known, the Timucuan Indians occupied the area which was densely wooded. The first accounts of native settlements were provided by the first European settlers as the natives did not have a written language for records.

The First European Settlers

The 16thcentury was a time of great unrest in Europe as a series of religious wars took hold over the region. With the wars raging havoc on religious and political order in countries throughout Europe, a small group of French Huguenot explorers set sail for the New World in 1562. They built the first settlement on the south bank of the St. John’s River. However, the reign of the French in the New World didn’t last long as just three years later, in 1565, the Spanish arrived, destroying the Fort Caroline settlement and asserting their dominance in the region.

Spanish Settlers Arrive

When the French arrived at Fort Caroline in 1562, the Spanish already had control of many more areas to the north. The Spanish played a huge role in the history of Jacksonville and defended their territory to remove the French from the area. The former French-built Fort Caroline was destroyed and replaced with Fort San Mateo, which played a crucial role in the Spanish mission system. Over the next 200 years, the Spanish converted hundred of natives to Catholicism. With the help of the natives, they were able to successfully live off the land and thrive in the area.

Brief British Settlement

In 1963, the Seven Years War in Europe finally came to an end. The Spanish wanted to keep Havana, which was an important strategic location in their New World empire. Reaching an agreement with the British, Spain handed over control of their Florida territories in exchange for Havana and took the remaining Timucuan Indians with them.

The British held the Florida colony for just twenty years. During this time they established large land grants and plantations were developed to frow rice, vegetables, cotton, indigo, and rice. Under British rule, the population expanded and commerce in the port grew. However, despite more British loyalists settling here through the Revolutionary War, the British were forced to return control of the Florida Colony to the Spanish in 1783, ending British influence in the region.

Return Of Spanish Settlers

Although the Spanish were very successful in their first colonization effort, the second time around was not quite as lucrative. The majority of the British loyalists moved out of the region in favor of Canada or the Caribean. At this point, the Spanish Empie was beginning to weaken and decline. In the State of Georgia, just to the north, the locals had won their independence from Britain and started to see the opportunities that existed further south in Florida. After many attempts to remove the Spanish from Florida, including one by Andrew Jackson, Spain finally relinquished its control over Florida to the United States.

Florida Joins The United States

After many different colonisations and settlements of different areas of Florida, Florida finally became US territory in 1821. The St. John’s River became an important economic center and the first real town was established on the north bank of Cowford in 1822. The site was renamed Jacksonville, after provisional governor Andrew Jackson who would go onto become the seventh American President. Jacksonville played an important role in the exportation of cotton, oranges, lumber, and vegetables. Jacksonville continued to play an important economic and commercial role in the region, helping Florida to gain statehood in 1845.

Learn More About The Fascinating History Of Jacksonville

From early native settlements dating back to before 500 B.C to the Huguenot explorers, the Spanish, and the British, the history of Jacksonville was influenced by many different people. The city played a pivotal role in the development of the region and continues to have a major impact to this day.

Take some time to visit Jacksonville to learn more about the captivating history of Jacksonville and the surrounding areas to gain a real appreciation for what the French Huguenot explorers, the Spanish and the natives must have experienced back in those days. With countless historical sites, museums, and cultural exhibitions to visit, there is no shortage of ways for you to learn more about the history of Jacksonville.

Barnhouse Settlement Timeline - History

United States Timeline

  • 5000 - Small tribal peoples develop across the United States.
  • 1000 - The Woodland period begins including the Adena culture and the Hopewell peoples.

Signing the Declaration of

George Washington Crossing the Delaware

Brief Overview of the History of United States

The area that is today the United States was inhabited for thousands of years by various tribal peoples. The first European to arrive in the area was Christopher Columbus and the first to make landfall was Ponce de Leon who landed at Florida. France laid claim to the interior of the United States, while Spain claimed what is now the Southwest.

The first English settlement was the Virginia Colony in the Jamestown in 1607. A few years later, in 1620, the Pilgrims arrived and founded Plymouth Colony. Eventually England would have 13 colonies in eastern North America. By the 1700s the American colonies were growing unhappy with what they called "taxation without representation". In 1776, the United States declared its independence from England. The American Revolutionary War for independence would follow and, with the help of France, the colonies defeated England.

In 1861, the United States experienced a civil war when the southern states tried to secede from the Union. They were defeated after a bloody war and the country remained together. The country continued to industrialize and in the 1900s became one of the world's industrial leaders.

In both World Wars the United States tried to remain neutral but ended up on the side of the United Kingdom and the Allies. In World War II, it was the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese that forced the US to enter the war. The US developed nuclear weapons and used 2 of them to bomb Japan, effectively ending the war and starting a cold war with the communist Soviet Union.

In the late 1900s the United States became one of the world's superpowers. The other superpower was the Soviet Union. Both countries had nuclear weapons. The two countries fought a Cold War for many years where battles were fought by spies, by a race for the most weapons, and in proxy wars like the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and Soviet-Afghanistan War.

Israeli Settlements: A Timeline From 1967 to Now

A press briefing on May 9, 2006, after a meeting of the Middle East Quartet members on Israel and Palestine from left: Sergey Lavrov, foreign minister of Russia Kofi Annan, UN secretary-general and Condoleezza Rice, United States secretary of state. MARK GARTEN/UN PHOTO

Here is a comprehensive, up-to-date timeline charting the nearly 47-year campaign of Israeli settlement development in territories occupied by Israel after the Six-Day War, along with a graph tracking the years and population. This timeline accompanies “The Limits of Diplomacy: Israeli Settlements” by Irwin Arieff.

June 5-10: The settlements have their origins in the Six-Day War pitting Israel against Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Israel wins a decisive victory, gaining control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. In the process it captures about a million Palestinians. Over the following years, Jordan and Egypt drop their claims to the West Bank, Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula while Israel annexes East Jerusalem and the Golan. Israel agrees in a March 1979 peace treaty to return the Sinai to Egypt, and pulls out of Gaza in 2005.

Nov. 22: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 242 creating a framework for a formal peace treaty based on an exchange of “land for peace.” The resolution calls for an agreement based on two principles: “Withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” and “termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.” The resolution today remains a central focus of the Middle East peace process, seen as a plan for Israel to give up territory acquired in war, in exchange for recognition by its Arab neighbors of its right to exist. But the proposed Israeli withdrawal fizzles after Israel essentially maintains that the resolution lets it retain some territories and conditions its withdrawal on a negotiated peace deal including full recognition by its neighbors of its right to exist.

Following the Six-Day War, Jews from around the world, including eventually hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews, begin migrating to Israel, creating a demand for housing and space. Israeli officials begin drafting an official settlement map. Israelis from across the political spectrum see the occupied territories as a spot for new Jewish settlements, accommodating new immigrants while creating a secure buffer zone between Israel and its neighbors. Settler outposts are envisioned in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Hebron, the Golan Heights, Sinai and Gaza.

April 8: The US State Department, in an internal message to its embassy in Israel, says the Lyndon B. Johnson administration has made clear that Washington opposes any settlements in the occupied territories. “The government of Israel is aware of our continuing concern that nothing be done in the occupied areas which might prejudice the search for a peace settlement. By setting up civilian or quasi-civilian outposts in the occupied areas the government of Israel adds serious complications to the eventual task of drawing up a peace settlement. Further, the transfer of civilians to occupied areas, whether or not in settlements which are under military control, is contrary to Article 49 of the Geneva Convention, which states ‘The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.”

May 21: The UN Security Council votes 13-0 with 2 abstentions to adopt Resolution 252 “reaffirming that acquisition of territory by military conquest is inadmissible” and warning Israel against seizing any property that could “tend to change the legal status of Jerusalem,” which Israel claims as its undivided capital while the international community wants it put under UN administration.

July 3: The Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 267 which “censures in the strongest terms” Israeli actions “tending to change the status of the city of Jerusalem.” The resolution affirms that Israeli expropriation of land and properties in Jerusalem aimed at altering the city’s status “are invalid and cannot change that status.”

Sept. 25: The UN Security Council votes 14-0 with one abstention to adopt Resolution 298 lamenting that Israel ignores its Resolution 252 and other warnings against steps that could change Jerusalem’s legal status.

Oct 22: Seeking a cease-fire in the Yom Kippur War between Israel and a coalition of Arab nations, the UN Security Council adopts Resolution 338 calling on all parties to stop fighting, immediately implement Security Council Resolution 242 “in all of its parts” and begin negotiations “aimed at establishing a just and durable peace. . . . “

July 28: “This matter of settlements in the occupied territories has always been characterized by our government, by me and my predecessors as an illegal action,” US President Jimmy Carter tells a news conference.

Sept.17: Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign the Camp David Accords following negotiations hosted by President Carter. As part of the agreement, Israel agrees to withdraw all its settlements from the Sinai Peninsula and return it to Egypt. The accords also set Security Council Resolution 242 as the basis for a negotiated Middle East peace, but Carter is unable to secure Israel’s agreement to immediately pull its settlements from the West Bank. Instead the accords call for negotiations aimed at achieving full autonomy for the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza within at most five years.

March 22: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 446 declaring that Israeli settlements “have no legal validity and constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East.” The resolution, adopted 12-0 with three abstentions, also “strongly deplores the failure of Israel to abide by” previous council resolutions critical of the settlements and calls on it to both rescind previous actions and refrain from any future actions “affecting the demographic composition of the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, and, in particular, not to transfer parts of its own civilian population into the occupied Arab territories.”

March 1: The Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 465 “strongly deploring” Israel’s refusal to heed the council’s earlier denunciations of settlement activities in the occupied territories, and stressing “the need for protection and preservation of the unique spiritual and religious dimension of the Holy Places” in Jerusalem.

April 12: President Jimmy Carter, asked by a reporter why he lets Israel keep on “humiliating the United States” by continuing to build settlements, responds: “Our position on the settlements is very clear. We do not think they are legal, and they are obviously an impediment to peace. The Israeli government, however, feels that they have a right to those settlements.”

July 30: The Knesset, Israel’s parliament, adopts a law stating that Jerusalem, “complete and united, is the capital of Israel.”

Feb. 2: President Ronald Reagan contradicts US policy in place since 1967 on the settlements’ legality. “As to the West Bank, I believe the settlements there—I disagreed when the previous Administration referred to them as illegal they’re not illegal,” he says in an interview with The New York Times.

Israel completes its return of the Sinai to Egypt, as agreed under a 1979 peace treaty. Some 7,000 Israeli settlers are withdrawn from northern Sinai.

Sept. 1: Following an Israeli invasion of Lebanon, President Ronald Reagan puts forward a new US peace plan urging Israel to freeze all settlement activity and suggesting Palestinian self-government. That same month, the League of Arab States, meeting in Fez, Morocco, adopts a declaration calling on Israel to dismantle all its settlements and withdraw from all occupied territories, clearing the way for Palestinian statehood.

May 22: As Israeli settlement activity continues, US Secretary of State James A. Baker says it is “high time” for serious Israeli-Palestinian dialogue and urges Israel to “lay aside, once and for all, the unrealistic vision of a greater Israel.” In a speech to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, America’s leading pro-Israel lobbying group, Baker says: “Forswear annexation. Stop settlement activity. Allow schools to reopen. Reach out to Palestinians as neighbors who deserve political rights.”

May: With President George H.W. Bush pushing for new Middle East peace talks in Madrid, Israel asks the US administration for a $10 billion loan guarantee, to help settle a wave of immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Bush and Secretary of State Baker label the rapid construction of settlements an obstacle to peace and resist approving the guarantee. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and US supporters push the US Congress to go around the White House and approve it. But Bush publicly denounces the tactic and insists that Shamir pledge not to use any of the money on settlements. Shamir initially refuses, but backs down after Bush threatens to block congressional action. His failed battle puts new pressure on him to support a new Madrid peace conference.

Nov.1: Meeting in Madrid, Israel, the Palestinians and several Arab nations agree to begin fresh peace negotiations on multiple tracks, but the talks go nowhere.

June 23: Yitzhak Rabin’s Labor Party wins Israeli parliamentary elections. Rabin becomes prime minister and signals a willingness to address Palestinian concerns, leading to the start of secret Israeli talks with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Sept.13: Following face-to-face secret negotiations in Oslo, Israel and the PLO sign a declaration of principles calling for “permanent status negotiations” intended to end in a comprehensive Middle East peace deal within five years. This first Oslo Accord also calls for Palestinian self-government in the West Bank and Gaza to replace Israeli military rule while the negotiations go on. But the self-government is only partial and the settlements are shielded from Palestinian control. The ultimate status of the West Bank and Gaza settlements is left open, to be determined by the talks.

May 4: Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat sign a follow-up agreement to the 1993 Oslo Accord, meant to formally mark Israel’s withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area of the West Bank and a transition to Palestinian self-government after 27 years of occupation. But Israel is to remain responsible for Israeli settlements and overall security in the area. Self-government is only partial.

Nov. 4: Rabin is assassinated.

Aug. 2: Under new Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, in office since May 1996, the Israeli cabinet lifts restrictions on West Bank and Gaza settlement building, imposed four years earlier in deference to the peace process. Netanyahu’s governing coalition rejects Palestinian statehood and embraces settlement expansion.

July 25: At Camp David peace talks hosted by President Bill Clinton, Palestinian negotiators seek full sovereignty over all of the West Bank and Gaza, while Israel offers a Palestinian state initially occupying about three-quarters of the West Bank and all of Gaza. The two sides fail to reach agreement, with differences over borders and Jerusalem among the chief obstacles. A wave of fierce Middle East violence breaks out, dubbed the Second Intifada, after the talks’ failure and after Ariel Sharon, a candidate for Israeli prime minister, pays a provocative visit to the Temple Mount, a religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem sacred to both Muslims and Jews.

April 30: An international fact-finding committee led by former US Senator George Mitchell publishes the findings of its inquiry into the causes of the Second Intifada. The committee calls for an immediate cessation of violence on both sides, the resumption of peace talks and a freeze on all Israeli settlement activity. Israel rejects a settlement freeze.

March 12: UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in a Resolution 1397 affirming “a vision of a region where two States, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders.”

March 27-28: The Arab League, at a summit in Lebanon, adopts a Middle East peace plan proposed by Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. It calls for Israel’s “acceptance of the establishment of a sovereign independent Palestinian state on the Palestinian territories occupied since June 4, 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital.”

April 4: President George W. Bush, in a speech on the Middle East, says settlement activity must cease. “Consistent with the Mitchell plan, Israeli settlement activity in occupied territories must stop, and the occupation must end through withdrawal to secure and recognized boundaries, consistent with United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338.”

April 10: Top officials of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States gather in Madrid for talks on the Middle East and afterward issue a statement urging “an end to all settlement activity.” The international mediators, calling themselves the Quartet, meet at the invitation of Spanish Foreign Minister Josep Pique. Attending are UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, European Union foreign affairs representative Javier Solana and US Secretary of State Colin L. Powell. The Quartet’s statement is endorsed later the same day by the UN Security Council.

May 2: At a meeting of the Quartet in Washington, Secretary Powell states: “There will have to be a cessation of new settlements, and something will have to be done about the settlements that were done, that are there now. And that has always been part of the various negotiating efforts that have been underway.”

July 16: Following a meeting in New York, the Quartet says in a statement that, in line with the Mitchell Committee’s recommendations, “Israel should stop all new settlement activity.”

Sept. 17: The Quartet, after meeting in New York, announces plans to create a “Road Map” leading to a Middle East peace accord based on the two-state solution. A Quartet statement adds: “Israeli settlement activity in the occupied territories must stop.”

Dec. 20: Following a meeting in which Washington is represented by President George W. Bush, the Quartet in a joint statement says, “Israeli settlement activity must stop.”

April 30: The Quartet releases its “performance-based Road Map” intended to lead to a peace accord within three years. As part of the plan’s first phase, Israel “immediately dismantles settlement outposts erected since March 2001 [and] freezes all settlement activity (including natural growth of settlements).” March 2001 marks the first full month in power of new Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, who presides over a period of rapid settlement growth.

May 13: Sharon, in an interview, rules out restraining settlement growth at this time. “In my mind this is not an issue on the horizon right now,” he says. Israel expresses 14 reservations about the Road Map while Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas accepts it and rejects the Israeli reservations.

June 23: The Quartet, in a statement, “recalls its position that settlement activity must stop.”

Sept. 26: The Quartet reaffirms that, “in accordance with the Road Map, settlement activity must stop … .”

Nov. 19: The UN Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 1515 endorsing the Road Map.

Dec.18: Sharon announces a plan for Israeli disengagement from Gaza and a dismantling of all Gaza settlements but reaffirms Israel’s intent to hang onto settlements elsewhere. “Settlements which will be relocated are those which will not be included in the territory of the State of Israel in the framework of any possible future permanent agreement. At the same time, in the framework of the Disengagement Plan, Israel will strengthen its control over those same areas in the Land of Israel which will constitute an inseparable part of the State of Israel in any future agreement.”

April 14: Bush tells a White House news conference that Israel can expect to hang onto some its largest settlements in any peace deal, undermining a longstanding international and US understanding that borders and other details of a deal can be decided only through negotiations between Israel and Palestinians. “In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli population centers, it is unrealistic that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to” the pre-1967 border between Israel and the West Bank,” Bush says.

May 4: A Quartet statement issued after a meeting in New York says: “We welcome the Israeli government’s recent reaffirmation of its readiness to implement certain obligations under the Road Map, including progress towards a freeze on settlement activity.” The statement says Sharon’s announced intention to dismantle settlements in all of Gaza and parts of the West Bank could provide “a rare moment of opportunity in the search for peace in the Middle East.”

Sept. 22: A Quartet statement “urges the Government of Israel to implement its obligations under the Road Map, including dismantling of settlement outposts erected since March 2001, and to impose a settlement freeze, as called for by President Bush and in the Road Map. The lack of action in this regard is a cause for concern.”

March 1: A Quartet statement “commends the Israeli cabinet’s recent approval of the initiative to withdraw from Gaza and parts of the West Bank, and reiterates that withdrawal from Gaza should be full and complete and should be undertaken in a manner consistent with the Road Map, as an important step toward the realization of the vision of two democratic states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side in peace and security.” The statement adds, “Quartet members agree on the need to ensure that a new Palestinian state is truly viable, including with contiguous territory in the West Bank. A state of scattered territories will not work.”

May 26: Bush, in the White House Rose Garden, says Israel “must remove unauthorized outposts and stop settlement expansion. The barrier being erected by Israel as a part of its security effort must be a security, rather than political, barrier. . . . A viable two-state solution must ensure contiguity of the West Bank, and a state of scattered territories will not work. There must also be meaningful linkages between the West Bank and Gaza. This is the position of the United States today, it will be the position of the United States at the time of final status negotiations.”

June 23: In a joint statement on the planned Israeli withdrawal from Gaza, the Quartet “reaffirms that the two-state vision and the Road Map are the best way to achieve a permanent peace and an end to the occupation that began in 1967. The Quartet expresses its concern over settlement activity.”

June 26: US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice tells Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom that Washington “cannot sanction creating a new reality on the ground by [settlement] actions that continue today.” She adds: “We want very much to support Israel in this critical period, and we recognize the sensitivity of the situation, but it is impossible to sanction the continuation of construction and its influence on the final border.”

Aug.15-22: Israel carries out its withdrawal from Gaza of about 9,000 settlers, some of whom put up fierce resistance. All the homes and buildings left behind are bulldozed before they can be returned to Palestinian control.

Sept. 20: Quartet foreign ministers meet at UN headquarters and issue a statement welcoming completion of the Gaza withdrawal. At a news conference, Rice says Bush “has been very clear that we do not expect Israel to engage in activities that will prejudge a final status, because questions about the final border are indeed final status issues. We have been clear that activity in the settlements … has an effect on Palestinian livelihood, that the international community expects Israel to live up to its Road Map obligations and to its obligations not to engage in that activity.”

Jan. 30: A Quartet joint statement reiterates “that settlement expansion must stop” and notes acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert’s recent statements that Israel will continue removing unauthorized outposts.

May 9: Following a Quartet meeting in New York, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan states that while Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from Gaza marks the first return of territory to the Palestinians since the 1967 war, it ignores numerous UN pleas that Israel coordinate the pullout with the Palestinians and the international community. “We are also clear that the final borders will have to be negotiated, regardless of how withdrawal takes place,” Annan tells a news conference. The Quartet, in a statement, says it “expressed its concern about settlement expansion. . . . The Quartet reiterated the importance of both parties avoiding unilateral measures, which prejudice final status issues.”

May 30: Quartet foreign ministers hail an Arab League initiative to revive Middle East peace efforts. A joint Quartet statement encourages Israel to address concerns raised by the Arab League in April, “including a cessation of settlement expansion and the removal of illegal outposts, as called for in the Road Map.”

July 20: A Quartet joint statement encourages Israelis and Palestinians to meet their Road Map obligations, including, for Israel, “an end to settlement expansion and the removal of unauthorized outposts.”

Dec. 18: A Quarter joint statement expresses concern that newly announced Israeli settlement expansion plans could undermine peace talks begun a month earlier in Annapolis, Maryland. “The Quartet called on both parties to make progress on their Phase One Road Map obligations, including an Israeli freeze on settlements, removal of unauthorized outposts and opening of East Jerusalem institutions, and Palestinian steps to end violence, terrorism and incitement.”

May 2: A Quartet statement issued as Israeli-Palestinian talks continue urges both sides to “refrain from any steps that undermine confidence or could prejudice the outcome of negotiations. In this context, the Quartet expressed its deep concern at continuing settlement activity and called on Israel to freeze all settlement activity including natural growth, and to dismantle outposts erected since March 2001.”

June 24: A Quartet statement reiterates “its deep concern at continuing settlement activity and called on Israel to freeze all settlement activity including natural growth, and to dismantle outposts erected since March 2001.”

Sept. 14: Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert tells the Israeli cabinet that due to rapid growth of the Arab population in the West Bank, Israel will soon end up a single bi-national nation, ending the possibility of a two-state solution. “I used to believe that everything from the Jordan River bank to the Mediterranean Sea was ours. After all, dig anywhere and you’ll find Jewish history. But eventually, after great internal conflict, I’ve realized we have to share this land with the people who dwell here – that is if we don’t want to be a binational state.”

Sept. 26: A Quartet joint statement expresses “deep concern about increasing settlement activity, which has a damaging impact on the negotiating environment and is an impediment to economic recovery.” It urges Israel to “freeze all settlement activity, including natural growth, and to dismantle outposts erected since March 2001.”

Nov. 9: Representatives of the Quartet meet in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, for a briefing on the ongoing peace talks from Palestinian Authority President Abbas and Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni. A Quartet statement says the two reaffirm their commitment to a two-state solution through implementation of the Road Map.

Dec. 15: A Quartet statement reiterates support for the ongoing negotiations, calls on the Palestinians to continue efforts to reform the security services and end terrorism and urges Israel “to freeze all settlement activities, which have a negative impact on the negotiating environment and on Palestinian economic recovery, and to address the growing threat of settler extremism.” Days afterward, enraged by a wave of cross-border Palestinian rocket attacks, Israel launches a fierce 22-day military offensive in Gaza. The Palestinians suspend the peace talks.

May 18: US President Barack Obama says during a news conference with Netanyahu, who has recently begun his second term as prime minister, that “settlements have to be stopped in order for us to move forward. That’s a difficult issue. I recognize that, but it’s an important one and it has to be addressed.” Later in a speech in Cairo on June 4, he states that Washington “does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements. … It is time for these settlements to stop.”

June 26: A Quartet statement urges Israel “to freeze all settlement activity, including natural growth to dismantle outposts erected since March 2001 and to refrain from provocative actions in East Jerusalem, including home demolition and evictions.”

Sept. 24: The Quartet calls for the resumption of peace negotiations and “urges the government of Israel to freeze all settlement activity, including natural growth and to refrain from provocative actions in East Jerusalem.” The meeting follows a Palestinian refusal to enter new peace talks after Israel rejects its demand to first freeze settlements.

Nov. 25: Netanyahu announces a 10-month moratorium on new residential construction in West Bank settlements as part of an initiative to renew the stalled peace talks.

Jan. 24: Netanyahu announces that some West Bank settlements would forever remain a part of Israel. “Our message is clear,” he tells a tree-planting ceremony in a bloc of settlements just south of Jerusalem. “We are planting here, we will stay here, we will build here. This place will be an inseparable part of the State of Israel for eternity.”

March 9: With US Vice President Joseph Biden visiting Israel as an announcement nears of the start of a new round of peace talks, Israeli officials disclose plans to build 1,600 new settler homes in a part of East Jerusalem that the Palestinians want for their future capital. The Israeli announcement infuriates Biden. “This is starting to get dangerous for us,” Biden is quoted in the media as telling Netanyahu. “What you’re doing here undermines the security of our troops who are fighting in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. That endangers us, and it endangers regional peace.”

March 12: A Quartet statement “condemns Israel’s decision to advance planning for new housing units in East Jerusalem. . . . The Quartet reaffirms that unilateral actions taken by either party cannot prejudge the outcome of negotiations and will not be recognized by the international community.”

March 17: Reacting to US opposition to new Israeli housing units in East Jerusalem, Hagai Ben Artzi, Netanyahu’s brother-in-law, calls Obama an anti-Semite. The Israeli prime minister quickly rejects the comment. Dozens of members of Congress urge Obama to drop the US efforts.

March 19: The Quartet appeals anew to Israel “to freeze all settlement activity, including natural growth, to dismantle outposts erected since March 2001, and to refrain from demolitions and evictions in East Jerusalem.” Israel’s annexation of East Jerusalem after the 1967 war “is not recognized by the international community” and its ultimate status must be determined through negotiations between the parties, the Quartet’s statement adds.

March 22: “Jerusalem is not a settlement. It’s our capital,” Prime Minister Netanyahu says.

May 2: “Israel needs to choose between peace and settlements,” Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat says after an Arab League meeting in Cairo.

Sept. 2: Abbas and Netanyahu begin direct talks at a White House summit with Obama after Israel, while still rejecting a freeze, agrees to unofficially halt public talk of future housing construction in East Jerusalem.

Sept. 26: The 10-month Israeli settlement freeze expires and Netanyahu refuses to extend it. After only three meetings, the talks collapse.

Oct. 15: Israel ends its unofficial halt on planning for new housing construction in East Jerusalem by announcing plans to build 238 new units.

Nov. 8: Israel publishes plans for the construction of an additional 1,000 new housing units in East Jerusalem. The announcement comes days before Netanyahu is scheduled to meet with Vice President Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Feb. 18: Fourteen of the Security Council’s 15 members back a resolution put forward by the Palestinian Authority condemning the construction of Israeli settlements in occupied lands. But the resolution is defeated by a US veto. Washington says Israeli-Palestinian differences should be resolved only through direction negotiations between the parties and without Security Council interference. Susan Rice, US Ambassador to the UN, says the veto should not be construed as American support for new Israeli settlements.

May 19: Obama says in a speech at the US State Department that the borders of a future Palestinian state should be based on the borders in place before the Six-Day War, as adjusted by mutually agreed land swaps to take into account West Bank settlements. A day later, Netanyahu meets with Obama and flatly rules out a reliance on the pre-1967 lines, saying this would undermine Israel’s viability.

Sept. 23: A Quartet statement urges a swift start to new peace negotiations on the basis of numerous previous agreements and international documents calling for, among other things, an Israeli settlement freeze.

Sept. 26: Asked about the Quartet statement, Netanyahu rules out a new settlement freeze as a way to convince the Palestinians to agree to new peace talks. “We already gave at the office,” the prime minister tells The Jerusalem Post, referring to the 10- month freeze he initiated in November 2009.

April 11: A Quartet statement expresses “concern about unilateral and provocative actions by either party, including continued settlement activity, which cannot prejudge the outcome of negotiations, the only way to a just and durable solution to the conflict.”

April 24: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says he is “deeply troubled” by Israel’s legalization of three unsanctioned West Bank settlements. “The Secretary-General reiterates that all settlement activity is illegal under international law. It runs contrary to Israel’s obligations under the Road Map and repeated Quartet calls for the parties to refrain from provocations,” a UN statement says. A day later, Catherine Ashton, the European Union’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security, says she is “extremely concerned” by the move and calls on Israel to reverse its decision. “Settlements are illegal under international law, an obstacle to peace and threaten the viability of a two-state solution,” she says in an EU statement. A month later, on May 14, European Union foreign ministers issue a statement expressing “deep concern” about continuing settlement construction on Israeli-occupied lands and the destruction of Palestinian homes in East Jerusalem.

July 29: Direct talks resume between Israel and the Palestinians, capping efforts by US Secretary of State John Kerry to begin negotiating the outlines of a final peace deal. A Quartet statement the next day “calls on all parties to take every possible step to promote conditions conducive to the success of the negotiating process and to refrain from actions that undermine trust.”

March 3: Following talks with Netanyahu in Washington, Obama tells reporters he still believes a two-state solution is possible. “But it’s difficult and it requires compromise on all sides.” Netanyahu responds: “The 20 years that have passed since Israel entered the peace process have been marked by unprecedented steps that Israel has taken to advance peace. I mean, we vacated cities in Judea and Samaria. We left entirely Gaza. We’ve not only frozen settlements, we’ve uprooted entire settlements. We’ve released hundreds of terrorist prisoners, including dozens in recent months. And when you look at what we got in return, it’s been scores of suicide bombings, thousands of rockets on our cities fired from the areas we vacated, and just incessant Palestinian incitement against Israel. So Israel has been doing its part, and I regret to say that the Palestinians haven’t. Now, I know this flies in the face of conventional wisdom, but it’s the truth. And the people of Israel know that it’s the truth because they’ve been living it.” The direct Israeli-Palestinian negotiations begin falling apart soon afterward.

April 8: After the direct talks crash, US Secretary of State John Kerry blames Israel’s announcement of 700 new apartments for Jewish settlers in East Jerusalem for the impasse. While Kerry says both sides bear responsibility for unhelpful actions, he singles out Israel’s publication of tenders for housing units four days after a promised but unmet Israeli deadline to release Palestinian prisoners. “Poof, that was sort of the moment,” he tells the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. US officials, looking back, stress the Palestinian commitment displayed during the failed talks. The Palestinians, they tell Israeli media, secretly agreed during negotiations to a US proposal to give Israel sovereignty over 80 percent of current West Bank settlers. Just 20 percent would have had to withdraw from their West Bank settlements. Israel, in a statement, says it is “deeply disappointed” by Kerry’s “poof” statement and blames the Palestinians for the breakup of the talks.

April 25: Without a peace deal, Israel could become an “apartheid state,” US Secretary of State John Kerry says. “There is a fundamental confrontation and it is over settlements. Fourteen thousand new settlement units announced since we began negotiations. It’s very difficult for any leader to deal under that cloud.” His remarks set off a wave of criticism in Israel and the United States.

June 5: Responding to word that a new Palestinian unity government is backed by the Islamic militant group Hamas, Israel seeks bids for nearly 1,500 new housing units in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Oded Eran, a former Israeli ambassador to the European Union and Japan, refers in The New York Times to “the knee-jerk Israeli announcements of settlement construction every time something doesn’t go their way.”

Israeli Settlements Timeline Chart – Gaps of data in some years mean that the information is not available.

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